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Major-Cieiieral Anthony Wayne. 

After the original portrait by Charles Wilson Peale. Through the kindness of 

Hon. William Wayne. 



>EA\ EK (:0CN 1 

\"i } ■ ^ 

Krv. ■' . 

V . ::. : . 




Beaver County 






Member American Historical Association, Historical Society of 

PennsylTania, and Historical Society of 

Western Pennsylvania 




XTbe fcnicfterbocfter press 


Copyright, 1904 



Ube Knickerbocker ^rcff, Hew fiork 






Sitiiation — Relation to other Valley Towns — Beaver Laid Out — Sale of 
Lots — ^Judge Addison's Letters Relating Thereto— Designation as 
County-Seat — Incorporation — Changes of Borough Limits — ^Water- 
works — Early Notices of Beaver — Early Borough Officials and 
Records — Harris's Directory for 1837 — Beaver Academy — Female 
Seminary — Beaver College and Musical Institute — Public Schools — 
Chiirches — Banks and Building and Loan Associations — Cemeteries 
— Secret Societies — Hotels — Post-office — Population — Fort Mcintosh 
— Naming of Public Squares. 

Imagine a rolling, wooded English landscape, with the softest of blue 
skies, dotted at three-mile intervals with fat little, quiet little villages, 
or aggressive little manufacturing towns. — Rudyard Kipling.^ 

Beaver, the seat of justice of Beaver County, is one of the 
quiet little villages referred to in the above quotation from the* 
correspondence of the famous English writer, Rudyard Kipling. 
Like Zion of old it is ** beautiful for situation," standing as it 
does on a wide, elevated plateau on the north bank of the Ohio 
River just below the mouth of the Big Beaver Creek and over- 
looking the rich and populous valleys of these two streams. 
Although there is no corporate bond uniting Beaver and the 

* Extract from a letter from Beaver by Kipling in From Sm to Sea, vol. si., p. 158. 


' .J 

6i4 History of Beaver County 

other towns in these valleys, there is a close social and economic 
connection between them. It might almost seem that to out- 
siders the whole group of towns was formerly regarded as 
Beaver, for in a historical work on Pennsylvania, written 
some sixty years ago, we find the following reference to it: 

Beaver. — The place known by this name to travellers and others at 
Pittsburgh, whence so many little steamers are seen plying for this desti- 
nation, is not, properly, one town, but a little cluster of towns — a sort of 
United States in miniature, situated aroimd the mouth of Beaver river, 
and four or five miles up that stream. And it is a singular fact, that, to 
a traveller passing on the Ohio scarcely any village at all can be descried 
at the place, although there is here a population of some six thousand. ' 

We may take this as an unconscious prophecy of the recent dis- 
cussion of the project of uniting the towns of the valleys into 
one municipality, and of the future scene when there shall be a 
great city of Beaver here, with not six, but sixty or a hundred 
thousand population. 


What Topsy said of herself, namely, that she '* never was 
bom," but just "grow*d and was raised by a speculator/* might 
be said of many towns, but cannot be said of Beaver. Beaver 
Imows her parentage, and is, in a unique way, the child of the 
State. By the Act of September 28, 1791,* the Governor of 
the State was authorized to direct the Surveyor-General to 
survey two hundred acres of land in town lots, near the mouth 
of the Beaver Creek, **on or near the ground where the old 
French town stood," ^ and also one thousand acres adjoining, 

' Historical Collections, Sherman Day. p. io6. 

• 3 Smith's I.. s6. 

• This *' old French town " probably stood on the present site of Gtoveland. In reference 
to it we have previously quoted the following from Bouquet's Journal : 

"About a mile below its [the Big Beaver's] confluence with the Ohio stood formerly a 
large town, on the steep bank, built by the French, of sauare logs, with stone chimneys, for 
some of the Shawanese, Delawares and Mingo tribes, who abandoned it in the year 1758. 
when the French deserted Fort Du Quesne. Near the fording of Beaver-creek also stood 
about seven houses, which were deserted and destroyed by the Indians, after their defeat 
on Bushy-nm, when they forsook all their remaining settlements in this part of the coxmtry." 

Christopher Post says: 

"At Beaver Creek there is thirty-«ight houses, all built by the French for the Indians; 
some with stone chinmeys. When all their men are at home they can send out one h\m- 
dred warriors." 

In his now very rare The Journal of a Two Months Tour, etc., the Rev. Charles Beatty 
describes the locality as he saw it in September, 1766, as follows*: 

"We proceeded [from Logstown] to Great Beaver creek, about ten miles, which we 

• Sec in our Chapter XXVIII. a note on Rev. Charles Beatty and his journal. 

History of Beaver County 615 

on the upper side thereof, as nearly square as might be, in out- 
lots, not less than five, nor more than ten, acres each. These 
twelve hundred acres were a part of the '* three thousand acres 
on the Ohio and on both sides of the mouth of Beaver Creek, 
including Fort Mcintosh" which were reserved to the use of the 
State by the Act of March 12, 1783.' The survey under the 
Act of 1 79 1 was made by Daniel Leet, in November, 1792, but 
the commissioners whose duty it was to direct the survey were 
not present.* Leet's survey was therefore without authority, 
but it was confirmed by the Act of Assembly, passed March 6, 


March nth, following, the Governor of the State directed the 
Surveyor-General to mark the reservations required by the 
Act of 1 79 1, upon the survey of the town plot, which consisted 
of eight squares, four in the center and one on each comer, 
and the next day the Governor issued his commission to sell 
the lots of the town, with instructions to the commissioners 
appointed for that purpose. These commissioners were David 
Bradford -♦; James Marshall (he spelled his name Marshel) 
and Andrew Swearingen, all of Washington County The sale 
began at Washington, Pa., July 2d, and continued until August 
12, 1793. The list of purchasers at this time, with those at 
the later sales, will be of interest and will be found in the very 
full exhibit of the whole history of the disposition made of the 
land in the reserve tract drawn from the State records, at 
Harrisburg, by Mr. J. Sutton Wall, chief draftsman, specialty 
for this work. (See Appendix No. VII.) 

crossed and made up our fire on the rich high bank on the west side, which afforded our 
horses exceeding good pasture, equal to a meadow. In the night there fell a heavy rain 
which wetted us much notwithstanding all our efforts to screen ourselves. Here the 
Indians had once a considerable town, but deserted it the.last war in order to get at a greater 
distance from the English. 

** The situation is very pleasant, the land being rich and level for a considerable way 
upon this river, encompassed at a distance by a rismg ground, or small hill. A great part 
of this land that had been cleared, is now grown up again with small brush or tmderwood. 
The land we passed yesterday and to-day appears, in general, to be strong and good. 
The low land on the Ohio, and on the small rivers that empty into it, is very rich and 
abcmnds with walnut timber." — ^Text and note, pp. 34-35- 

* a Smith's L., 63. 

* See reference to this absence of the commissioners in Judge Addison's letter to Secretary 
Dallas just below. 

■ 3 Smith's L., 90. 

* David Bradford was an attorney of Washington, Pa., who attained a bad eminence 
in the so-called ** Whisky Insurrection." (See The Latimers, by H. C. McCook.) The 
stone house in which he lived on the west side of Main Street between Wheeling and Maiden 
is still standing. . . 

6i6 History of Beaver County 

It will be seen by those who are familiar with the names of 
the buyers at the first sale that the majority of them belong 
to Washington Coimty people. This was perhaps due to the 
fact that the sale was held in Washington. The unfairness of 
fixing the place of sale so far from the ground is recognized 
by Hon. Alexander Addison, at that time president judge of 
the district in which Washington County and the territory 
now Beaver County were embraced, in letters written by him 
a year or two after the sales. These letters are so interesting 
in themselves and throw so much light upon the history of 
the formative period of the county that we shall venture to 
transcribe them here entire. The reader will notice that the 
sale of the lots, the location of the county-seat, the reservations 
to be made for water lots, public buildings, cemetery, schools 
and churches, etc., were not treated in a haphazard way, but 
enlisted the wisdom and foresight of the ablest men of the 
time. The first letter we shall give is from Addison to Governor 
MiflBin. It reads as follows: 

Washington (Pa.). 3d February, 1796. 


At the last coiirt in Allegheny County General Wilkins had received 
no instructions for procuring the attendance of the Indians as witnesses 
in the case of the attack on the Indians on the Allegheny river. 

I think it proper to mention to you, that at least one man has built 
a house with a view to settle on some of the imsold part of the reserve 
tract at the mouth of the Beaver creek, and that several others expect 
to do so next spring. If this measure takes place it will probably occa- 
sion disturbance and dispute, the settlers without right will claim a 
preference to those who, respecting the law, stand back till they can have 
an opportimity of settling lawfully. The sales will be injured, for some 
will be backward to purchase a disputed possession. I submit to you 
the consideration of the probable consequences and the remedy, whether 
it will be best to proceed immediately to a sale of the residue of the lots 
and tracts, or whether some notification ought to be given against such 
settlements, and suits instituted against those who will not go off. I 
would also mention, that I am informed that havoc is making of the 
timber and trees of the tmsold part, and much greater is to be feared. 
Whether it will be thought proper to advert to this you will also con- 
sider. If the sale of the residue should be determined on, it ought to be 
attended to, that a certain spring, at some distance from the town is 
(excepting the rivers which are an himdred feet below the level of the 
town, with a very steep bank) the only resource for water — ^a sufficient 
quantity of ground ought to be reserved round it and between it and the 
town, i(pr.conducting it into the town. There is also a stone quarry near 

History of Beaver County 617 

it. which ought not to be suffered to become private property. Both 
these ought to be vested in trustees for the use of the town. The most 
proper trustees would be an incorporation to be made of the town, to 
take place as soon as a sufficient niunber of inhabitants should be in it. 
Many will settle there next summer. Before a sale the future seat of 
justice ought to be established there — the coimty to take place as soon 
as a certain number, say 300 or 500 families live on the N. W. side of the 
Ohio, within 15 or 20 miles of the town. This being certified to you on 
certain proof made, the lines of the coimty on both sides of the Ohio to 
be ascertained by Commissioners, and declared by proclamation; but 
no coiirt to be held there imtil the Coimty Commissioners have built a 
sufficient Court house and jail, which they should be enabled to do 
without limitation of price. These sales ought to be on the grounds, I 
mean at the town itself. And profits ought to be applied to an academy. 

Indeed, I should think that in all the unsettled parts boundaries of 
coimties and scites of the county towns ought to be ascertained before- 
hand and purchases made of 600 or 1000 acres to be laid out in lots and 
outlots, and the profits to be applied to academies. The county to be 
declared by proclamation entitled to a separate representation as soon 
as the ratio of one member shall be complete, and to a separate judicature 
as soon as a Court house and jail proper for the purpose shall be finished. 
This plan would prevent much intrigue and partiality, and would throw 
the profits into a better channel than they are now in. At present 
county towns are only means of gain without merit to the owners of the 
land, who may impose what terms they please on the purchasers. 

You will forgive me for troubling you with these hasty hints, and 
deal with them as you please. 

I am, with great respect, Sir, 
Your most obed't serv't, 

Alex. Addison. 

P. S. — As no lot has been reserved proper for a grave yard, which 
ought to be back from the town of Beaver — whether to provide for that 
and for conducting the spring and a proper road from the stone quarry, 
a sufficient quantity of ground back of the town, ought not to be reserved 
from the sale? 
To Thomas Mifflin, 

Governor of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.^ 

The next letter is from Judge Addison to Secretary Dallas 
(the italics are ours) : 

Washington, ad March. 1796. 
Dear Sir: — 

I formerly wrote to the Governor respecting the sale of the residue 

of the lots of the town at the mouth of Beaver and the residue of the 

reserved tract there. I do think that there is a necessity for the sale as 

early as possible in the spring, and that as good a price will be given 

* Penna. Arch^ ad series, vol. iv., p. 650. . . 

6i8 History of Beaver County 

then as ought to be expected, or will probably be got at any future period 
within the compass of a proper prosecution of the plan. I think the 
lots will now sell high. I think the sale ought to be an the ground; those 
who intend to be settlers will go there; those who intend to speculate 
may go or send there. I am confident that this also will be found true 
and proper. 

I do not know whether the land be all surveyed, and I believe not; 
it ought to be laid out in small lots near the town and in larger back 
from it to the extent of the reservation. If a clause of settlement be 
annexed there ought to be a special method pointed out to ascertain the 
forfeiture and conclude the purchaser. 

The last sale was in this town, that was not altogether right, as the land 
is not in this county. Yet reasons, perhaps true, and if true, sufficient, 
were given for not selling at Pittsburgh. The people of Pittsburgh, it 
was said disliked the establishment, and would have thwarted the pro- 
gress of the sale and settlement of the town. They had engrossed almost 
all the lots in the reserved tract opposite to Pittsburgh and made use of 
that as an argiunent to remove the seat of justice from that place into 
Pittsburgh, and so prevented any town there. They might have been 
disposed to do the same thing at Mcintosh. 

The Commissioners for laying out the town and lots, laid out at 
Mcintosh, that is at the mouth of Beaver, were scattered, one in Pitts- 
burgh, one in Westmoreland, and one in Fayette, and the surveyor was 
in Washington. The consequence was they never met, and the surveyor 
after attending on several appointments, was obliged to lay out the lots 
alone. The blame of this was laid on the Pittsburgh Commissioner. I 
would recommend Matthew Ritchie, David Redick and Daniel Leet, the 
two first of this town and the last near it, as Commissioners to lay out 
and to sell the lots, and if the law for Greene County does not alter the 
day of next June courts, would suggest the last Monday of May as the 
time of sale on the reserved tract itself, & to continue from day to day. 

You wanted a lot at the last sale. If you should want one now, write 
to me, point out the lot and the highest price. I wish you would send 
me a plan of the town and out lots and reserved tract. It would do for 
the Commissioners. I wish you would accompany it with a list of the 
purchasers & the numbers purchased & the prices, that will also do for 
the Commissioners. But send me by post as soon as possible a list of 
such purchasers as have not taken out patents for their lots (if there be 
any such) with the numbers & prices. Purchases would be made of them 

Yours sincerely, 

Alex'r Addison.* 

In another letter to the Governor he refers to this subject of 
the sale of the lots again and, as we remarked in quoting from 
the letter in a former part of this work, it gives us in a few 

, , ' Pcnna. Arch., ad series, vol. iv., p. 648. 

History of Beaver County 619 

words a vivid picture of the great rush of emigration across the 
Ohio, following upon the opening up of the western country 
after Wayne's victory in 1794 and the treaty of Greenville in 
1795. '^^® letter reads as follows: 

Pittsburgh, nth liarch, 1796. 
Sir: — At the court this week an application was again made for the 
discharge of the person taken for killing the Indian boy, on the Allegheny 
river. But on a statement of the circtmistances rendering it impossible 
to proceed with the prosecution, it was not pressed. It will be impossible, 
with any decency, that this motion should be restrained or resisted any 
longer, and I hope measures will be taken to have the Indians here by the 
next court to prove the death. 

Let me again suggest to you the necessity of as early a sale as possible 
of the residue of the lots and reserved tract at the mouth of Beaver creek. 
In my opinion the sale ought to be in the end of May next. If not sold 
soon the lots and land will be occupied by persons without title. The 
sale ought to be on the groimd itself. 

The idea of a new coimty ought to be fixed and prosecuted as soon 
as possible. I dread the consequences of the flood of mad people who 
have gone over the Allegheny and Ohio to make settlements; their ntim- 
ber is inconceivable and they will, perhaps, be dangerous, unless law can 
be brought in among them. The establishment of a new county and 
seat of justice there, with the additional number of ofl&cers that wotdd 
be occasioned by that, would awaken and keep up a sense of submission, 
and have a good influence on characters and tempers, which otherwise 
may give rise to some apprehensions. 

I am, Sir, with much respect, 

your most obed't Serv. 

Alex. Addison. 
Thomas Mifflin, 

Governor of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.' 

While these letters may, perhaps, indicate that Judge Addi- 
son was looking out for good things for himself and his friends 
in the way of land values, they reveal still more, as did every 
word he ever penned, a spirit of high civic patriotism united to 
clear-sighted wisdom and knowledge of men and law. 

When we consider the conditions existing when this town 
of Beaver was laid out, we must admire the far-sightedness and 
sute and steady purpose of the men who were the legislators 
of that time. The Act which directed the Surveyor-General 
to cause the survey to be made was passed in the fall of 1791. 
That was still three years before Wayne had fought his battle 

* Pcnna. Arch., ad series, vol. iv., pp. 649-50. 

620 History of Beaver County 

at Maumee; and the region hereabout, though purchased from 
the Indians, was still dangerous ground for the white man to 
tread upon. The broad plain on which the beautiful town of 
to-day stands was then in a wilderness,' and there was perhaps 
no sign of human existence there beyond a hut or two and the 
dismantled ruins of old Fort Mcintosh. When Daniel Leet 
was laying out the broad streets, and marking the spots for 
the reserved squares where were to stand the public buildings, 
there were still eight years to run before there should be erected 
the county of Beaver. 


When the new county was created, it was natural that this 
town, already laid out by the wisdom of the Legislature, should 
be designated as the seat of justice, as was done by the Act of 
March 12, 1800, the law erecting the coimty.* The reasons for 
its selection given by Sherman Day in his Historical Collections 
(1843) ^ay ^^ve had some influence. He says ^: 

The probable motive at that day for locating the county seat at a 
distance from the great manufacturing advantages at the Falls, was the 
existence of the well-known shoal just below the mouth of the Beaver, 
a diflBlcult and dangerous passage to the keel-boats and other craft in use 
at that day. By the location here, the town was accessible alike to the 
lower and upper trade, and the obstructions themselves would probably 
throw considerable business into the place. 

But there were other reasons that were more likely to operate 
upon the minds of the legislators of that day. Nature and his- 
torical association had together marked this spot as the fitting 
one for a county-seat.^ Its situation was elevated, beautiful, 

* See in Chapter III., letter from Fort Mcintosh, written by Lieutenant Bryson, in 
1782. In it he speaks of the Indians making their ambuscades "under the cover of the 
lanse trees bordering the plain." 

* 3 Smith's L., 429. 

• Page 107. 

• While the question of erecting the county of Allegheny was pending in the General 
Assembly of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, a petition was presented, the substance of 
which as given in the following extract from the Minutes of the Assembly, will be interest- 
ing to the reader: 

"February 23, 1788. A petition from 90 inhabitants of the cotmtjyr of Washington 
was read, remonstrating agamst the petitions presented to this and former Houses of 
Assembly, for erecting parts of the counties of Westmoreland. Washington and Payette 
into a separate county and establishing the seat of justice for the same at the town of 
Pittsburgh, and suggesting the propriety, in case it should be deemed expedient to erect 
a new county, that the courts of justice may be established at the mouth of Beaver Creek, 
or at Old Logstown. 

" Ordered to lie on the table." 

History of Beaver County 621 

and healthful, central to the natural divisions of the territory 
of the cotmty, and easily accessible by all the natural routes of 
travel along the streams and valleys and ridges. These natural 
advantages of the site had been thoroughly appreciated by the 
Indians and by the French, who had long made it a rendezvous 
and trading center. The erection here of Fort Mcintosh had 
also brought the locality into prominence, and finally the State 
had already laid out a town here. As the late ex-Chief Justice 
Daniel Agnew has said : * 

The men of 1800 chose the only true center of convenience, popula- 
tion and territory. It was no leap in the dark, but the unbiassed judg- 
ment of men consulting the public interest. They knew that the natural 
course of travel is along the valleys, and upon the ridges such as the 
Ohioville, Achortown, Brodhead and Frankfort roads, and that public 
thoroughfares do not seek to cross hills and dales, in ups and downs, 
like the teeth of a saw, at the expense of horse flesh, vehicles and taxes. 
These reasons, self-evident then, have never changed, because nature 
remains the same. 


Beaver was made a borough by the Act of March 29, 1802,' 
two years after the erection of the county, and originally ex- 
tended east of the Big Beaver Creek, including what is now 
Rochester and Bridgewater.^ 

■ Sttikmtni and Land Titles, p. 187. 

• P. L.. 495. 

' This statement as to the extent of the original borough of Beaver may possibly excite 
surprise in the minds of some of our readers, and we therefore submit the proof of its 
accuracy, as follows: 

The incorporation of the town of Beaver was by Act of Assembly approved March 29, 
x8oa, which enacted 

"That the town of Beaver, in the county of Beaver, shall be, and the same is hereby 
erected into a borough, which shall be called the boroxigh of Beaver, and the line of the 
out -lots of the reserve tract of land at the mouth of Big Beaver creek, which have already 
been sold, and the lines of the tract of five hundred acres of land, appropriated by this 
commonwealth for the use of a school or academy, in Beaver town, together with the 
in-lots of said town, shall be the bounds and compose the borough of Beaver." (P. L.. 495.) 

The majority of the out-lots which had "already been sold" were on the east side of 
the Big Beaver. On the 14th of January, 1804, there was approved an Act reading 


Whbrbas. sundry inhabitants, situate within the present bounds of the borough of 
Beaver, have represented to the le^lature, that for the property they possess on the 
easterly side of Big Beaver creek within the limits of the said borough, they are subject 
to taxes, and stmdry expences, for the improvement and advantage of the town, which is 
situated on the westerly side of said creek; and that they receive no equivalent benefits 
from the corporation: For remedy whereof, 

Sbction I. Be it enacted That from and after the passage of this act, all 

lands situate on the easterly side of Big Beaver creek, which have been included within the 
limits of the borough of Beaver, shall be exempt from all assessments and chsums on 
account of said incorporation, and shall be considered as separate from said borotigh, and 
lying without the limits of the same; any former law or laws to the contrary notwith- 
standing. (P. L., 32.) 

^22 History of Beaver County 

November i6, 1866, by a decree of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace for the county of Beaver, Beaver borough 
was made subject to the conditions of, and entitled to enjoy, 
all the advanU^es conferred by the Act of Assembly of the 3d 
of April, 185 1.' 


The limits of the borough of Beaver have been so frequently 
altered that it may be of interest and value to give here a risumi 
of the history of the changes which have taken place. This is 
in brief as follows: 

By the Act of Assembly of March 29, 1802, incorporating 
the town of Beaver, its boundaries, as just stated, were made 
coextensive with the line of the outlets of the reserve tract 
which had then been sold and the line of the Academy lots, 
together with the inlots of said town.' 

By the Act of January 14, 1804, all that portion of the out- 
lots lying east of the Big Beaver Creek were stricken out of the 
territory embraced within the borough .^ 

At the November term, 1804, of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of Beaver County, Borough township was formed, its 
bounds being identical with those of the borough of Beaver as 
established by law.* 

January 27, 1806, all of the outlets embraced within the 
then boundaries of the borough of Beaver were taken out of 
said borough and annexed to South Beaver township. 5 

By Act of Assembly of February 25, 18 14, the Academy lots 
then within the bounds of the borough were stricken out of the 

* Road Docket No. 3. No. 2, September Sess., 1866. 

* P. L.. 4Q5. 

* P. L„ 33; see this Act quoted ante, page 621. 
*Road Docket No, i. No. ji, Nov. Se«».. 1804. 

' An Act Xfj alter the limits of the Borough of Beaver: 

Whbsbab sundry inhabitants situated within the present bounds of the borough of 
Beaver have reprenented to the Legislature, that for the property they possess and have 
impnjved on the ^nit-U/ts, within the limits of the said borough, they are subjected to taxes 
and stindrv expensen Un the improvement and advantage of the town, and that they receive 
no e^juivalent benefits irtrm the corporation; for remedy whereof, 

Sbction I. Be it enacted, &c. That from and after the passing of this act, all the out- 
lots which have been included within the limits of the borough of Beaver, shall be exempt 
from all assessments and charges on account of the said incorporation, and shall be con- 
sidered as annexed to Beaver U/wnship.* and separate from the said borxnigh, and l>*ing 
without the Hmiu (A the same, any fc/rmer law or laws to the contrary nothwithstanding. 

Approved January 37. 1806. P. L.. 308. 

* South Beaver township is meant. There was at this date no longer a Beaver town- 

History of Beaver County 6^ 

same. These Academy lots, with the exception of lots Nos. i 
to 7 inclusive, constitute approximately the present Borough 
township. And the same Act repealed the provision of the Act 
of January 27, 1806, striking the outlots out of the borough, 
thus bringing these outlots again within its limits.' 

By decree of the Court of Quarter Sessions of April 2, 1835, 
the town of Bridgewater was incorporated tmder the general 
borough Act of April i, 1834," and made to include that por- 
tion of the territory within the boimds of the borough of Beaver 
lying beyond the lines described in the charter.^ 

By the Act of April 11, 1866,'* and the Act of February 25, 
1869, 5 the boundaries of the borough of Beaver were defined, 
and as then fixed they are the boundaries of the borough at the 
present time, excepting that there has been added to the bor- 
ough a small part of Academy lot No. 37, by action of the town 
cotmcil, November i, 1898. 

We may give here also an interesting fact which has been 
recently discovered. By the original plan o^ the town lots of 
Beaver, Fifth Street and Buffalo Street were of the width of two 
htmdred feet each. By the Act of March 12, 1800 ^ (the same 
which erected the cotmty), the Governor was directed to cause 
to be laid oflE by survey out of the reserve tract adjoining the 
town of Beaver five hundred acres for the use of such school or 
academy as should by law be authorized, which survey should 
be returned to the Surveyor-General's office and a patent there- 
for issued to the trustees of the Academy. This survey when 
returned embraced one himdred feet of each of the streets above 
mentioned and reduced them to a width of one hundred feet. 


In his letter to Governor Mifflin, quoted above, Judge Addi- 
son, it will be seen, suggested the reservation of a sufficient 

* An Act to contract the limits of the Borough of Beaver: 

Sbction I. Be it enacted, &c. That from and after the passing of this Act, all that 
tract of five hundred acres of land appropriated for the use of an academy, which lies 
within the borough of Beaver, in the county of Beaver, shall from henceforth be without 
the limits of the borough of Beaver, any law to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Sbction II. And be it further enacted, &c. That all that part of an Act of Assembly 
passed the twentieth of January, one thousand eight htmdred and six, which attaches 
certain outlots of the town of Beaver, to Beaver township, be and the same is hereby 
repealed. Approved by Governor Simon Snyder, February as, 1814. — P. L., 66. 

* P. L., 163. • See Deed Book M, No. la, p. aSg. 

* P. L.. 743. • P. L., 846. • 3 Smith's L., 429. Sec. 17. 

624 History of Beaver County 

quantity of land around "a certain spring, at some distance 
from the town," and his suggestion took effect. In the Act 
incorporating Beaver into a borough the Surveyor-General was 
authorized to survey two separate lots, containing in the whole 
not more than fifteen acres, on the north side of the inlots of the 
town of Beaver, so as to include several streams or springs of 
water, which were "granted to the inhabitants of said borough 
forever." And from the proceeds of each of the sales of lots 
tmder the Acts of April lo, 1826, and of April 15, 1834, five hun- 
dred dollars were granted to the borough of Beaver for the 
supply of water. One of the first public enterprises of the new 
borough was the utilization of the water from the springs just 
mentioned by the construction of a water-works. This was in 
the first year of its corporate existence, viz., 1802. Daniel 
Reisinger, referred to below, told a living witness, namely, ex- 
Sheriff Henry E. Cook, that this water- works was upon the lot 
adjoining his (Cook*s) residence. The borough took charge of 
the works and had ordinances passed to authorize issue of bonds 
to refund the subscriptions. The bonds were payable in six 
years, with interest at six per cent. The response was generous, 
some making donations of money, some of timber, and some of 
work. David Marquis, the father of the late David Marquis, 
M.D., of Rochester, had charge of the boring out of the logs 
which were used as mains; and Daniel Reisinger, a blacksmith, 
made the iron end-bands. The following account, which was 
foimd in an old ledger belonging to General Abner Lacock, is of 
interest as referring to this early enterprise: 


June 24 — To boarding borers 47 days 

" 12 half pints whiskey 

" 7 days burying water pipes 

" Cash paid Aaron Porter 

" Cash paid Thomas Lewis 

" 2 days rafting waterpipe logs 

*' 14 half pints whiskey 

** Secretary charge, postage 


June 13 — By cash in full 

And in the borough records for 1803 is fotmd a bill of Jacob 






























History of Beaver County 625 

Small against the borough for £1 135. 3d." for repairing pipes 
and pumps. 

The supply from this source must have been insufficient, for 
in the accoimts of the Treasury of Beaver Coimty for 1806 we 
find this entry, *'John Lawrence, ist payment for digging a 
well $100." * This well was a little east of the old court-house, 
in the northeast center reserved square, and until a late day 
could still be seen, though filled up with rubbish. The records 
of the town council for the same year (1806) show the borough's 
indebtedness to John Lawrence for two and one half days* ser- 
vice in repairing the water-works, $2.50; and in 1807 the coun- 
cil agreed with Hugh Wilson to btiild a stone house, ii x 13 
feet, and seven feet high, on the ground at the source of the 
springs which supplied the water- works; for which he was 
given an order on the treasurer for $25. The borough officers 
in 1804 were: Samuel Lawrence, chairman; Thomas Henry, 
treasurer; Hugh Picknoll, clerk; and Joseph Hemphill, water- 
man. In 181 2, as the records show, steps were taken towards 
erecting a new water-works. On the 8th of April in that year 
the coimcil passed an ordinance authorizing two things: (i) 
the bringing down to the public square, in wooden pipes, of the 
water from the springs in the reserve lots, both of which abutted 
on the line of the lands of John Wolf; and (2) the borrowing 
of money at six per cent, to defray the cost of the work.^ The 
cotmcil of Beaver until recently maintained this water-works, 
furnishing from the same springs a good quality of water. 

* Pcmnds, shillings, and pence are found in certain of oxirold Pennsylvania statutes and 
ofBdal papers still in force and use; for instance, the penalty of one hundred pounds to be 
imposed upon a non-attending witness dxily subpoenaed; but under a post-Revolution 
order made by the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, the poimd so mentioned 
was made of the value of $3.66|, so that lOo pounds was of the value of $a66.66i. See 
Chapman v. Calder, 14 Pa.. 357. Crumrine's Bench and Bar of Wash. Co., p. 22. 

* By an Act approved Feb. 10, 1807, the Legislature authorized the commissioners of 
Beaver Co\mty to apply the sum of seven bxmdred dollars "from the monies arising from 
the sales of the inlots and reserved lands adjoining Beaver Town to the sinking and com- 
pleting a public well, in such part of the public square in the borotigh of Beaver as they 
shall think most proper." P. L., 29. 

See just below in this chapter what is said about this ancient well and the water-works 
in an extract from Ctmung's Sketches of a Tour, etc. 

* The form of the bonds issued by the council to subscribers to this fund was as follows 

We, the town council of the borough of Beaver, certifv that Samuel Power has loaned 
to, and for the use of, the borough of Beaver, thirty dollars, to be refunded to the said 
Samuel Power or bearer, by ax annual installments, with interest, from the 7th of July, 
181 2, to which payment the fimd of the said borough is hereby pledged. Done in council. 
May 8. 181 3. 

Attest: Samubl Lawrbncb, 

Hugh Picrnoll, Town Clerk. Chaimum, 

626 History of Beaver County 

One of these water lots was sold during the past year (1903) 
by the council of the borough of Beaver to John Galey, who 
now owns a part of the John Wolf lands. It was thought best 
that the sale should have the approval of the Conunonwealth, 
and accordingly an Act of Assembly was passed for this pur- 
pose, but his Excellency, Samuel W. Pennypacker, returned the 
same without his approval. 

In the year 1845 ^^® first reservoir was btiilt in the water 
lot adjacent to the property of Henry E. Cook on Fifth Street, 
and a line of pipe laid therefrom. At that time, and for many 
years thereafter, there were four hydrants connected with this 
line of pipe. The first was at Fourth Street and Branch Bank 
Alley, and was under the charge of Eli Reed; the second on 
Third Street, at the comer of the same alley, under the care of 
Dr. Oliver Ctmningham, then a member of council; the third 
on Third Street, in front of the clothing store of Isaac N. Atkins ; 
and the fourth, added later, was about opposite the house of 
George W. Hamilton, on Third Street. About the year 1848, a 
reservoir was erected on the water lot adjacent to what is now 
John Galey's property, and a line of pipe laid therefrom, on 
which hydrants were placed; the first on Market and Fourth 
streets, near the house of Daniel Reisinger; the second at the 
comer of Market and Third streets, near the Presbyterian 
Church, as it was then located; and, later, a third was placed in 
front of the property now of Martha McDonald on Third Street 
then of Hugh Anderson; and a fourth at Fifth and Market, on 
the property now of Mrs. McConkey. At this time, and for 
some time preceding this, there had been a well on the property 
now of Snitger Brothers; one upon the property of David Minis 
on Buffalo Street; and one on the property where John Caughey 
lives, being the placa where the stages came and left the town ; 
and a fourth, as previously stated, was at the old jail in the 
northeast center (now Harmar) square. 

The next step in furnishing the town with water was the 
erection of a pumping station opposite what is now Brodhead 
Square. This system was in operation until November i, 1898, 
when it was found inadequate to meet the wants of the growing 
borough, and accordingly ten wells were sunk upon borough 
property on the bank of the Ohio River, immediately opposite 
Wayne Square, and a pumping station erected by Simon Harrold, 

^ -s 

.2 -2 
5 ^ 

= i 


2 ^ 


• * 
• •• ,•« • • 

-• - • • • 


History of Beaver County 627 

a well-known contractor of that day. A water-main was laid 
up Beaver Street to a reservoir built on the top of the hill within 
the limits of Bridgewater borough, on land bought from Joseph 
May's heirs. From this reservoir water is now distributed to 
all points in Beaver. 


We congratulate ourselves on some finds that we have 
made among the treasures of the Carnegie libraries in Pittsburg 
and Allegheny, in rare and precious old volumes which delight 
the heart of the antiquary. From these we are able to obtain 
exact information concerning this region as it was, in some 
instances, over a century ago. Extracts from these books will 
be found in other places in our work, and we give one or two 
here. In 1796 an eminent man, named General Georges Henri 
Victor CoUot, made a journey through the western part of 
North America, at the instance of Adet, Minister from France 
to the United States, in order to gather details of its civil, politi- 
cal, and military conditions. His researches led him to voyage 
down the Ohio River, which he particularly describes. Of that 
part of his description which pertains to this immediate locality, 
we give on page 628 the original French, of which the follow- 
ing is a free translation: 

Four miles below the head of Crow's island is Big-Beaver* s-Creek. 
The land through which it flows is light. 

Big-Beaver's-Creek, at its mouth, is hardly fifty fathoms wide. A 
fall three miles above prevents passage beyond (that distance). On the 
banks of this creek and on a plateau on the right hand side of the Ohio, 
a little town called Beaver* s-Toum is being laid out; there are here as yet 
only five or six houses; on the opposite bank, facing Beaver*s-Town is 
a pretty farm called Kerr's. The soundings at the mouth of Beaver's- 
Creek showed eight, twelve and thirteen feet. 

Below Beaver's-Town, the river continues to nm in a channel without 
obstructions. The depth of the water is ten to twelve feet; the soil is 

About five miles from Big-Beaver's-Creek, are two small, low islands, 
which are left to the right. The depth of the water in the channel is 
six feet. The two chains of hills come closer together and shut the river 
in at this place; this is the most northerly point of the Ohio. 

About two miles farther on is another island called Grant Island. One 
leaves it to the left hand and sails close to the right bank: the current is 

628 History of Beaver County 

here very rapid, and the depth of the water in the channel is twelve and 
fifteen feet. The land is poor, pebbly and rocky. 

Three miles below Grant Island, one leaves to the right another island, 
opposite which is situated a little town called Bird* s-T own, where there 
are two or three huts. The river widens, and the hills on both shores 
retire sufficiently to leave on each side considerable low lands. 

Three miles below this last island is Little- Beaver *s-Creek, on the right 

Little- Beaver 's-Creek is at most twenty-five fathoms wide at its 
mouth, and is navigable for only two miles. The lands on Little- Beaver 's- 
Creek are lower and of a better quality than those of Great Beaver, which 
are high and rocky. 

After having passed Little-Beaver's-Creek, one sees a collection of 
four or five logg-houses which bear the name of Little-Beaver' s-Town, 
opposite which is situated an island, which is left on the right hand side, 
called Beaver' s-Creek-lsland. The depth of the water is everywhere from 
fifteen to seventeen feet; the bottom gravelly; land passable. 

Here is the State line between Pennsylvania and Virginia. This line 
nms north and south. * 

We had great delight in finding in an old book of travels an 
ey^-witness's account of how things looked in Beaver in 1807, 
nearly a hundred years ago. In that year Mr. F. Cuming made 
a tour of the western country, and came down the Ohio River 

> Qimtre xnilles au-desaous dc la t*te de I'tlc dcs Corbeaux, se trouve Ic grand Becrver's- 
Creek. (La crique du arand Castor.) Les terres qu'il traverse sont l^^rc. 

Le grand Beavcr*8-Creek, k son embouchure, n'a gu^re que cinquante toises de largeur. 
Unc chute ou'on rencontre h trois milles au-dessus. ne permet pas de le remontcr plus haut. 
Sur les boras dc cctte crique et sur im plateau que forment les montagnes de la rive droite 
de rOhio en s'abaissant. on vient de jeter les fondemens d'line petite ville appel^ Beavtr^s- 
Tottniy ou viUr du Castor: on n'y compte encore que cinq ou six maisons; sur la rive oppos^ 
vis4i-vi8 Beaver's-Town, se trouve une jolie ferme nomm6e Kerr. La sonde k I'embou- 
chure de Beaver's-Creek« a donn6 huit, douse et treise pieds. 

Apr^s Beaver's-Town. la riviere continue k courir dans un lit sans obstacle. La hau- 
teur de Teau est de dix k douze pieds; la terre est l^^re. 

A environ cinq milles de GTeat-Beaver*s-Creck, on trouve deux petites fles basses: on 
les laisse k droite. La hautetir de I'eau dans le chenal est de six pieds. Les deux chaines 
de montagnes se r^unissent et encaissent la riviere en cet endroit: c'est ici la partie la plus 
Nord deTObio. 

A la distance d'environ deux milles. on trouve \me autre tie appel^ Vlk Grant. On la 
laisse h. gauche, et Ton rai^ la rive droite: le cours est id tr^s rapid, et la hauteur de 
I'eau dans le chenal est de douse et quinjBe pieds. Mauvaise terre, cailloux et rochers. 

X trois milles au-dessous de VUe Grant, on laisse k droite tine autre He, vis-k-vis de 
laquelle est situ^ une petite vUle appel6e Bir(Ps'Town, (la viUe des oiscaux) oii il y a deux 
ou trois baraques. La riviere s'elargit. et les montagnes s'eloignent assez des deux rives 
pour laisser de chaque c6t6 beaucoup de terres basses. 

Trois milles pltis bas que cette demiire ne. est situ^ sur la rive droite Liitk-Beavtr^s- 

Little-Beaver's-Creek a tout au plus vingt-cinq toises de largeur h, son embouchure, et 
n'est navigable que pendant deux milles. Les terres du Little •Beaver's-Creek« sont plus 
ba^nes et a'tme meilleure q\utlit6 que celles du Crreat-Beaver. que sont 6ley€es et pierreuses. 

Apr^ avoir pass^ Little-Beaver's-Creek. on trouve une reunion de quatre ou cinq logg- 
houses que portent le nom de Littk'B€aver*S'Town. \is-k-via de laquelle est situ^ une lie 
qu'on laisse k droite, appel^ Beaver* s-Creek-Islana. La hautetir de Teau est partout de 
quince et dix-sept pieds; fonds de gravier; terre passable. 

C'est id la Kgne de separation entre T^tat de Pennsylvanie et cclui dc Virginie. C^tte 
ligne court Nordf et Sud. 

VoyoM Dans VAnuriqtte Septentricnale .... avec tm Atlas de 3 6 Cartes, Plans. 
Vues et Pigtires, par feu le (J^cral O)llot, ex-(3ouvemcur de la Gtiadeloupe. A Paris. x8a6. 
Vol. i.. pp. 7a-73. 

This is a most sumptuous work, with maps and plates beautifully engraved by Tardieu. 

History of Beaver County 629 

to Beaver in a small boat. We quote in full what he says of 
his visit to the new county-seat, as follows: 

At half past four in the afternoon we were abreast of Big Beaver 
creek or river on the right. It empties through a level, and is about fifty 
yards wide at its mouth, with a gentle current. 

Some boys on the beach mischievously misinformed us respecting 
the proper landing to the town of Beaver, which is but a little way be- 
yond the creek, instead of which we rowed a mile lower down, and then 
had to set our skiff across a bar, which extends above a mile in front of 
the right bank. After landing we had to climb a precipice to a log cabin, 
on the top and edge of the cliff, near two hundred feet above the surface 
of the river. Here we got directions for our path, and after a walk of 
half a mile, we reached the town of Beaver. 

It stands on a stony plain on the top of the high cliff which conceals 
it from the river, and contains about thirty indifferent houses, much 
scattered on three parallel streets. There is a stone gaol not quite 
finished, which was the only publick building we noticed.* The in- 
habitants not finding water at a convenient depth, have, in preference 
to digging very deep wells, led it by wooden pipes from a hill near a mile 
from the town, and have placed publick wooden fountains in the streets 
at convenient distances. 

We were shown the sdte of Fort Mcintosh, of which no vestige re- 
mains except the hearth of the officers' fire-place: It is on the edge of 
the cliff commanding the river. Altogether Beaver seems to be very 
badly sittiated on the high plain, when it ought to have been placed at 
the confluence of Beaver creek with the Ohio, where there is a bottom 
with room enough for a town, and an excellent landing, and where are 
now two good looking houses with tavern signs. The neighboring high 
situation notwithstanding its inconvenience, was probably preferred on 
accotmt of the superior salubrity of the air. 

On entering Beaver, we refreshed ourselves with six cents worth of 
whiskey and water at general Lacock's tavern. He is one of the repre- 
sentatives in the assembly of the state, and has both considerable influ- 
ence and abilities. I had heard him in the house of representatives 
when I was at Lancaster in the winter, and was much entertained by the 
wit and hiunor he displayed in the course of a debate on fixing a per- 
manent seat of government. We had not the pleasxire of seeing the 
general now, and proceeded from his house to Mr. Wilson's, one of the 
best in the place, conformably to a promise I had given him in Pitts- 
burgh. Mrs. Wilson, a very pretty woman, told us that her husband 
was absent in Philadelphia: — We left our names, walked across the 
street to Hemphill's tavern, got some information respecting the country; 
and then returned to our boat — ^meeting on our way the constable crying 
at publick sale a poor horse attached for debt, for which the last bid wa« 

' There is here a note by the editor, writing in 1810, or perhaps by the author himself, 
which says: "A small brick market-house has since been built, and after many trials, a 
well sunk from which the inhabitants are supplied with water." 
VOL. II.— a. 

630 History of Beaver County 

thirteen dollars twenty-five cents. It is seven years since Beaver was 
laid out for a town.* 

The author in his last statement has confused the date of 
the erection of the county of Beaver, which was seven years 
before (i. e., in 1800) with that of the laying out of the town. 
Leet's survey, as stated above, was in 1792, and was confirmed 
by the Assembly in the following year. 

The tavern of General Lacock referred to in the above ac- 
count was on Third Street, nearly opposite the present Buchanan 
block, and, as we have already said, was later known as the 
Clark Hotel, and was the place where the court first sat. The 
Wilson mentioned was James Wilson, uncle of Associate Judge 
Joseph C. Wilson. He was the father of Samuel Beatty Wilson, 
who long resided in Beaver and who married Julia Ann, a 
daughter of James Lyon,* and died recently in Washington, 
D. C. James Wilson kept a store on the site of Lawrence's 
drug store, comer of Third Street and Branch Bank Alley. 

* Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country, etc.. By F. Ctiming, Pittsbui^gh, 1810, p. 79. 
The journey described in this book was begun at Philadelphia in the winter of 1807 and 
concluded in 1809. Cuming left Pittsburg for his trip down the Ohio July 18, 1807. 

■ James Lyon was an early and highly respected citizen of Beaver. He was bom in 
Westmoreland Cotinty, where his father had made a settlement on Ttu-tle Creek. In the 
year 1783, when he was about six years old. the Delaware Indians attacked the settlement, 
killing and scalping his father, and carrying his brother and himself captives to the Wabash 
River, where they were made to nm the gatmtlet. After the treaty of Fort Mcintosh, in 
1785. which provided for the surrender by the Indians of all prisoners "white and black," 
held by them, many prisoners were delivered at Fort Mcintosh, and among these was 
James Lyon. He was so favorably impressed with the settlement at Fort Mcintosh, that 
in x8oo he opened a store in Beaver and continued in business there for thirty-five years. 
He was sheriff of the cotmty from 1818 to 1821. 

In an account of his captivity, written by himself and dated " Beaver Town, September 
97, 1846," * he being then in his 70th or 71st year, Mr. Lyon gives an interesting glimpse 
of Simon Girty, which shows that that cruel ruffian had at times some instincts of kindness 
in his bosom. The narrative says: '* We had not been long in camp, until they [the Indians] 
commenced smoking, and amongst those that visited tis, was a white man. immediately 
upon his coming into the camp I went up to him. and he took me on his knee ; I was glad 
to see a white man, he kept me all the time on his knee while he stayed, and treated me 
kindly, when he got up to go away, I wanted to go with him, he had no other way of getting 
me pacified, but by promising to come and see me again, but that was the last I saw of him, 
my brother told me that he was Simon Girty, that he had seen him frequently at my 
grandmother Myers' tavern, where we both often visited." 

James Lyon married Electa Smith and had the following-named children: Mary, 
married John Darragh. died in Rochester, buried in Beaver ; Matilda, died at nine years 
of age; Thomas, a steamboat captain, died at Moberly, Mo.; Louisa, married Atlas 
Lacock: Julia Ann, married Samuel Beatty Wilson, died in Washington City; Sarah K., 
widow of George W. Allison, M.D., still living and resides in Beaver; Martin Smith, died at 
Alton, Ills.: Electa, died at Beaver; Harriet M., living in Washington City; Henrietta M.. 
died in Beaver. 

* Published in full in The Olden Time (Craig) vol. ii.. pp. 87-ga. 


History of Beaver County 631 

Mary Wilson, the "very pretty woman" referred to, had been a 
school-teacher, and is mentioned in otir chapter on the educa- 
tional history of the county. She was the daughter of Dr. 
Samuel Adams. She died in Weston, W. Va., at ninety-five 
years of age. Joseph Hemphill was a well-known early citizen, 
whose biography is sketched in the chapter of this work on the 
legal history of the county. He kept an inn just across the 
street from Wilson's. 

The following also, from Zadoc Cramer's Namgator for 1818, 
will be of interest and gives some history: 

When about a mile above the mouth of Big Beaver incline toward 
the left shore, keeping about two-thirds of the river on your right hand, 
in order to avoid two bars, the one made by the entrance of the creek, 
which nms down near the right side for a few rods below the lower ware 
house, and the other called Johnson's bar, a quarter of a mile below the 
first, and also near the right shore. Below this last bar and opposite the 
town of Beaver, the right shore is shoal, and affords no landing place 
until you get down to Carr's ferry, three miles below the creek. — If you 
want to land at the town of Beaver, you must pull in just below the 
Beaver bar, where you will fall into an eddy, which will take you up a 
few rods to the Harmony ware house, where is a good landing place. On 
coming out from the ware house it requires care to clear Johnson's bar, 
which lies just below the Beaver bar; keep it well to your right and pull 
pretty well out into the river, and there is no other impediment until 
you get down to Carr's ripple, which is made on the left side by the 
entrance of Raccoon creek, where the channel is nearest the shore. Nib- 
low's ferry is opposite Harmony ware house, and Lawrence's ferry oppo- 
site Beavertown. 

There has lately [probably just before 1810] been established in Beaver 
an extensive brewery, by Mr. George Grier, whose beer is esteemed at 
Natchez and New Orleans.' 

The patriotic spirit of Beaver's early citizens will appear 
in the following extract from the edition of July 20, 1808, of 
The Commonwealthy a weekly paper published at Pittsburg, by 
Ephraim Pentland, a son-in-law of General Abner Lacock: 

The Fourth of July, the anniversary of our independence, was cele- 
brated by a large nimiber of the democratic republicans of Beaver Town 
and its vicinity, on the bank of Beaver creek, near the village of Sharon. 
Stephen Rtmyan, Esq., was unanimously chosen president, and Robert 
Moore, Esq., vice president. The Declaration of Independence was read 
and an appropriate address delivered by Gen. Abner Lacock, when the 

» Pp. 70-71. 

632 History of Beaver County 

company sat down to a neat and sumptuotis dinner provided for the 
occasion, after which they were honored with the presence of Captain 
Beon's rifle company, and Captain Davidson's militia. The following 
toasts were dnmk with unanimity and glee, accompanied with discharges 
of small arms: 

By Thomas Henry — " The mechanics of the United States: may they 
ever possess our democratic principles." 

By Robert Moore, Esq. — *' Neutral commerce, unrestricted by British 
orders of council, or French decrees." 

By John Lawrence, Esq. — "May the miscreant who espouses the 
British government, or the administration of it, in preference to that of 
the United States, be despised by all honest democrats and honoured 
with a coat of tar and feathers." 

By John Wolf, (Sen'r) — "May the standard of liberty and equality 
flourish in every clime." 

By Jonathan Mendenhall — " The Fourth of July: may it ever be held 
sacred by all true republicans, but never profaned by the mock celebra- 
tion of aristocrats and tories." 

By Robert Darragh — "May the despotic arm extended to molest the 
flag of neutrals, be forever blasted." 

By Wm. Smith (after Gen. Lacock retired) — "General Abner Lacock, 
the orator of the day: may his talents long be employed in the cause of 
liberty and the rights of man, to confusion of federalists, tories and 
apostate whigs." 


The men whose names have already been mentioned in the 
history of the borough were among its very earliest settlers, and 
some of them were identified with its most important affairs. 
A poll-book, which is the oldest one of the kind preserved in 
the county, contains the names of these, and of still others, 
spoken of in connection with a special election held July 10, 
1805, in the court-house, for the purpose of filling the office of 
high constable. At this election Joseph Hemphill was inspector ; 
David Hayes, judge; and James Allison, Jr., clerk. William 
Rhodes was elected. The poll-book contains the following 
names: William Henry, who was the first sheriff of the county; 
David Johnson, the first prothonotary ; Jonathan Coulter and 
Joseph Hemphill, two of the trustees appointed in the Act of 
March 12, 1800, erecting the county, to erect the necessary 
buildings, Joseph Hemphill being also one of the early associate 
judges; Guion Greer, the first treasurer of the coimty; Abner 
Lacock. one of the first associate judges, and the first member 
pf Congress and the first United States Senator from Beaver 

History of Beaver County 633 

County; James Allison, Jr., the first district attorney, a member 
of Congress from the coimty and altogether one of its most 
eminent and worthy citizens; Robert Darragh, also prominent 
and respected in all ways; Robert Moore, a representative 
of the county in Congress, and Thomas Henry, the same, both 
highly esteemed; Samuel Lawrence, the second to hold the 
office of prothonotary; and John Lawrence, John Everhart, 
Matthew Steen, Samuel Johnston, William Shannon, John Light, 
Jacob Small, James Wilson, David Hayes (one of the first at- 
torneys enrolled at the Beaver County bar), David Boies, 
Thomas Harvey, Thomas Evans, James Alexander. Stewart 
Rowan, and Jonathan Mendenhall, all worthy citizens. 

In addition to these we find active in the various responsi- 
bilities of the borough and the county during the first half -cent- 
ury of their corporate existence (in some cases for a longer 
period) many others, notices of whom are given in the various 
chapters of this work. In the records of the town council for 
the first twenty-five years we find such names as those of John 
R. Shannon, an eminent attorney, clerk of council in 1807; 
James Lyon, treasurer of the council; William Clarke; John 
Berry, editor of the Minerva, the first newspaper published in 
the cotmty; Joseph White; Robert Hamilton; William V. 
Smith; Milo Adams, one of the first physicians of the county; 
James Dennis; James Logan; A. Logan; Laughlin Kennedy; 
Robert Hamilton; John Hemperly; Thomas Hunter; Samuel 
McClure; David Marquis; Milton Lawrence, eminent physician, 
associate judge and citizen; David Somers; John Barclay; 
Joseph Vera; John Pauce; Hugh Picknoll, attorney and bor- 
ough official; and Joseph S. Moore. And then, after 1825, 
many new names begin to appear in the records of public affairs, 
as William Cairns, twice sheriff of the coimty and one of its 
associate judges; Jackson Sloan; William Allison, a very able 
lawyer; James E akin, Jr. ; Joseph Conrad ; Daniel Agnew, bur- 
gess in 1839, in later years eminent at the bar and on the bench; 
John Clarke, Evan J. Henry (burgess in 1840-42), R. H. Agnew, 
John B. Foster, James M. Cunningham, W. K. Boden, William 
Reed, Thomas McCreery, Alfred R. Moore, S. S. Hamilton, D. L. 
Imbrie, Joseph Strock, M. B. Welsh, Oliver Cunningham, M.D., 
J. C. Weyand, David Ramsey, Samuel Davenport, W. S. Bar- 
clay, and others. These are from the imperfect records of the 

634 History of Beaver County 

borough, and doubtless do not give a ftill list of those who were 
public functionaries, but they show the tradition of civic virtue 
and usefulness in public affairs as having characterized for 
several generations many of the families still existing in Beaver 
County, who are the descendants of these early fathers. 

A few items from the records of the borough council may be 
of interest. John Berry, named above, was a member of coun- 
cil in 1809, but he was afterwards removed, and Jonathan Coul- 
ter, at a special election, was chosen as his successor. On the 
1 8th of May he appears as presenting a claim against council as 

**For publishing three ordinances, 3 squares, $3.00; pro- 
posals for building a market house, i square, $1.00; total, 
$4.00." January 9th, this claim is endorsed as "held under 
advisement.*' Did the city fathers think Berry was trying to 
become a millionaire? 

November 10, 181 5, an ordinance was passed authorizing: 
(i) Borough notes or bonds, in the aggregate of $500, in de- 
nominations of 6^, 1 2 J, 25 and 50 cents each, to be signed by 
the treasurer and placed in the hands of the burgess, to be put 
upon the market; (2) the treasurer to procure paper and have 
the notes struck by the editor of the Beaver Crisis; (3) the 
highest number of the lowest denomination, and mce versa, to 
be issued. On these notes the first borough seal was used, viz., 
a stamp with a tree and a fountain. 

A second ordinance, dated Jtdy 17, 181 5, requires the burgess 
to charge all traveling shows $5 license for two nights' and the 
intervening day's exhibitions. 

August 26, 18 16, a contract was made with James Dennis 
to build a market house for $395, to be completed in workman- 
like manner by June i, 181 7.' 

In 1823, the valuation of the borough is reported by the 
clerk of council as being $48,003. 

September 23, 1836, a subscription for a fire-engine was 
taken, amounting to $130. The engine was bought for $125. 


It may be of interest to our readers to see an exhibit of the 
business and professional activities of the county seat two 

' It will be leen just above in the note to CuminK's remarks upon Beaver that before 
18x0 '*a small brick market-house " had been built. This must have been too small. 

History of Beaver County 635 

thirds of a century ago. We therefore reproduce here entire 
the notice of Beaver in a rare old book, viz., Harris's Pittsburg 
and Western Pennsylvania Business Directory for 1837, as follows: 

Beaver, the county town of Beaver Cotinty, is situated on high and 
elevated grotmd, on the right bank of the Ohio river, and about half a 
mile from Beaver creek. It has a poptilation of looo inhabitants. In 
this place are two churches and two Sabbath schools, numerously at- 
tended; also a Temperance society, pretty numerous; an Academy, in 
successful operation, where the ancient as well as modem languages and 
the higher branches of literature are taught, — L. B. Williams, Principal. 
It contains likewise an extensive hat manufactory, a tannery, fotir 
smithies, ten stores, a watchmaker's shop, three saddlers shops, five shoe 
and three tailors shops, four public houses, and two printing offices and 
weekly papers. Among the residents are three clergymen, ten lawyers, 
four doctors, and one notary public. A bank, being a branch of the 
Bank of Pittsburgh, is located here. H. Stow, Cashier. 


Merchants — James Lyon, James Allison, Jr., John Barclay, James 
Eakin, Thomas McCreery, Robert McCreery, Thomas Henry, Abraham 
Nass [Noss], David Minis. Benj. Adams. Brewer — ^Joseph P. Johnston. 
Saddlers — Daniel [David] Marquis, John Douds, J. T. Conn. Watch- 
maker — M. L. Todd. Tanner — M. T. Stokes. Boot and Shoemakers — 
Stephen Todd, William Fields, J. French, William Conn, J. H. Kemp 
[Camp], Michael Kemp. Tailors — David Eakin, Jr., Abraham Shelky 
[Shockey], D. Hall. Carpenters and House Joiners — Jackson Slew, 
Abraham Sutherland, James Anderson, J. Yarley. Plasterers — ^Andrew 
and Samuel Carson. Coopers — Henry and George Streck. Black- 
smiths — David Somers, C. Risinger, James Risinger, Morton & Eakin. 
Hatters — Shively, Allison & Wilson. Stone Masons — Morgan & Max- 
well. Tallow Chandler, etc. — Daniel Eakin. Innkeepers — ^John Light, 
David Porter, Widow Moore. Physicians — Oliver and Smith Cunningham, 
R. B. Barker, George Allison. Attorneys at Law — ^James Allison, Wil- 
liam Allison, Daniel Agnew, J. R. Shannon, William B. Clarke, N. P. 
Fetterman, H. Roberts, S. Meredith, Mr. Chamberlin, Mr. Jones, Thomas 
Cunningham. Clergymen — A. O. Patterson, William Maclean, Pres- 
byterian; Mr. Calender, Mr. Munroe, Methodist. Justices of the Peace 
— ^William Clarke, David Bads [Backus ?], Jas. D. Eakin. Member of 
Congress elect — Hon. Thomas Henry . A ssociate Judge — Benjamin Adams. 
County Commissioner — James D. Eakin. Clerk for Commissioners — 
Richard Agnew. County Treasurer — ^John Barclay. Prothonotary and 
Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer — ^John A. 
Scroggs. Register and Recorder and Clerk of Orphans* Court — ^Thompson 
M. Johnson. Editors — William Henry, Argus; Alexander Niblow, 

Additional names are Eli Reed, hatter, sexton of the old 

636 History of Beaver County 

graveyard, and coroner; Samuel, William, and John Gibson, 
tinners; John and Martin Camp, butchers; John Richardson, 
blacksmith. The rivermen of the town were the .Stone broth- 
ers, Charles, Stephen, and Daniel; the Somers brothers, David, 
Milo, and John; Thomas and Martin S. Lyons; Adam Shoemaker 
and son John ; and George W. Hamilton. Milo Adams was one 
of the prominent physicians of the place. 

As late as 1838 there was still a thick woods from the present 
passenger station of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway up to 
the comer opposite the Beaver House, and, from the old Catho- 
lic Church site, on the other side, to the comer of Third and 
Beaver streets, there was nothing but sheep pasture, corn-field, 
and common land. 

There was a daily mail, a four-horse stage-coach, which ran 
between Beaver and Cleveland ; a daily hack to and from Pitts- 
burg, and a triweekly mail on horseback to New Castle. Pa., 
and New Lisbon, Ohio. The latest intelligence was brought by 
steamboat to Stone's Point from Pittsburg in the evening. At 
election times there were always crowds at the landing waiting 
for the boat. State elections at that period were held in Octo- 
ber, and Presidential elections in November. In 1840 the Presi- 
dential election was so close, and the two northern counties. 
Potter and McKean, so difficult to be commtmicated with, that 
it was three weeks before official announcement was made that 
General Harrison had carried the State by 343 majority. 


Beaver Academy. — In the Act of March 12, 1800, by which 
Beaver County was erected, provision was made for a grant of 
500 acres of the reserve tract, to be laid oflE by actual survey,, 
adjoining the town of Beaver, **for the use of such school or 
academy as may hereafter be established by law in the town of 
Beaver." ' This was accordingly done by laying oflE the land 
on the southwest side of the town plot, embracing all that piece 
running southwesterly down and by the Ohio River to the end 
of the beautiful plain below Beaver.' By the Act of February 

*■ The patent for this gnnt is recorded in Patent Book P, volume 48. page 516, in the 
Department of Internal Affairs, Harrisburs. Pa. Therein the land granted is designated 
as "a certain Tract of Land called 'GrOOD Intent' situate in the Borough of Beaver, in 
Beaver County." 

' See map of Academy lots in Appendix VII. 

History of Beaver County 637 

ai, 1803,' four trustees, viz., John Lawrence, Gruion Greer, James 
Alexander, and Samuel Johnston, were appointed in addition 
to those who had been named tmder the Act of 1800 to take 
charge of the land granted under the latter Act for an academy, 
and they were authorized to erect a suitable building on one of the 
reserved squares in the town of Beaver for the use of an academy. 

June 14, 1806, five of the trustees, viz., Joseph Hemphill, 
John Lawrence, James Alexander, Guion Greer, and Samuel 
Johnston, met and adopted two resolutions: (i) That two htm- 
dred and fifty acres be laid oflE the west side of the academy 
lands, in accordance with the Act of March 21, 1805, and that 
Joseph Hemphill survey the same; (2) that the sales should 
begin the last Monday of July following. 

August 24, 1806, Joseph Hemphill, Jonathan Coulter, Guion 
Greer, James Alexander, Samuel Johnston, and John Lawrence, 
trustees, appeared before William Clarke, J. P., and presented a 
plot of the lands of the academy disposed of at this sale, contain- 
ing thirty-five lots aggregating 248 acres and loi perches. The 
remaining part of the five-himdred-acre tract was not sold until 
May 18, 1832, and the aggregate sales then amounted to $3692.75. 
David Minis bought at this sale eight lots at $io per acre, amount- 
ing to $769.75.' This property is now known as Groveland. 

Steps were taken toward the erection of an academy build- 
ing on the 7th of March, 181 2. At that date the trustees con- 
tracted with Jonathan Mendenhall as principal, and William 
Smith, Samuel Eakin, John R. Shannon, Esq., and Jacob Small 
as sureties, to have made and delivered 140,000 brick at $4.50 
per thousand: total, $630. 

On the 20th of July of the same year, a contract was made 
with Persifor Taylor for the carpenter work for $350, and on the 
27th with Jonathan Coulter for the stone and brick work for 
$498, grand total, $1478. 

On February 25, 1813,3 an Act of Assembly was approved 
by Governor Simon Snyder, entitled **An Act establishing an 
academy in the borough of Beaver, in the county of Beaver." 
Section i of this Act gave legal existence to this institution, as 
** an academy or school for the education of youth in the useful 
arts, sciences, and literature, by the name and style of *The 
Beaver Academy.* " 

" p. L.. 1802, 120. • See Appendix VII. • P. L., gi. 

638 History of Beaver County 

Section 2 provided that the first trustees shotild ** consist of 
James Allison, Jr., Robert Moore, Samuel Lawrence. Samuel 
Power, James Lyon, and James Dennis, in addition to Jonathan 
Coulter, Joseph Hemphill, James Alexander, Guion Greer, and 
John Lawrence, who were appointed trustees over a certain 
tract of land granted by an Act of Assembly for said institution, 
which said trustees and their successors, to be elected as herein- 
after directed shall be, and hereby are declared to be one body 
corporate and politic, by the name and style of * The Trustees of 
Beaver Academy.*" 

Section 8 reads as follows : 

And be it ftirther enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the trustees 
are hereby authorized to appropriate one thousand dollars of the money 
which was raised by the sale of one moiety of the land, granted for the 
use of an academy or public school, in the town of Beaver, in addition 
to the thousand dollars heretofore appropriated, for the purpose of com- 
pleting the building already commenced, and the procuring of books and 
other necessary apparatus: and they shall have full power and authority 
to loan, or invest in some safe productive stock, all the residue of the 
money which has risen or hereafter shall arise, from the sale of the land 
aforesaid, and apply the proceeds thereof, with the rents, issues, and profits 
of that moiety of said tract which yet remains unsold tmtil the whole shall 
be disposed of, to the payment of the teacher, and other necessary expen- 
ditures in, and about, the institution, saving always the said residue or 
principal, after deducting the two thousand dollars aforesaid, for the sup- 
port of the said institution. 

It will be seen that the last section recognizes the steps 
already taken toward the starting of this institution, since it 
speaks of the completion of '*the building already commenced** 
But something, probably the disturbing influences of the War 
of 181 2, seems to have interrupted the work, since there is no 
record of anything further being accomplished until about two 
years later, when, on the 8th of February, 1815, a meeting of 
the trustees was held with Robert Moore in the chair, and Sam- 
uel Lawrence, secretary. At this meeting it was resolved: (i) 
That a school be opened in the academy, February 9, 1815, 
under the direction of David Johnson, for the purpose of teach- 
ing the Latin and Greek languages, English grammar, arith- 
metic, geography, etc. (2) That an English school also be 
opened in the schoolhouse, to be taught by an usher under the 
direction of David Johnson. At this meeting also Joseph Hemp- 


History of Beaver County 639 

hill, James Allison, Milo Adams, M.D., Joseph McFerran, and 
Thomas Henry were appointed to examine one James Stock- 
man as to his fitness to become such subordinate teacher; and 
the principal, David Johnson, was voted $600 per year for his 
own services and those of his assistant. 

On the 19th of January, 1844, the Academy was opened for 
the reception of female students, and about ten years later the 
school was divided, the boys reciting in the Academy building, 
and the girls in a building in another part of the town. 

The Academy building was erected on the middle lot of the 
southeast reserved center square, between the site of the old 
Presbyterian Church (on the west) and the present Methodist 
Episcopal Church (on the east). This building served its day, 
and sometime in the later fifties was abandoned for school pur- 
poses and was finally torn down. For a time the school was 
held in Ramsey's building, the house in which Lawrence's drug- 
store is now. 

January 28, 1858, on the recommendation of a committee 
consisting of M. T. Kennedy, J. H. Wilson, J. H. Dickson, J. A. 
McGilland, and J. Murray, the board bought for the use of the 
Academy the Porter House, now the Park View Hotel. In 
1863 this property was sold, and a two-story brick building was 
erected fronting on the public square in the southeast part of the 
town.' The cost of this building, including the price of the 
lot, was $2615.08. The superintendent of the work was David 
Ramsey. On the loth of December, 1867, a committee was 
appointed to take steps toward permanently closing the school, 
and, if deemed advisable, to sell the property; and nearly ten 
years later, viz., February 27, 1877, the property was sold at 
public auction to Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D., for $1800, and this, 
with the other funds of the institution, was turned over to the 
public-school fund, the whole sum being $6572.37. These and 
other funds are now in the hands of Hon. Henry Hill, sole 

The last building erected (in 1863), which in its turn soon 

> By an Act approved May 8, 1855, the trustees of the Beaver Academy were authorized 
"to take possession of and occupy the reserved lots or public square in the southeast 
corner of the borough of Beaver for the purpose of locating thereon and erecting new 
academy buildings. Providing that the same be done with the consent of the burgess and 
council of the said borough." (P. L. 517.) We are unable to ascertain at this late date 
why advantage of the provisions of this Act was not taken by the trustees of the Academy. 
Possibly it was because the consent of the borotigh officials was not obtained. 

640 History of Beaver County 

came to be known as the *'old Academy building," stood until 
the year 1900, when it was demolished. For nearly twenty-five 
years it had been tmused for school purposes. After the closing 
of the school the doors were nailed up and the shutters barred. 
All the maps, globes, and other apparatus passed with the title 
of the property, and were stored away in the lower rooms, the 
hope being that the school could sometime be resuscitated. This, 
however, was never accomplished. The place became a popular 
resort for adventurous boys, who turned the rooms into a play- 
house, and destroyed or carried oflE the apparatus. For a brief 
period it was occupied by an athletic club, and later by a private 
military company known as the Beaver Cadets, John Thomas 
McMahon, captain, who used the chapel as a drill hall, and this 
was the last legitimate use to which it was put. 

The following is a list of the oflScers and instructors in the 
Academy, as complete as we are able to make at this late day: 

Presidents of the board of trustees: Robert Moore, 181 5-' 32; James 
Allison, i832-'35; Rev. William Maclean, i835-'36; Daniel Agnew, 
x84i-*43, i85o-'52; Oliver Cunningham, M.D., 1843-50; Rev. Isaac M. 
Cook, i852-*54; Thomas Ctmningham, Esq., 18 54-^5 7; Smith Ctmning- 
ham, M.D., 1857-61; Rev. D. A. Ctmningham, 1861-64: Rev. D. H. A. 
McLean, i864-*67; Rev. D. L. Dempsey, D.D., 1867-69; 1879; Dr. 
John Murray, 18 69-' 70; Rev. D. P. Lowary, i87o-'75; Samuel Moore- 
head, 1875-77; Rev. D. J. Satterfield, i877-'79. 

Secretaries: Samuel Lawrence, 181 5-^3 2; William Allison, i832-'33; 
James Logan, i833-'35, 1843-45; Robert Darragh, 1835-36; John 
Pugh, i836-*38; William McCallister, 1838-39, 1840-43; David Minis, 
x839-'4o; Hiram Stowe, 184 5-'49; B. C. Critchlow, 1 849-^5 2; Benjamin 
Wilde, i852-*54; Thomas J. Power, i854-'57; Dr. J. Murray, i857-'6o; 
John B. Yotmg, Esq., i86o-*63; Henry Hice, Esq., 1863-67; J. C. Wil- 
son, i867-'68; John Barclay, i868-*7o; (vacancy from 1870 to 1875); 
J. R. Harrah, Esq., 1875-77; D. Singleton, 1877-79. 

Instructors: David Johnson took charge Feb. 9, 18 15, and taught 
several years. He was greatly venerated by many eminent men as the 
efficient and faithful instructor who had enabled them to lay broad and 
deep the fotmdations of their knowledge and character. Miss Helen 
Catlett, as elsewhere mentioned, was a sucessful teacher in this institu- 
tion from 1826 to 1827; Louis B. Williams, a distingtiished scholar and 
teacher, served i834-*38; Rev. A. O. Patterson, of great excellence also. 
was principal in 1838; Rev. Lemuel G. Olmstead, a scholar and author, 
was teacher 1837-38. From 1839 to 1841 A. C. McClelland was prin- 
cipal, and Rev. Nathaniel Todd from 1841 to 1843. S. L. Coulter was 
principal from April i, 1843, until 1850. 

January 19, 1844, the institution became co-educational. T. M. 

History of Beaver County 641 

Hin was employed as assistant teacher. William Y. Brown was prin- 
cipal, and W. W. Laverty his assistant, i85o-'5i; and January 8, 1852, 
Samuel Jones became principal with P. L. Grim, assistant. Nov. 17, 
1852, Mr. Jones resigned to accept a professorship in Jefferson (later 
Washington and Jefferson) College, where he was long a beloved and 
highly successful teacher. His successor in the prindpalship of the 
Academy was Rev. Isaac M. Cook, whose assistants were James Huston, 
Rev. Charles B. Maclay, and Miss Juliet £. Cook. Mr. Cook died in 2853, 
and Rev. J. A. McGill was chosen his successor, serving from 1854 to 
1858. His assistants at different periods were Mrs. J. B. McGill, Na- 
thaniel McCormack, Miss Ellen Gillis, Miss M. E. Elliott, J. L. Bitner, Miss 
Margaret Wamock, A. M. Wilson, Miss Margaret Ledlie, Matthew Duff, 
Miss E. Moon, J. M. Smith, Miss M. J. Haft, Miss E. C. Moore, Miss Jennie 
Matcer, Miss Bella C. Fry, Miss Maria 'Scott, Mrs. N. O. Van Emon, and 
Madame P. Zwerger. In 1858 C. W. Mateer was principal, his stu^cessor 
from that year until 1864 being Simon B. Mercer. Prof. S. H. Peirsol was 
assistant in 1862. In 1864, Rev. D. H. A. McLean and Rev. D. P. Lowary 
were appointed associate principals. January 26, 1865, Frank H. Agnew 
was chosen principal and M. Gantz, associate. In August of the same year 
Mr. Agnew resigned, and his associate, Mr. Gantz, was chosen to succeed 
him. For the five years following July, 1866, Rev. R. T. Taylor was in 
charge of the institution. Nov. 27,1 868, a contract for one year was made 
with Rev. J. W. Martin, but at the end of six months the contract was 
annulled. The last principal was the Rev. John W. Scott, D.D., LL.D., 
who was elected Feb. 6, 1870, but remained only six months. He was an 
eminent educator and had previously been president of Washington 

In the catalogue of 1860-61, the name of J. R. Miller is given as 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Principal of the English Depart- 
ment of the Academy and Teacher of Phonography in the Seminary. 
This is the eminent Presbyterian minister of Philadelphia, well known 
as a writer of many religious works. 

The Female Seminary of Beaver Academy. — In the summer 
of 1854, Rev. J. A. McGill, pastor of 'Tour-Mile Square" 
United Presbyterian Church, having been elected principal of the 
Beaver Academy, removed to Beaver and took charge of that 
institution. At this time the school was divided ; the male stu- 
dents assembled and recited in the Academy building, and apart- 
ments were rented in a two-story frame house in another part 
of the town to accommodate the female students. It soon be- 
came apparent that more commodious buildings were needed to 
supply the demand of both departments, and accordingly the 
principal, by the advice of his friends and of the friends of the 
institution, purchased the property of R. B. Barker, M.D., a two- 
story brick building with spacious grotmds situated on Third 

642 History of Beaver County 

Street, which building he enlarged to 100 by 60 feet, with three 
stories, containing a chapel, class-rooms, and bed rooms, afford- 
ing accommodations for twenty or more boarders. This is the 
present Beaver House, comer of Third and Beaver streets. 
About the same time, as previously stated, the trustees of the 
Academy bought from the heirs of Major David Porter the 
three-story hotel property on the southwest comer of Third and 
Commerce streets, affording accommodations for school and 
boarding purposes. Under the principalship of Mr. McGill the 
Seminary greatly prospered, when, owing to the failure of his 
wife's health, who had been his efficient assistant in the work, 
he was compelled to resign in June, 1861. During his principal- 
ship of the Academy and Seminary, Mr. McGill, besides teach- 
ing for some years the higher branches in the Academy and 
superintending the interests of both departments, preached for 
a time in the court-house, and afterwards in the Seminary Hall, 
and eventually organized the United Presbyterian Church of 
Beaver, whose first house of worship, a brick building, was 
erected during his pastorate. On his removal from Beaver Mr. 
McGill became pastor of East nth Street United Presbyterian 
Church, New York City, which he served for some years. At 
seventy-nine years of age he resides in New Wilmington, Pa., 
and still occasionally preaches as a supply.' 

In October of the year in which Mr. McGilFs connection with 
the Seminary ceased (1861), the control of the institution seems 
to have passed to Rev. W. W. Laverty. Of his successors we 
can find no record, except that mention is made by former 

^ It U difficult to get definite information about this institution. Several residents of 
Beaver affirm that it was under the auspices of the United Presbjrterian Church during 
the greater part of its existence, having no real connection with Beaver Academy imless, 
I>erhaps, at the start. But the accotint of it given above, the data for which we obtained 
from Mr. McGill himself, seems to be supported by the official catalogues of the Academy. 
Three of these are before us. The first is for 1857, and the title-page reads. Catalogue of 
the Officers and Students of Beaver Academy, a classical and commercial school, and Seminary 
for Young Ladies. The principal for both the Academy and the Seminary is therein 
named as Rev. J. A. McGill. A.M. The title-x>age of the catalogue for 1857-8 is the same, 
and that of the Seminary in the same catalogue reads. Catalogue of the Female Seminary 
of Beaver Academy. In the catalogue of that year C. W. Mateer, A.B., is named as the prind- 
Iial of the Academy and Rev. J. A. McGill as the principal of the Seminary. The catalogue 
for the academic year x 860-6 x is the same, except that S. B. Mercer is named as the prin- 
cipal of the Academy. 

As further showing a very close coimection of the Seminary with the Academy we 
quote the following, which is contained in all of these catalogues: 

'* Pbmalb Seminary. — ^This department is under the same general supervision as the 
other [the Academyl thus sectuing to it all the advantages arising from the Endowment 
and the possession of extensive apparatus, and a fine Library. . . ." 

Rev. K. T. Taylor. D.I). 


History of Beaver County 643 

pupils of the school of one principal named M. E. Scheibner, 
and of Rev. Thomas Kennedy, who was in charge when, in 
1876-77, the institution closed its career. With the ending of 
the Academy — about 1867 or 1868 — the Seminary had become 

Beaver College and Musical Institute has an honored history 
of over half a century. It was chartered December 28, 1853, 
as the "Beaver Female Seminary," under "the auspices and 
patronage of the Pittsburg Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Chiirch of the United States." The charter members 
were: Rev. Joshua Monroe, R. P. Roberts, Esq., Rev. J. Keiss 
Miller, Hiram Stowe, Benjamin Adams, William Henry, John 
Barclay, David Minis, J. J. Anderson, William Barnes, John 
Allison, Rev. William G. Taylor, D.D., William Anderson, 
John West, and L. Whitsell. 

The first board of trustees consisted of Rev. Joshua Monroe, 
R. P. Roberts, Esq., Hiram Stowe, Esq., Rev. William G. Tay- 
lor, D.D., John Murray, Hugh Anderson, Benjamin Adams, 
George W. Allison, and David Minis. 

Among those actively instrumental in establishing this in- 
stitution were Bishop Matthew Simpson and Rev. D. L. Demp- 
sey, D.D. 

About 189 s ^^® buildings of the college were destroyed by 
fire, but the work of rebuilding was at once begun and on a 
larger and more modem plan. The faculty now numbers six- 
teen experienced teachers. The departments of instruction are 
literary, including four courses, classical, scientific, Latin, and 
modem languages, each covering four years of study and lead- 
ing to a degree. In music there are three complete courses, 
piano, pipe organ, and voice. There are also art and commercial 

The first president of the college was Rev. Sheridan Baker. 
On his retirement at the end of a year and a half, his place was 
taken by Professor Samuel Davenport, who held it for about 
the same length of time. He was followed by Rev. R. T. Taylor, 
D.D., who served until 1894, a period of continuous service of 
thirty-five years. Prof. J. A. Alexander, A.M., served from 
1894 to 1896; Rev. N. H. Holmes, D.D., from 1896 to 1898; 
and Rev. Arthur Staples, A.M., B.D., is now at its head. 

644 History of Beaver County 


The public-school system of Beaver was organized soon after 
the free-school legislation was passed in 1834. In 1835 the 
Beaver school district was formed, including Beaver, Vanport, 
Bridgewater, and Sharon, and a board of directors elected. Two 
one-story buildings were erected in 1838, which, in 1861, were 
replaced by the present large brick structure. The public 
schools now have a well-graded course of eight years, including 
all the common branches, and the High School gives a course in 
Latin, Greek, German, and English, preparing students for ad- 
mission to the freshman class of the colleges. 


The Presbyterian Church. — The remark made concerning the 
organization of several of the oldest churches of this denomina- 
tion in Beaver County, viz., that there was probably never any 
formal organization by Presbyterial conmiittee made, is doubt- 
less applicable to the church in the county-seat. There is no 
record of any organization, but there must have* been a con- 
gregation there for some time previous to the year 1799, for in 
the minutes of the Presbytery of Redstone under date of October 
15th of that year occurs the following entry, " The Congregation 
of Beaver Creek applied for Mr. Gwin to be appointed there as a 
stated supply the next winter,'* and the nndnutes of the following 
day say that Mr. Gwin was appointed to ** supply Beaver until 
the next meeting of Presbytery.'** Still earlier mention is 
found. After the erection of the Presbytery of Ohio in 1793 
mention is early made of ** supplication for supplies " coming 
from Mcintosh,*!.^., Beaver, and in 1796 Revs. John McMillan 
and Thomas Marquis were appointed by that Presbytery to visit 
the region north of the Ohio. They doubtless foimd Presbyterian 
people there, and it may be organized them into chtirches. In 
the records of the Presbytery of Hartford, to which the territory 
in which Beaver is situated belonged from 1808, is a minute of 
the appointment on April 12, 1809, of the Rev. William Mathews 
to preach one day at Beavertown; and on September 12th of 
the same year the Rev. Mr. Sample was appointed to preach 

* Sec Minutes of the Presbytery oj Redsttme^ Cincinnati, Elm Street Printing Comi)any, 
1*78, pp. 150, 152. 

* See History of the Presbytery of Washington, Philadelphi*. 1889. p. xx. 






•• •"• • • 
• • • • • 


History of Beaver County 645 

on the fourth Sabbath of September, and the Rev. M. Barr on 
the second Sabbath of November. At a meeting of this 
Presbytery held in Newton, Ohio, April 13, 1813, leave was 
asked by the congregations of Beavertown and New Salem to 
present calls to the Presbjrtery of Ohio, for the services of Ezekiel 
Glasgow, a licentiate of that body. The request was granted at 
the Jtme meeting, the calls were accepted, and, on August 31, 
1813, he was formally installed at the Beaver church, being its 
first regular pastor. Rev. Nathan B. Derrow preached the ser- 
mon; Rev. Thomas E. Hughes presided and gave the charge. 

There was as yet no chtirch btiilding; the services were held 
in some grove, and after the completion of the court-house in 
18 10, that building was used both by the Presbyterians and 
other denominations of the town as a place of worship. 

The pastorate of Mr. Glasgow was short. From the records of 
Presbjrtery, October 8, 1814, we learn **that Presbytery was in- 
formed that the Rev. Ezekiel Glasgow was removed by death 
on the 23d of April last." He was the first person buried in the 
old graveyard at Beaver, and his grave receives religious care 
from the congregation to this day. 

The first existing sessional record of this church is dated 
1823, and begins with these words: '*The Rev. William Maclean 
undertook the pastoral charge of this church and congregation 
on the first Sabbath of May, 1823." Then follows a list of 
thirty-eight persons, members of the church. The first minutes 
of the session are dated June 14, 1823. The ruling elders at this 
time were James Jackson, Andrew Jackson, David Johnson, and 
William Anderson; and the additional names of John Clark, 
D. Eakin, and Thomas Henry soon after appear on the records. 
April I, 183 1, the ntunber of communicants was 213. 

In 1832 the Presbytery of Beaver was formed and included 
the Beaver church within its bounds. January 12, 1836, Mr. 
Maclean requested Presbytery to release him from the charge of 
the Beaver church on account of severe and protracted illness, 
and the request was granted. During this pastorate the first 
house of worship was erected, probably about 1825, for the 
grant of ground on the public square for this purpose had been 
made by Act of the Legislatiire, March 29, 1824.' The walls of 
this first building stood, as part of the several times remodeled 

» p. L.. 1824. 487. 

646 History of Beaver County 

structtire, until the present imposing building on Elk Street was 

Rev. A. O. Patterson was pastor from May, 1836, until June, 
1839. During this time the whole number of additions to the 
chiirch was seventy-six. In 1837 David Johnson, first protho- 
notary of Beaver County, and one of the first ruling elders of 
the church, finally passed away, having been for several years 
previous too infirm to meet more than occasionally with the 
session. After Mr. Patterson's resignation the pulpit was vacant 
for a longer period than usual, there being only occasional sup- 
plies by Revs. D. X. Jtmkin, James Satterfield, and others, from 
June, 1839, to November, 1840. About the latter date, Rev. A, B. 
Quay, father of the late Senator Matthew Stanley Quay, assumed 
the pastoral charge, which he faithfully performed, with the 
exception of an interval of three months in the early part of 1842, 
when he was acting as agent for the General Assembly's Board 
of Education, tmtil February, 1842. In that year he resigned 
to accept an appointment from the Board of Foreign Missions 
as their agent. This position he held for one year, when he 
accepted a call to the church of Indiana, Pa., where he remained 
as pastor until 1849, after which he became the agent of the 
Pennsylvania Colonization Society. He died in Beaver in 1856, 
and his remains, with those of his wife, repose in its beautiful 
cemetery. For about three years and a half after the close of 
Mr. Quay's pastorate, the church of Beaver was without a 
settled pastor. This was a period of storm and stress in the 
life of the church. Two candidates had been brought before 
the church, Rev. John M. Lowrie and Rev. Isaac M. Cook. The 
session and congregation divided on the merits of these two 
men, and the controversy, after dragging out its weary length 
in the church and in the Presbytery, ended in the division of the 
congregation, four elders and eighty-one members being dis- 
missed, January 23, 1845, ^^ unite with a congregation about to 
be organized, by consent of the Presbytery, in Bridgewater. 
The retiring elders were James Jackson, John Carothers, David 
Bakin, and John Alcorn. 

On the roll of Beaver church, March 22, 1845, there are 
recorded sixty-nine names. There were two elders, of whom 
Thomas Henry was probably one. The roll of session, dated 
September 14, 1845, shows Rev. B. C. Critchlow, moderator; 


The First Presbyterian Church, Beaver. 

History of Beaver County 647 

and Grier McWilliams and Joshua Logan, elders. Mr. Critch- 
low had accepted a call to Beaver for one half his time, the other 
half being given to the church then lately organized in New 
Brighton. In a short time the session had been reduced to one 
elder, with the pastor, Thomas Henry having died July 20, 1849. 
In the minutes of May, 1851, the names of Joseph Moorhead and 
John D. Stokes appear as elders. April 5, 1852, Mr. Critchlow 
resigned to give his whole time to New Brighton. 

From May, 1853, to September, 1856, Rev. W. G. Taylor 
was pastor. During this period the number of communicants 
increased from forty-one to sixty-one, and (1854) the church 
was transferred from the Presbytery of Beaver to that of Alle- 

From 1856 tmtil 1859 the pulpit was vacant, having occa- 
sional suppUes. In March of the latter year. Rev. J. F. Mc- 
Laren, D.D.,* became stated supply, preaching every alternate 
Sunday. Dr. McLaren left about the 7th of May, 1862. On 
the 7th of September of the same year. Rev. David P. Lowary 
began the work of supply, and on September 15, 1863, was in- 
stalled as pastor, which post he held with great success tmtil his 
death in 1873. During the eleven years of his pastorate there 
were added to the church 256 persons. 

From May 5, 1873, until his resignation on Jtme 28, 1885, 
Rev. D. J. Sattcrfield was pastor, and during this period there 
were 310 accessions to the membership. 

The next pastorate was that of Rev. John K. McKallip, who 
began his labors January i, 1887. Mr. McKallip continued 
with this church tmtil his resignation on December 30, 1894. 

During his pastorate the congregation entered on the work 
of building a church more suitable to its needs. The old struc- 
ture, the only house of worship in the history of the congrega- 
tion, had fallen into decay, and was besides too small for the 
growing congregation, and it was decided at a meeting of the 
people of the church, August 28, 1889, not to repair it. At 
another congregational meeting, September 4, 1889, it was 
unanimously decided to build a new church. John M. Buchanan, 
Esq., then submitted a written proposition offering to donate a 
btdlding site on the comer of Elk Street and Corporation Alley, 

> Father of Bishop W. B. McLaren, of the diocese of Chica^, and the father-in-law of 
Rev. Archibald Hodge. D.D., LL.D., of Allegheny and Princeton Theological Seminaries. 

648 History of Beaver County 

which was accepted. The trustees, by authority of the con- 
gregation, appointed the following building committee: Hon. 
Henry Hice, John M. Buchanan, Esq., Mr. A. T. Anderson, Mr. 
John A. Shillito, and Hon. Ira F. Mansfield. Mr. Edward J. 
Allison was elected treasurer of the building fund. The archi- 
tect selected was Mr. James P. Bailey of Pittsburg. On Febru- 
ary 14, 1890, the contract was let to Mr. Robert Hall of East 
Liverpool, Ohio, to erect the building at a cost of $42,895. 
Ground was broken, March 12, 1890, and the finished structure 
was dedicated January 31, 1892. The dedicatory sermon was 
preached in the morning by Rev. James D. Moffat, D.D., Presi- 
dent of Washington and Jefferson College, and a formal opening 
of the beautiful Sabbath-school apartments took place in the 
afternoon, and Rev. H. T. McClelland, D.D., of Pittsburg, made 
an address. 

The Sabbath-school of this church was organized shortly 
after the coming to the congregation as pastor of Rev. Ezekiel 
Glasgow, in 18 13. Its first superintendent was Hon. Thomas 
Henry, and its present one is John M. Buchanan, Esq. The 
little school received a severe blow, a few months after it started, 
by the death of Mr. Glasgow. 

During the pastorate of Mr. McKallip, he, with a faithful 
band of workers, began a work at Vanport, which resulted later 
in the organization of a Sabbath-school and church there. 

The present pastor, Rev. James Smith Ramsay, D.D., was 
installed December 6, 1896, the interval having been filled by 
supplies, principally by Rev. James D. Moffat, D.D. 

In addition to the usual societies, this church maintains a 
very successful Men's Club, for the promotion of mutual ac- 
quaintance and fellowship. It has a large membership, and 
meets twice a month. After an address by some one selected 
for the occasion, in the lecture room, the members adjourn to 
the dining hall of the church, where a lunch is served and an 
hour spent in post-prandial talks. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church.* — ^We have already given 
some data concerning the early history of this church in the 
chapter on the religious history of the county, and need not 
repeat it here. We spoke there of the first steps towards the 

* For the foflowing sketch we have used part of the Historical Sketch of Methodism 
in Beaver, by Rev. Appleton Bash, Ph.D. 




History of Beaver County 649 

formation of a Methodist church being made by Elder Swazey 
and others in the organization of a class which met in Coulter's 
tavern. Members of this little band were such faithful ones as 
Mrs. Robert Moore, Mrs. Catherine Gibbs, Mrs. Mary Somers, 
William Adams, Benjamin Adams, Dr. Milo Adams, Robert 
Darragh, Joseph Vera, John T. Miller, George Hinds, the family 
of James Lyon, and others. 

The grant of land on the public square for the use of the 
church has been alluded to. This was by Act of Assembly, 
passed April 10, 1826,' and it was provided by this Act that 
*• Benjamin Adams, Robert Darragh, Milo Adams, Joseph Vera, 
and John T. Miller, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in the Borough of Beaver, in the County of Beaver, or a majority 
of them, or their successors in office, be and they are hereby 
authorized and empowered to erect a church, or house of wor- 
ship, on the southeast section of the public square, in the town 
of Beaver, between the Academy and the southeastern boundary 
of said public square, and to enclose a yard not exceeding one- 
fourth of an acre.*' The church was begun in 1829 and finished 
in 1830. The records of the dedicatory services of this first 
church have vanished in the mists of the past. From some old 
subscription papers, however, the following facts were gleaned: 
Robert Darragh was sent to Washington, Pa., and Pittsburg to 
solicit aid, and returned with about $400. The largest single 
subscription was $75, made by Robert Darragh himself. It is 
of interest to know that Frederick Rapp, of the Harmony Society, 
contributed $25 to the building of this early church. A small 
debt remained upon the church for about ten years, when the 
balance, $85, was paid by H. Stowe and Robert Darragh. 
The structure was a one-story frame building with but one room. 
Frequently two classes met at the same hour on opposite sides 
of the room. The choir was placed in the rear of the congrega- 
tion beside one of the front doors. 

Among the men who preached the gospel in this old church 
between 1830 and 1870 were some of the giants of the Pittsburg 
Conference. The close of the war found J. S. Bracken pastor, 
1866-67, and he began the agitation for a new church. During 
the pastorate of Jas. Hollingshead, 1868-69, the old church was 
torn down, and the congregation began the erection of the 

^ p. L.. x8a6. p. 359 

650 History of Beaver County 

present chtirch building. During this period services were 
held in the coiirt-house. Much of the material and furnishings 
of the old church were used in the erection and furnishing of 
Dravo Chapel in Vanport, which was built at this time, and in 
which for more than thirty years the Hon. John F. Dravo, a 
local elder, has faithfully preached the gospel. In the spring 
of 1870 Wm. H. Locke was appointed to the Beaver church, 
and on His arrival found the lecture room almost completed. 
On June 19, 1870, the completed part of the church was dedi- 
cated to the worship of God. C. A. Holmes preached in the 
morning from Heb. xi., 4, and in the evening S. H. Nesbit, then 
editor of the Pittsburg Christian Advocate, preached from Ps. 
xi., 8. A collection amounting to $2400 was taken, and the con- 
gregation continued to worship in the lecture room for two 
years. The church was finally completed, and on June 30, 1872, 
the auditorium was dedicated by Bishop Simpson, who preached 
in the morning, and in the evening Rev. John P. Newman, D.D., 
afterwards elected a bishop, but at that time chaplain of the 
U. S. Senate, preached. At the morning service $6800 was 
secured, and in the evening an additional $300, making a total 
contribution of $7100 for the day. Though the entire amount 
necessary to build the church was subscribed, some failed to pay 
by reason of business reverses, and others on the ground that 
the subscription was taken on Sunday and therefore not legal (?), 
hence the indebtedness was not disposed of tmtil 1880, when the 
ladies finally cleared the debt by a loan exhibition which lasted 
almost a month. This exhibition netted the church about $1300. 
The ladies of the congregation also provided the funds for the 
purchase of a bell, which was rung for the first time on Decem- 
ber 14, 1870. This was the first church bell ever heard in Beaver. 

On the first Stmday in December, 1895, ^^® church was par- 
tially destroyed by fire. The loss was fully covered by insur- 
ance, and the church repaired and remodeled as now seen, at a 
cost of $2431.64. During the summer of 1901 the steeple, 
which had been damaged by a storm, was removed. 

Sometime prior to 1866 John Shiveley entered into an agree- 
ment with the church by which it would secure possession of a 
brick house on Fourth Street, next to where Mrs. Mary Anderson 
now lives, for a parsonage. The congregation for some reason 
failed to pay for it, and on August 22, 1866, he resumed possession 

1. First Methodist Episcopal Church, 

2. Elk Street, Looking South from Third 
Street, Beaver. 

•!;•• : : 

History of Beaver County 651 

and deeded to the congregation the lot on the comer of Second 
and Insurance streets. A six-room frame building was immedi- 
ately erected, mostly by contributions of labor and material, under 
the superintendence of I. N. Atkins, and occupied by the pastors 
until 1889, when during the pastorate of A. L. Petty a four-room 
addition was built. In January, 1900, the society was incor- 
porated and the parsonage lot deeded to the corporation. The 
old parsonage was removed in the spring of 1900. Under the 
direction of the pastor, Appleton Bash, who was made super- 
intendent of the building, aided by a building conmiittee, com- 
posed of A. S. Moore, Homer Hartley, Mrs. Wm. Galey, Mrs. 
John Dravo, and Mrs. S. M. Wallace, the present handsome 
and commodious parsonage was erected at a cost of $6200. 
Owing to the fact that on January 14, 1900, the congregation 
had subscribed $6270 towards the debt of Beaver College, 
which was afterwards increased by a gift of $5000 from John 
and Wesley Snyder, no effort was made to pay for the parsonage 
at the time of building. Nevertheless during its erection, with- 
out special effort, $2784 was paid on the parsonage and the 
improvements on the church. On April 6, 1902, the entire in- 
debtedness was provided for by subscription and a small bequest 
from the Dempsey estate. This success was made possible by 
the generous offer of John and Wesley Snyder to give $1000 if 
the entire amount was raised. The pastor announced at this 
time that the late ex-Chief Justice Daniel Agnew, who had given 
the first $500 towards the erection of the new parsonage, had 
given $5000 towards the creation of a fund for the building of a 
new church, and now (1904) the congregation is erecting on the 
southwest comer of Elk Street and Turnpike Alley a beautiftd 
structure which it is estimated will cost $60,000. 

Following is a list of the appointments for the First M. E. 
Church of Beaver: 

1825, C. Cooke; 1826, D. Sharp; 1827, A. Bninson; 1828, J. Holt; 
1829, G. S. Holmes; 1830, W. C. Henderson; i83i-'32, G. S. Holmes; 
1833, J. Monroe and W. Hunter; 1834, J. Monroe; i835-*36, N. Cal- 
lender; 1837, Z. H. Coston and J. Ray; 1838, A. Jackson and J. Knox; 
1839, W. Stevens and A. Jackson; 1840, W. Stevens; i84i-'4a» 1^« R* 
Hawkins; 1843, J. Monroe and W. Long; 1844, J. M. Bray and W. 
Stevens; i845-*46, D. L. Dempsey; 1847, E. G. Nicholson; 1848, J. T. 
W. Auld; i849-*5o, H. Crec; 1851, G. S. Holmes; 1852, J. Dillon; 1853, 
J. Gibson; 1854, T. McCleaiy; 1855, T. McCleary and J. K. Miller; 

652 History of Beaver County 

1856, S. Baker; 1857, J. K. Miller (supply); 1858, S. M. Hickman; 1859, 
M. L. Weekly; i860, T. Davidson; 1861, H. M. McAbee; 1862, H. W. 
Baker; 1863-64-65, S. Burt; i866-'67. J. S. Bracken; 1868-69, 
James Hollingshead; i87o-'7i- 7a, W. H. Locke; 1873-74-75, W. Lynch; 
1876 (spring conference), Hiram Miller; 1876 (fall conference), Hiram 
Miller; 1877. Hiram MUler; i878-'79-'8o, L A. Pearce; 1881-82-83, 
R. B. Mansell; 1884-85-86, W. B. Watkins; i887-'88- 89, A. L. Petty; 
i89o-'9i-'92-'93, E. J. Knox; i894-*95, C. A. Holmes; 1896, C. A. 
Holmes, M. C. Hartzell; 1 897-^98, M. A. Rigg; and the present pastor, 
Appleton Bash, from 1899 tmtil 1904. 

The United Presbyterian Church. — This church was organ- 
ized August I, 1853, through the efforts of Rev. John A. McGill, 
who for five years was its stated supply. On the loth of June, 
1868, a charter for the church was secured, on application of the 
following persons: J. C. Wilson, James Crawford, W. Myers, 
T. Smith Stokes, D. L. Imbrie, A. M. Mahan, James Ramsey, 
William Wallace, R. S. Imbrie, E. M. Thomas, and H. R. Her- 
ford. In 1 86 1 the present brick structure was erected at a cost 
of $3000, and in the summer of 1904 work was begun on a new 
church located on Commerce Street at the southwest comer of 
Mcintosh Square, to cost $25,000. 

The congregation has been served by the following pastors: 
Rev. J. A. McGill, 1853-60; Rev. D. H. A. McLean, 1861-68; 
Rev. J. C. Wilson, 1869-72; Rev. J. A. Wilson, 1872-76; Rev. 
J. D. Sands, 1876-80; Rev. W. A. Edie, 1880-87; Rev. W. S. 
Harper, August i, 1887-October 12, 1893; Rev. H. H. Craw- 
ford, August I, 1895-August I, 1900; Rev. W. H. Fulton, No- 
vember I, 1900-December I, 1 901; R. B. Miller the present 
pastor, August i, 1902. There are enrolled 203 members of the 
church and 126 Sabbath-school scholars. 

The First Christian Church of Beaver. — The first preaching 
in Beaver looking to the organization of a Christian Church in 
that place was by O. A. Richards, who was pastor of the 
Beaver Falls congregation. This was in the stmmier of 1896. 
Among the zealous workers who were determined to have an 
organization of this faith in Beaver was D. M. Llewellyn, of 
Vanport, Pa., who was at that time a member of the church at 
Beaver Falls. 

On July 28, 1897, R. W. Abberly, evangelist for the W. P. C. 
M. S., was secured to hold a meeting. A tent was pitched on 

History of Beaver County 653 

one of the public squares, and he, assisted by O. A. Richards 
and W. H. Hanna of Carnegie, began the work. The meetings 
were so successful that on August 31, 1897, a congregation was 
organized for the worship of God, according to the order and 
doctrine of the New Testament, as interpreted by this branch 
of the Church. A board of trustees was chosen, as were also 
two elders and three deacons, with a secretary and financial 

About the time of the organization of this congregation. Rev. 
V. J. Rose of Kansas was called by the W. P. C. M. S. to do 
evangelistic work in this field. He was given charge of the 
work at Beaver, beginning October i, 1897, but the climate not 
agreeing with his health he returned to Kansas after a few 
months. During Mr. Rose's pastorate, through the zealous 
work of the ladies, a lot was purchased at a cost of $1000 and 
paid for. 

Rev. J. K. Shallenberger of Minnesota was called as succes- 
sor to Mr. Rose and remained until November i, 1898. During 
his pastorate Rev. J. A. Irwin, now of Porto Rico, held an evan- 
gelistic meeting in conjunction with the pastor, which was so 
successful that it was decided to erect a tabernacle or temporary 
church building on the lot which had already been purchased. 

The contract was let and in less than two weeks the build- 
ing was completed. The building was 32 x 60 feet, with robing 
rooms and baptistry, lighted with gas and electricity and heated 
with gas. On December i, 1898, Z. E. Bates was called from 
the Shady Avenue Church of Allegheny, Pa. He was pastor of 
the church for one year and ten months. During his pastorate 
there were 52 accessions to the church, making a membership of 
140, with an enrollment of 150 in the Bible School, 50 in the 
Y. P. S. C. E., 27 Junior Y. P. S. C. E., a C. N. B. M. of 15 mem- 
bers, and a Ladies* Aid Society which has done effectual work. 

Z. E. Bates was succeeded by W. H. Fields of Bethany Col- 
lege, the present pastor, through whose labors one hundred 
members have been added to the church. A handsome new 
church building was erected by this congregation, on Iroquois 
Place at a cost of $21,000 which was dedicated May 10, 1903. 

The Roman Catholic Church. — ^The general history of the 
Roman Catholic church in the county given in the chapter on 

654 History of Beaver County 

"Religious History" is really a part of that of the local congre- 
gation in Beaver. Following the development of this religious 
body» as there related, steps were taken early in 1835 to build 
at the county-seat a Catholic chtirch. In the Western Argus of 
Beaver, upon several dates between September 16, 1835, ^^^ 
January, 1836, the following notice appeared: 

To the Catholics of Beaver County: Owing to the generosity of an 
enlightened and liberal Protestant. J. W. Hemphill, of Bridgewater, 
giving a lot of ground to build a CathoKc church in that vicinity, we, 
the undersigned, have offered a subscription and hope that the CathoUcs 
of Beaver County and elsewhere will not lose this favorable opportunity 
of providing a place for divine worship for themselves and their posterity, 
but will step forward and contribute as much as they can afford, so as to 
erect a convenient and respectable building for that purpose. We hope 
our Protestant fellow citizens will assist us in this charitable and Christian 

H. McGuiRB. 

M. O'Btrnb. 
September i6» 1S35. J. C. MuaPHY. 

In response to this appeal sufficient funds were furnished to 
build a small frame church about 24 x 40 feet, which was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Patrick Kendrick of Philadelphia (brother of 
Archbishop Francis Kendrick of St. Louis), and which, after 
over sixty years of continuous service, was destroyed by fire on 
the morning o^ April 4. i SqS. This church was popularly known 
as the ** Beaver church,'* though its proper name was the Church 
of St, Peter and St, Paul. This has been the mother church 
of all the other Catholic churches in the county. A new and 
substantial church of brick and stone, costing with the parson- 
age about $12,000, has taken the place of the one that was de- 
stroyed. The old structure was inseparably connected with the 
name and memory of Father James Reid, who for twenty years 
was its pastor. He died July 14, 1868, and was buried in the 
tittle graveyard of the church, but after the church was burned 
his body was removed to Daugherty*s cemetery.* 

^ Rrr. jKaw RaI wk bocs «s Cuxackaokzcift. Cooaty ^*^t*^* IxcSaad. m the 
!N«r iMjL. Oxsac to tb^ ccoBtry m xtiy. be ' 
«Md tt tbe aadBBDLT as Bctkc Mid in xS»j tateiiJ 

MoMkkj; x$^u. After Mr lit oa the : 

*«»4 ^ CQtcrtd the Sir il— «f Pwit-wii. m x9 

a t 



History of Beaver County 655 

After the death of Father Reid, the succession of pastors in 
the Beaver church was practically the same as at St. Cecilia's 
in Rochester until 1900, when Father Anthony Vogel assumed 
the care of the congregation, and it was separated from that of 
St. Cecilia's. For the names of these pastors and the dates of 
their service, we refer the reader to the history of the last-named 
church in the chapter on the borough of Rochester. Father 
Vogel left the charge in the spring of 1904. 


The banking facilities of Beaver have always been of the 
best. Before speaking of the more recent institutions we shall 
give the history of the first bank of Beaver, which possesses a 
peculiar interest, and which has fortunately been fully written 
by the careful pen of Major Thomas Henry of New Brighton. 
We are indebted to him for the following article on this subject: 

The Bank of Beaver was incorporated by Act of Assembly, March 21, 
1814, in connection with forty other banks throughout the State. For 
banking pttrposes the State was divided into 27 districts; Allegheny, 
Beaver and Butler counties constituted one of them, and three banks 
were incorporated in this district, to- wit: The Bank of Pittsburg, the 
Bank of Beaver and the Farmers and Mechanics Bank of Pittsburg; for 
this last bank the Act provided that the directors should be, by trade and 
occupation fanners and mechanics, actually employed in their respective 
trades and occupations, and when they ceased pursuing their respective 
callings they became ineligible as directors. All the banks tmder this 
Act were incorporated for a period of eleven years. 

The ntmiber of shares, of fifty dollars each, allotted to Beaver County 
was twenty-five hundred; that is, the capital stock of the Bank of Beaver 
could not exceed $125,000. but might be much less. The commissioners 
named in the act to receive subscriptions in Beaver Coimty were Jeremiah 
Barker, James Cochran, John Christmas, Evan Pugh, James Allison, 
James Lyon, Aaron Mendenhall. Robert Moore and William Clark. The 
subscribers were required to pay $5 at the time of subscribing and 
the remainder was to be paid to the cashier of the company as soon as 
the same should be organized and the officers chosen. James Allison was 
chosen president of the bank, and Samuel Lawrence appointed cashier. 
The directors were annually chosen by the stockholders, but no director 
was entitled to any emolument, imless allowed by the stockholders at a 
general meeting; which was to be held in November of every year, at 
which time the directors were required to lay before the stockholders a 
general and partictilar statement of the affairs of such company. The 
stockholders were to make such compensation to the president for his 
extraordinary attention at the bank as should appear reasonable. In other 

656 History of Beaver County 

words, the stockholders were the owners of the bank, and not, as in 
modem times, the directors whom they have created. In the case of 
Allison the salary was fixed at $50 per anntmi. The president was 
constituted one of the board of directors; and Gen. Robert Moore and 
Jos. Hemphill also served in that capacity, and perhaps a majority of 
the commissioners constituted the board. 

Discount on loans for 30 days was to be at the rate of one half per 
centxun; but loans to the amotmt of one fifth of the capital stock acttially 
paid in were authorized to be made to farmers, mechanics, and manu- 
facturers, in the district, for one year at 6 per cent., on sufficient security 
being given by bond, mortgage, note, or otherwise. The debt of the 
bank, whether by bill, bond, or other contract, except the money de- 
posited for safe keeping, was not to exceed double the amount of the 
capital paid in; and the State required the bank to pay into the State 
treasury 6 per cent, on the amotmt of the dividends annually declared, 
and in case the United States exempted the bank then 8 per cent, of the 
dividends was to be paid for the use of the Commonwealth. 

Among the original stockholders were James Allison, John Clark, 
Thos. Carter, Joseph Caldwell, Wm. Cairns, James, John, Charles and 
Robert Davidson, William Frazier, Alexander Gibbs, Joseph Hemphill, 
Thos. Jones, Andrew Johnston, Thomas Kennedy, James Logan, James 
Lyon, Jonathan Mendenhall, Evan Pugh, Robert and John Sho waiter, 
George Sutton and Robert and William Wilson. 

The exact time the bank opened for business is not known, but it 
closed its doors in 18 19; we all have a keener memory for the years of 
blight and mildew, than for those of abimdance and prosperity. Many 
of the stockholders, as well as some of the directors, paid for their stock 
in ** stock notes," and after the failure or suspension many declined to 
pay the amotmt due on such notes ; but the immediate cause of the sus- 
pension was owing to large loans made to individuals not citizens of the 
coimty. On March 17, i8i8, Detmar Basse Muller, of Bassenheim, 
Butler County, sold $632 acres for $70,000 to William Robinson, Jr., 
Daniel Beltzhover and John K. McNickle. At the time of this convey- 
ance there was due from Muller to John L. Glaser, and secured by judg- 
ments and mortgages the stmi of $30,211, which was assumed by the 
purchasers from Muller. This firm of iron manufacturers, residing in 
the banking district in which the Bank of Beaver was located, were 
entitled to borrow, and readily availed themselves of the privilege. Here 
the trouble of the bank began. The loan was made in the name of John 
K. McNickle, who soon after became insolvent and removed to Covington, 

A considerable portion of the indebtedness of Robinson and company 
was paid by transfers of stock of the bank, purchased by them of stock- 
holders after the failure of the bank. The inability of these persons to 
fully pay their liabilities, and the refusal of those who had given "stock 
notes" to pay the same, and other difficulties and embarrassments 
thrown in the way, long retarded a final close of the affairs of the institu- 
tion. This was not effected imtil 184a ; the note holders were paid, for 

History of Beaver County 657 

it was a bank of issue, and those stockholders who had given ** stock 
notes" received the full amount of the stock which they had respect- 
ively paid into the bank, together with the dividends remaining tmpaid. 
On the ist of February, 1842, there remained in the hands of the president, 
after deducting $1300, his salary for 36 years, $2958.44, as follows: 
one package of par paper, $2000; Wheeling bank paper, $500; Pitts- 
burg, $35; broken banks, $124; Ohio and Indiana, $299.44, besides a 
desk, a pair of shears, an iron chest and a pair of scales. 

Subsequently it was ascertained that John K. McNickle, who was still 
liable to the bank, on judgments held against him, had grown wealthy, 
and it was resolved to pursue him. For this ptirpose, on the 14th of 
April, 185 1, the Legislature passed an Act, reviving the charter of the 
Bank of Beaver, and named John Barclay, Hiram Stowe, Matthew 
Kennedy, William Henry and John Allison, trustees. After organizing, 
the trustees resolved to institute suit against John K. McNickle, and 
engaged E. J. Henry, Esq., an attorney of Cincinnati, to conduct the pro- 
ceedings and collect the money. It was a long drawn battle, but the 
McNickle heirs finally compromised by paying $9459. Of this amotmt 
Henry retained $3000 for his services, a nice, tidy fee for those da3rs. 
The balance, $6459, after papng the expenses of the trusteeship, was 
distributed to the original stockholders or their heirs. 

The Beaver Deposit Bank was organized in 1872. The 
original partners were Sam. B. Wilson, Joseph R. Harrah, 
Matthew S. Quay, David McKinney, Eben Allison, and Laura 
E. Harrah. The bank is now tinder the management of Cashier 
S. P. Stone, with Charles H. Stone as assistant cashier. 

The First National Bank was incorporated April i, 1888. The 
main room has an attractive plate-glass front, with safes and 
vaults. By its last statement this bank shows deposits of over 
$510,000, and has a surplus in excess of its capital of $100,000. 
Its officers are John M. Buchanan, Esq., President; Jefferson 
H. Wilson, M.D., Vice-President; Edward J. Allison, Cashier; 
Robert F. Patterson, Teller; directors: John M. Buchanan, 
Edward J. Allison, Jefferson H. Wilson, David A. Nelson, Alfred 
C. Hurst, John I. Martin, John T. Taylor, Samuel Moody, and 
Joseph L. Holmes. The First National Bank has paid a divi- 
dend of six per cent, per anntmi from the date of its organization, 
and for the past five years has paid twelve per cent, per annum, 
and at the same time has added to its surplus. 

The Beaver National Bank was chartered in 1896, and 
began business July ist of that year with a capital stock of 

658 History of Beaver County 

$100,000, its first board of directors being Jesse R. Leonard, 
Edward K. Hum, Ulysses S. Strouss, Thomas P. Galey, Joseph 
H. Evans, James Scroggs, Jr., and J. Prank Reed. Officers: 
Jesse R. Leonard, President; Edward K. Hum, Vice-President; 
Frederick Davidson, Cashier; and William P. Judd, Teller. In 
February, 1897, Mr. Reed was succeeded as a director by Win- 
field S. Moore, and Mr. Davidson as cashier by Charles M. 
Hughes, Mr. Judd being made assistant cashier. In January, 
1898, James Scroggs, Jr., retired from the board of directors, 
and Agnew Hice was elected to succeed him. From that time 
to July I, 1902, when the bank was merged with the Beaver 
Trust Company, there were no changes in officers or directors 
except that upon the death of Mr. Judd, July 15, 1901, Harry 
R. Ross was appointed to succeed him. 

The Beaver Trust Company was organized in April, 1902, 
and on July ist of that year absorbed the Beaver National Bank 
and began business with a paid-in capital stock of $300,000, the 
directors being Jesse R. Leonard, Edward K. Hum, Thomas F. 
Galey, Winfield S. Moore, Agnew Hice, Ulysses S. Strouss, 
Joseph H. Evans, John M. Buchanan, J. Rankin Martin, Wil- 
liam J. Mellon, Robert Ritchie, Lewis W. Reed, and Edwin S. 
Weyand. Officers: Jesse R. Leonard, President; Edward K. 
Hum, Vice-President; Ulysses S. Strouss, 2d Vice-President; 
Charles M. Hughes, Secretary and Treasurer; and Harry R. 
Ross, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer. Since the date of 
organization two changes have occurred in the board; John M. 
Buchanan and Edwin S. Weyand being succeeded by James 
Galey and Sturgeon E. Duff. The Trust Company owns its own 
banking building, situated on the north side of Third Street, 
bmlt of stone and thoroughly equipped with all modem appli- 
ances both for comfort and safety. 

The County Seat Building and Loan Association was oiigan- 
ized in 1892 with a capital of $1,000,000. Directors are G. C. 
Mcjunkin, A. G. White, J. H. Wilson, I. F. Mansfield, J. W. 
McKenzie, O. H. Mathews, R. E. Tallon, and E. W. Brown. 
The Moore Brothers are solicitors. The Association meets every 
Thursday from four to eight o'clock p.m. They have been a 
great factor in the improvement of the town and offer every 
inducement for patronage. 

History of Beaver County 659 

The Beaver Savings and Loan Association was organized 
November 26, 1894, and chartered on the 24th of December 
following, with a capital of $1,000,000. Its officers were as 
follows: A. T. Anderson, President; John M. Buchanan, Vice- 
President; Harry D. Anderson, Secretary; Edward J. Allison, 
Treastarer; Directors: A. T. Anderson, John M. Buchanan, 
L. S. Anderson, J. H. Shumaker, George Q. Wolf, Smith Cur- 
tis, Oliver Molter, Geoiige W. Mackall, and James Beal. David 
A. Nelson, Esq., is its solicitor. January i, 1904, the loans of 
this Association were $150,000. 


As frequently noted in this work, the State reserved from 
the Depreciation lands, which had been granted to the soldiers 
of the Revolutionary line, three thousand acres at the mouth 
of the Beaver, for her own use **to discharge the debts of the 
State and promote the progress of settlements, by establishing 
towns within the reservations." Within this reservation the 
Grovemor was authorized to lay out the town of Beaver and its 
out lots, and a minor reservation was made of four squares in 
the center of the town and a square at each of its comers. By 
the 4th section of the Act of March 14, 18 14,* the northwest 
comer square was appropriated as a burial-ground. The first 
btuial in this graveyard was of the body of Rev. Ezekiel Glas- 
gow, the first pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Beaver, in 
April, 1814. In the course of time this old burial-place had 
become so filled up, that the need of another site was made 
evident. The perception of this finally led to the organization 
of a corporation for the ptirpose of laying out a new cemetery. 
The first steps towards this end were taken in December, 1864, 
when a meeting was held in the office of the sheriff, with Hiram 
Stowe, Esq., Chairman, and Henry Hice, Esq., Secretary. 
Messrs. M. Darragh, George Hamilton, John Caughey, and Rev. 
D. P. Lowary were appointed a committee to recommend 
grotmds for a location for a new cemetery. At a subsequent 
meeting this committee reported, recommending the purchase 
of Academy lots Nos. 38 to 44 inclusive, lying immediately west 
of the borough limits and containing about twenty-six acres, 

» p. L.. lOQ. 

66o History of Beaver County 

at a ptirchase price of $5000. Their report was adopted and 
these lots were bought. At the March term of court, 1865, a 
charter of incorporation was granted, with a final decree, June 
loth. The following persons were named as incorporators: 

Samuel B. French, John May, D. M. Donehoo, Daniel Agnew, 
John Barclay, James Porter, I. N. Atkins, D. L. Imbrie, Thomas 
McCreery, William Davidson, Sr., Thomas Stokes, A. C. Hurst, 
James Darragh, George W. Hamilton, D. H. A. McLean, H. Hicc, 
N. I. McCormick, William Barclay, J. C. Wilson, Samuel B. 
Wilson, M. Darragh, Hugh Anderson, William Davidson, Jr., 
John Sharp, Hiram Stowe, Scudder H. Darragh, Robert Dar- 
ragh, John Murray, William Cox, Charles B. Hurst, David 
Minis, Samuel Ecoflf, Amelia Blake, William G. Wolf, James H. 
Dunlap, Thomas J. Davidson, Benjamin Adams, R. T. Taylor, 
William Henry,' Johnson Small, John V. McDonald, and James 

The first officers of this company were: Dr. John Murray, 
President; Henry Hice, Esq., Secretary; and George Hamilton, 
Treasurer. The name and style of this corporation is the 
Beaver Cemetery. The cemetery was dedicated with appropri- 
ate ceremonies, August 15, 1866.* 


St. James Lodge, No. 457, F. and A. M., was instituted in 
1870 by James Herdman of Pittsburg, Deputy Grand Master, 
with S. B. Wilson, Esq., S. B. French, George W. Hamilton, 
J. W. Hum, and J. Morton Hall as charter members. After 
many vicissitudes the lodge is now in good condition. 

* William Henry was acting as the executor and trustee for the estate of Richard P. 

' In this cemetery is btiried a British soldier who was one of the famous Six Himdred 
of the battle of Balaklava. He was known to the commtmity of Beaver as John Ubalto. 
but his true name was John Specht. Bom Feb. 17, 1831, at Heerda, Germany, Specht 
drifted to London, where he became an assistant in a photograph gallery. While there he 
met an Italian count, a political exile, with whose daughter he fell in love. The father and the 
daughter both favored his suit, but the father would not permit the marriage unless Specht 
would become a Catholic. This he refused to do. The relations between the parties, how- 
ever, continued to be amicable, and the old count gave Specht his signet ring and promised 
him that if at any time he reconsidered his refusal, and the estate in Italy should become 
free, he should have the girl and the property. Entering the British army, Specht fought 
in the Crimea, and after many wanderings in various lands, including some time spent in 
Germany, where he married one of his own coxmtrywomen, he came to America. He 
made many friends in Beaver, where he died Jan. a. 1883. 

History of Beaver County 661 

Occidental Lodge, No. 730, 1. O. O. P., was chartered August 
8, 1870, and organized on the 8th of the following month by D. 
Woodruff, D. D. G. M., and still flourishes. 

Beaver Post, No. 473, G. A. R., was oiganized March 19, 
1885. Its charter members were: Andrew G. White, Isaac 
Minor, Henry Edwards, John D. Irons, John McCullough. Moses 
B. Sloan, Samuel Hamilton, Henry £. Cook, Darius Singleton, 
EllioU W. McGinnis. John E. Harton, Thomas Clark, John 
Rising, Joseph W. Miller. James Crooks, James Fogg, George 
W. Johnson, Jacob Weyand. Samuel D. Swaney, Washington 
D. Tallon, Marcius C. Harton, Christie Craner, and James H. 

This post, though reduced by deaths, is still vigorously 


We cannot in every case give exact dates concerning the 
early inns and innkeepers of Beaver, but mention of the follow- 
ing is made. About 1838 there was a hotel called the American 
House, situated opposite the present site of the Buchanan block. 
Here was, thirty-five years earlier, the Clark Hotel, where the 
first Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace of Beaver Cotmty 
sat. This was also in 1807 the site of the house kept by Gen- 
eral Abner Lacock, mention of which is made by the early 
traveler, Cimiing, quoted in a preceding part of this chapter. 
On the comer where Lawrence's drug-store now stands was a 
store of which James Wilson was the proprietor: since Cuming 
calls this "one of the best houses in the place," it may have 
also been a hotel. Just opposite was, as we have seen, the hotel 
kept by Joseph Hemphill, one of the first trustees of the county. 
At a later period Samuel Todd kept a tavern on the comer 
where Lawrence's drug-store is. His successor was George 
Robinson, afterwards sheriff, father of Mrs. S. B. Wilson, widow 
of the well-known attorney. A very early tavern-keeper of 
Beaver was Samuel Johnston. On the lot on which stands the 
house of F. H. Laird, Esq., a place of public entertainment was 
kept by Eli Moore. John Hunter was his successor, and a 
number of others followed him. Stephen Todd kept a temper- 
ance house in the brick building on the comer of Third Street 
and Elk, until recently the home of Mrs. Judge Thomas 

VOL. II.— 4. 

662 History of Beaver County 

Cunningham. Reference has more than once been made also to 
the hotel kept by Jonathan Coulter on Second Street, on the 
middle lot between Elk Street and the alley east of Elk, called 
Branch Bank Alley. 

The present hotels of Beaver are the Beaver House, Mr. 
John H. Ewing, proprietor; and the Park View, formerly known 
as the National Hotel, which name it kept from the time the 
Beaver Academy was removed therefrom until about 1900. 


In the early references to the county-seat its name is often 
given as "Beavertown," or "Beaver Town," and the latter 
was the style by which it was known to the postal authorities 
until 1829, when it was changed to Beaver. Following is a list 
of the postmasters of the place from the beginning: 

James Alexander,' 1802; Joseph Hemphill, 1803; James 
Alexander. 1804; John C. Weiser, 1816; James Alexander, 
1818; Andrew Logan, 1832 (after April 24th); Charles Carter, 
1838; James Lyon, 1841; Elvira D. Carter, 1855; Miss Margaret 
J. Anderson, 1861; Mrs. S. J. McGaffick, 1866; Miss M. A. 
McGaffick, 1867; Mrs. Sophia C. Hayes, 1868; Miss M. A. Mc- 
Gaffick, 1869; Miss N. B. Imbrie, 1875; Mary E. Imbrie, 1883; 
Daniel M. Donehoo, 1887 ; A. G. White, 1891 ; L. W. Reed, Esq., 
189s; Michael Wey and, 1900. 

The population of Beaver borough for 1900 was 2348, show- 
ing an increase over 1890 of 796. 


On the 24th day of November, 1903, the council of the bor- 
ough of Beaver, at the suggestion of John M. Buchanan, Esq., 
passed a resolution naming the public squares within that bor- 
ough as follows: 

*■ James Alexander, the first postmaster, great-grand-uncle of W. B. Cuthbertson. Esq.. 
of New Brighton, came to Beaver County in 1792. He went to Carlisle. Pa., in 170s, 
where he married Lydia Davidson in that year and returned to Beaver Coimty immedi- 
ately after his marriage, for permanent settlement. He was one of the first cotmty com- 
missioners and held other county offices: was several times i>ostmaster. holding that otEux 
at the time of his death in 183a. He was a merchant and probably held the office of 
postmaster for accommodation and not for profit, as the business of the office was certainly 
not very lucrative at that time. In 1797 Alexander bought a farm on Brady's Rim. which 
he conveyed to his brother-in-law. William Beacom, in 1 830, in whose family it has t 

Public Squares and First Methodist Episcopal Church, Beaver. 

History of Beaver County 663 

The square upon which the court-house is located, being the 
northwest center reserved square, was called Gibson Square, in 
honor of Colonel, afterwards General, John Gibson, for a time 
commandant at Fort Mcintosh. 

The square upon the opposite side of Market Street there- 
from, and upon which the first court-house and jail were erected, 
— ^the northeast center square, — ^was called Harmar Square, after 
Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Harmar, also for a time commandant 
at Fort Mcintosh. 

The square upon the opposite side of Third Street from the 
square last named, and upon which were built the Presbyterian 
and Methodist Episcopal churches and the Beaver Academy, — 
the southeast center square, — was called Irvine Square, in honor 
of General William Irvine, who, in September, 1781, assumed 
conmiand of the Western Department, in which was included 
Fort Mcintosh. 

The remaining central square, being the one upon which is 
located the Soldiers' Monument (on the opposite side of Third 
Street from the square upon which stands the present court- 
house), was called Mcintosh Square, after General Lachlan 
Mcintosh, who, in 1778, bxiilt on the present site of Beaver the 
fort named from him Fort Mcintosh.* 

The four squares at the comers of the town plot were named 
as follows: 

The square at the southwestern comer, fronting on the Ohio 
River, was called Brodhead Square, after Colonel Daniel Brod- 
head, for a time in command of the Western Department, and 
associated with the history of the post at this place. 

The southeast comer square, also fronting on the Ohio 
River, was named Wayne, after General Anthony Wayne, whose 
army, known as the "Legion of the United States," was, during 
the winter of 1792-93, located at Legionville, within the present 
limits of Beaver County, and whose splendid victory at the 
battle of ''Fallen Timbers," gained with that army, won for this 
region deliverance from the domination of the savages. 

The comer square at the northeastern portion of the town 
was named Bouquet, after Colonel Henry Bouquet, whose ex- 
pedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764 passed over the 
ground upon which the borough of Beaver now stands. 

* A full account of the history of Port Mcintosh will be found in our third chapter. 


History of Beaver County 

The remaining comer square, being in the northwestern por- 
tion of the town and now occupied by the old cemetery, was 
named Clark Square in honor of Colonel George Rogers Clark, 
who was one of the Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United 
States, who, in January, 1785, made at Fort Mcintosh a treaty 
with the Delaware, Wyandot, Chippewa, and Ottawa Indians. 



Sittiation — Water-power — Gen. Daniel Brodhead's Land Warrants — 
Doctor Samuel Adams — ^Adamsville — Early Enterprises — ^Town Plot 
— Constable Bros. — Names of Town — Other Early Enterprises — 
Harris's Directory for 1841 — ^James Patterson's Town Plot — Pur- 
chase by Harmony Society and their Influence — Incorporation — 
National Armory Recommended — Manufacturing Enterprises — 
Banks, etc. — Churches — Public Schools — Business Colleges — ^The 
Yoimg Men's Christian Association — Societies — Hotels and Theaters 
— Fire Department — ^Newspapers — Post-office and Population. 

This busy mantifacturing center is situated in the valley of 
the Big Beaver Creek, about three and a half miles from its 
mouth. The town occupies mainly a plateau some fifty or sixty 
feet above the creek, and has thus excellent natural drainage. 
The hills on either side, especially to the west, rise boldly to a 
height of perhaps two htmdred feet, with immense perpendicular 
cliffs, making very wild and picturesque scenery. The high 
ground here was formerly covered with those blocks of granite 
known to geologists as "erratics,** which are supposed to have 
been transported hither from the Canadian highlands by ice- 
bergs and deposited as the bergs melted. 

Very early the immense water-power afforded by the Falls 
of the Beaver at this point, and the consequent possibilities of 
successful mantifacturing being carried on here, impressed them- 
selves upon all visitors. Among those who perceived these 
advantages at an early period was General Daniel Brodhead, 
who, while commandant at Fort Pitt (17 79-1 781), became well 
acquainted with this locality, and on the very day that the 

* We are indebted to Charles Reeves May, Esq., of Beaver Palls, for intelligent and 
enet^etic aasistanoe in the ooUectiion of much of the data for this chapter. 


666 History of Beaver County 

celebrated Land Act of April 3, 1792, was passed by the General 
Assembly of Pennsylvania, offering for sale the vacant lands 
within the Commonwealth, he, being then Surveyor-General of 
the State, took out two warrants of four hundred acres each for 
lands lying on Walnut Bottom Rtm, opposite the great, or 
Middle Falls ' of the Beaver, on which the town of Old Brighton 
(now part of Beaver Falls) was afterwards located. In August, 
1801, Brodhead sold these two tracts of land to David Hoopes 
of Chester County, Pa., for three thousand dollars. Previous to 
1800, Dr. Samuel Adams, spoken of in our chapter on the 
medical history of the county, had settled at the Upper Falls of 
the Beaver on a tract of four hundred acres, and had built a 
dam, erected a sawmill, and made other improvements. His 
land extended from what is now Seventeenth Street, Beaver 
Falls, north to what is known as Twenty-eighth Street, College 
Hill borough; and west including what is now called Mount 
Washington. The place was later named for him, **Adamsville.*' 
In 1801, David Hoopes, who, as stated above, had purchased 
from General Brodhead two four-hundred-acre tracts at the 
Middle Falls, took possession of the same, and, with others, 
began to build mills. Hoopes, Townsend & Co. erected a saw- 
mill, which was shortly afterwards burned, but soon rebuilt, 
and later a flouring mill, the second of its kind in the valley, 
was added. They soon began also the erection of a forge near 
the mills, but before it was finished the entire property was sold 
to Isaac Wilson. The latter took hold of the plants in 1805, 
and completed the forge the following year, and commenced 
soon to build a charcoal furnace. September 13, 1808, Mr. 
Wilson sold a half-interest in the whole property to Messrs. 

* In early times there were three general divisions of the Falls of the Beaver, named 
reflectively the "Upjier Falls," the "Middle Falls, " and the "Lower Falls." They were 
sitiiated about as follows: the Upper Falls, were near the present Fetterman Bridge; the 
Middle Falls, near the present Tenth Street Bridge, and the Lower Falls near the Fallston 
Bridge. Day's Historical Collections says (page xo8): "The Beaver river, within five 
miles of its mouth, falls 69 feet. 'The Falls' originally consisted of a succession of 
rapids for about two thirds of that distance. By individual and state enterinise the 
•tream has been made to assxime a succession of pools and dams. Five miles from the 
mouth is a dam of 15 feet; a mile below, another of ao feet; a mile below that two others, 
giving together a fall of iq feet; and near the mouth another, with a fall of 15 feet at low 
water." The date of this publication is 1843. The dams are to-day about the same, 
except that at the s>oint where it is said there were two, which is at Fallston, there is now 
but one, and the second one nanwd in the excerpt (" ao ft.*') has been built higher. This 
was done by the Beaver Falls Water Power Co., which supplies by means of it extensive 
manufacturing establishments. 

History of Beaver County 667 

Barker & Gregg for $16,000, and the firm was then known as 
Isaac Wilson & Co. 

In 1806 a town plot was made by this firm and lots were 
sold, and a brisk business began to be bxiilt up. In 1808, Wil- 
son, Barker & Gregg were operating their iron blast furnace, 
and manufactured for several years stoves, pig-iron, hollow 
ware, etc., using the kidney ore found on the ground. In April, 
1812, Barker & Gregg purchased from Wilson for $15,000 the 
other half-interest in the property. The plants later became the 
property of Oliver Ormsby of Allegheny County, who actively 
operated them under the able management of John Dickey and 
James Glenn until 18 18. The financial depression then became 
so great that the furnaces could not be worked profitably, and 
the whole property was allowed to go down. When David 
Hoopes came on from Chester County to take possession of this 
property at the time referred to above, he had found several 
settlers seated on the lands and claiming them under the pro- 
vision of the law of 1792, relating to securing title by ** settle- 
ment and improvement.'* General Brodhead had instituted 
suit in the United States Court of Equity against these persons 
and had secured judgment in his favor, but Hoopes had trouble 
with them also and had to buy from some of them fifty acres 
at one time and fifty at another. Had it not been for this 
trouble about the title, the Harmony Society, which later did 
so much for the development of the business interests of Beaver 
Falls, would have located here instead of going to Posey Cotmty, 
Indiana. Shortly before their removal thither they had tried 
to purchase these two tracts, with the improvements thereon, 
for $32,000, but were discouraged from the purchase by the 
difficulties in the way of securing a clear title to a large part of 
the property. 

We have said that in 1806 a town was plotted on this prop- 
erty by Isaac Wilson & Co. The survey for this was made by 
two brothers, named Constable, from Brighton, England. As a 
favor they were allowed to name the new town, and they chose 
the name of their home town for it, calling it Brighton. This 
name was retained for some years, but when a town was laid out 
on the east side of the Beaver, which was first called East 
Brighton and afterwards New Brighton, the town on the west 
side came to be generally known as ''Old Brighton," and 

668 History of Beaver County 

continued to be so designated until the time when the Har- 
mony Society became the owners of the property on the west side. 
The latter place was thereafter called Beaver Falls, though that 
name is said to have been sometimes applied to it in the earliest 
days of its existence. 

After the suspension of activity in the industries at this 
point of which we have spoken, the property remained idle 
until 1829, when it was bought from Mr. Ormsby by James 
Patterson of Philadelphia. Mr. Patterson acquired by this 
ptirchase 1300 acres, and the same year brought his family and 
some machinery to the place and began to improve the prop- 
erty, building a flouring mill with a capacity of 200 barrels a 
day, and a cotton factory which employed thirty-five hands and 
yielded 3000 pounds of yam per week. Mr. Patterson did much 
by his various enterprises to revive the trade of the whole region. 

In 1829 Archibald Robertson * built a steam paper mill in 
Brighton, which was operated successfully tmtil 1849, when Mr. 
Robertson becoming convinced that water-power was more 
economical, built another paper mill at the head of the falls. 
Mr. Robertson manufactured an excellent quality of printing 
and wall paper, employed a considerable number of hands, and 
did much for the general business interests of the valley. This 
second mill was in 1876 under the control of Frazier, Metzgar 

Harris's Pittsburgh Business Directory for 1841 gives the fol- 
lowing showing of the business occupations of the people of 

Laborers — David Ames, Jeremiah Maid, Emory Maloy. Millwright — 
James B. Angel. Paper makers — ^John Baker, James C. Fulton, James 
Roberts, H. Woods, Jessie Zeigler. Innkeepers — Ltike Bland, Widow 
Sutliff. Blacksmiths — David Boiles, William J. King. Farmers — ^John 
Boiles, Robert McGaughey. 

Engineers — William Carter, Daniel Loomis. Carpenters — Robert Cal- 
houn, Joseph Reeves. Calico printer — William Clayton. Clerks — ^J. K. 
Dean, C. H. Gould, William Harrison. Coal diggers — Charles Day, 
Nathan Dillon. 

Machinists — ^James M. Greig and James Wilson. Canal-boat captain 
— George Hemphill. Tanner — ^John R. Hoopes. Foreman flouring mill 
— H. Huggins. Sign painter — Samuel Kennedy. Cabinet makers — 
Horatio Large, Henry Sims, Sr., Henry Sims, Jr. Forgemen — ^John Mar- 
tin, James Richards. 

* Archibald Robertson, State Senator 1851-52. Sec vol. i., page 7^0 avte. 

:«•: -;t 


History of Beaver County 669 

Tailors — ^Ephraim Martin, William Wallace. Brick-maker — Robert 
Moffit. Teamsters — Joseph Mabaffee, Jobn Murrell. Cooper — Peter W. 

Foreman cotton factory — Andrew Nelson. Storekeeper and flour mer- 
ekan$ — James Patterson. Shoemaker — William B. Platte. Wheat agent 
— Ira Ransom. Paper mill owner — ^Alexander [Archibald] Robertson. 
Soap manufacturer — Isaac Warren. Saddler — David Whitla. 

During the ownership of the lands here by James Patterson 
a town had been plotted by him, Jtily 4, 1849, ^^^ pl^^ of which 
was acknowledged before William Richardson, J. P., on the 
4th of August following. The names of the streets starting 
with the creek were — ^Water, Front, and Second ; those running 
at an angle of forty-five degrees with the former were — ^Tank, 
Main, and Cedar; those at a right angle with the latter — Fac- 
tory, Mill, Race, Mulberry, Linden, and Oak. 

In 1859 the Harmony Society, which held several mortgages 
on this property, pxirchased it at sheriflE's sale for the sum of 
♦34»5oo, the deed being dated September 14th of that year. In 
1866 the Society made a new survey of the town, and greatly 
enlarged its limits, extending it along the Beaver Creek nearly 
three miles, and began actively to carry on and to aid various 
manufacturing and other enterprises. The growth of the town 
in population and business became as a consequence very rapid, 
and in 1868 it was felt by the citizens that they should have 
the advantages of a borough incorporation. 


Accordingly at the September sessions of the court in that 
year application was made for incorporation as the ** Borough 
of Beaver Falls," under the provisions of the Act of April 3, 
1851, and, November 9, 1868, the decree of the court was made 
granting the application.' 

In 1822 the United States Gk)vemment sent engineers to 
examine the water-power afforded by the several falls of the 
Big Beaver, with a view to establishing here a national armory. 
The report of the engineers favored this site, but it was not 
adopted o'wong to opposition from other sections. After the de- 
struction of the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, efforts were made in 
the two sessions of Congress, 186 1-2 and 1862-3, ^ have the 

*■ Road Docket No. 3, No. 9 Sept. Session, pp. 422-3. 

670 History of Beaver County 

Government purchase the Brighton property for the same pur- 
pose, but these were also unsuccessful. 

Under the wise and generous policy of the Harmony Society 
Beaver Falls grew to be one of the most active manufacturing 
centers of western Pennsylvania, and we shall now give a brief 
account of the most important concerns of the town either in 
successful operation in the past or still nmning. 


The Beaver Falls Cutlery Company was organized in 1867 
by Dr. C. G. Hussey, General Thomas M. Howe, and James W. 
Brown of Pittsburg, the last-named gentleman being now (1904) 
member of Congress from Allegheny County and president of 
the Colonial Steel Company of Monaca. A charter was ob- 
tained, October 13, 1867, and the plant was started on a small 
scale in Rochester, Pa., but it was shortly afterwards removed 
to Beaver Falls, where operations were begun in 1868 on the 
extensive premises in the lower end of the town, familiarly known 
as the "cutlery property.'* In 1870 the concern was changed to 
a joint-stock company, the ownership passing largely into the 
hands of the Harmony Society. The capital stock of the com- 
pany was $400,000, and during the height of its prosperity its 
plant turned out over 1 200 dozen of finished cutlery products. 
Labor troubles arising, the company tried the experiment of 
employing Chinese as workmen, having at one time four hundred 
of them in its shops. In 1886 the business having ceased to be 
profitable, the works were closed. 

Metric Metal Works. — This concern, whose principal pro- 
duction was gas meters, occupied the cutlery buildings from 1888 
until about 1892, when it was removed to Erie, Pa. 

Eclipse Bicycle Company. — After the premises of the cut- 
lery works were vacated by the last-mentioned concern, they 
were occupied by a company from Indianapolis, Ind., which 
was organized in 1892 with a capital of $200,000 for the manu- 
facture of the Eclipse Bicycle. In 1896 this plant was moved 
to Ehnira, N. Y. 

McCool Tube Company. — This was the next firm to oc- 
cupy the buildings of the cutlery property. It was organized in 

History of Beaver County 671 

1896 for the ptirpose of manufacturing iron and steel and other 
material into tubes. In 1901 it was absorbed by the Shelby 
Steel Tube Company. 

The Shelby Steel Tube Company was in 1901 made one 
of the constituent companies of the United States Steel 
Corporation. Soon after its passing to the control of that 
corporation the btiildings were all destroyed by fire, with the 
exception of the one used by the New York-Pittsburg Com- 
pany. (See below.) 

Beaver Falls Car Works. — This enterprise was started in 
1878 under the management of Hon. Henry Hice, president; 
John Reeves, secretary ; Jacob Henrici, treasurer; and John 
Corbus, superintendent. The company manufactured all grades 
of cars, and did general repair and foundry work. January 
15, 1886, the plant was destroyed by fire, with a total loss, 
except a little machinery. One week later the company secured 
room in the old cutlery -works property, and began anew in a 
general machinists' business, which they continued for about a 
year after the Eclipse Bicycle Company came into the premises; 
they then moved to a building almost opposite, in which they 
had operated a foundry since the fire. Mr. John Corbus bought 
the machine shop and foundry at the time the former was 
moved, and ran the business until 1897, when it was given up. 

Beaver Falls Iron Company. — Originally J. S. Craft Iron 
Works, which was succeeded by McKee, Anderson & Co. The 
latter firm was succeeded by the Beaver Falls Iron Company, 
organized in October, 1885, under the management of N. E. 
Whittaker, president, and E. C. Ewing, secretary. The works 
of this company were quite extensive, and gave employment to 
about one hundred and fifty men. The product was exclusively 
sheet iron. November 19, 1888, the plant was burned down 
and was not rebuilt. 

Co-operative Foundry Association. — This was organized 
January i, 1872, with the following officers: A. J. Sennett, 
president; I. Armor, secretary, and H. Dufford, treasurer. The 
capital stock was $25,000, and the product was stoves, hollow 
ware, and ranges. The concern did a good business, and was 
later known as the Paisley Foundry. It is not now in existence. 

672 History of Beaver County 

J. H. Knott & Company. — ^This firm owned a flouring 
mill, which was btiilt in 1882 on the site of the old Patterson 
mill, which burned the year before. The members of this firm 
were John H. Knott, Joseph Wilson, F. K. Brierly, and M. 
Shaner, who was the miller in charge. The company did a 
general milling business for the local market. They sold out in 
1896, and the building has since been used for other purposes. 

The Old Brighton Paper Mill Company was started about 
1835. The present Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway 
freight depot at the west end of Fifth Street is on its site. 
Robertson, Lee & McElroy were the original owners of this 
plant and operated it by steam. About the year 1840 it changed 
hands and was called the Pittsbxirgh Wall Paper Company, and 
tinder the new management was built the old paper mill at the 
Adamsville dam, where water-power was used. In 1876 Frazier, 
Metzgar & Company operated this mill in the same building in 
which the Beaver Falls Paper Company was afterwards located. 

The Beaver Falls Paper Company was organized in 1883. 
The mill was merely a branch of the New Castle establishment, 
and was owned by Dillworth Brothers of Pittsburg. It is no 
longer in operation. 

Wagner's Brewery was established in 1880 by Henry Wag- 
ner, and had a yearly capacity of about five thousand barrels of 
beer. The plant stood on what is now known as Bridge Street, 
about one hundred yards from the overgrade bridge, and is not 
now in operation. 

Spring Water Brewery was established by James Anderton 
in 1869, and is now the Anderton Brewing Company, which was 
incorporated in 189 1 with a capital of $50,000, and with the 
following officers: James Anderton, president ; Jonathan Ander- 
ton, vice-president; and W. H. Anderton, secretary and treas- 
urer. The brewery stands at Twenty-fourth Street and the 
Pittsbxirg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway. 

Whitla Glass Company, Limited, was organized in Jtme, 
1887, to make a general line of glassware. The officers were 
J. C. Whitla, president; J. P. Stone, secretary and treasurer; 
directors: Simon Harrold, John M. Hughes, F. G. Tallman, 

History of Beaver County 673 

Stephen P. Stone, and J. IL Harrah. The plant was located in 
a large building on the east side of Seventh Avenue, near the 
present overgrade bridge, was eqtiipped with the best modem 
machinery, and employed about 150 men. April 25, 1890, this 
concern was incorporated as The Valley Glass Company, with J. 
C. Whitla, president; J. P. Stone, secretary and treasurer; and 
Wm. Breitenstein, W. A. McCool, Simon Harrold, J, C. Whitla, 
J. P. Stone, John A. Ferguson, and Ernst Woelfel, as trustee of 
the Harmony Society, directors. The works were burned April 
9, 1892, and were not rebuilt. 

The Beaver Falls Gas Company was organized in 1871, with 
Hon. Henry Hice, president; J. H. Conway, vice-president; F. S. 
Reader, secretary; George S. Barker, treasurer; and John 
Reeves, J. M. Fessenden, W. W. Keyser, James Edgar, and 
M. Naylor, directors. The capital stock was $75,000. The 
company manufactured illuminating gas, and supplied the towns 
of New Brighton and Beaver Falls, but finding it difficult to 
meet the competition of the companies supplying natural gas» 
they ceased to operate in 1902. 

Keystone Chemical Works. — In February, 1887, Mr. C. C. 
Beggs began to manufacture silicate of soda for making soap, 
stiffening prints, etc., using for his works quarters in the rear 
of the Mayer pottery building. Mr. Abraham Green was the 
manager, seven men were employed, and a large daily output 
was shipped to all parts of the country. The works are no 
longer in operation. 

The Pittsburg Hinge and Chain Factory, operated by 
Reiter & Armor, was foimded in 1870, and was succeeded by 
the Pittsburg Chain Company, and they by the Baker Chain 
and Wagon Iron Company. While operated by the latter, this 
plant was burned down, October 25, 1885, and was not rebuilt. 

Beaver Falls Glass Company, Limited. — ^This company was 
organized January i, 1887, under the following officers: George 
E. Smith, chairman; C. T. Mustin, secretary and treasurer; 
J. H. Ohnsman, superintendent. In addition to the officers 
named, James M. May, H. W. Reeves, F. F. Brierly, and George 
W. Coates constituted a board of managers. The firm employed 

674 History of Beaver County 

about two hundred men, and manufactured all varieties of 
pressed glassware, which they shipped to every part of the 
country. This concern went out of business some years ago, 
but their premises are now occupied by the Imperial Glass Com- 
pany, mentioned below. 

Algeo & Sons' Coffin Works were removed from Rochester, 
N. Y., to Pittsburg, and fifteen years later (about 1879) located 
in Beaver Falls, where they were operated successfully for a 
number of years. 

Hartman Steel Company, Limited. — ^This company was or- 
ganized in January, 1883, and in March of the same year the 
buildings, which had been begim in October preceding, were 
occupied, and the wire department put in operation. The 
property of the company consisted of twenty acres, situated on 
the ** Marginal Railroad," which was operated by them. Nine 
hundred men were employed, and an immense daily output of 
all kinds of wire was made. Branch offices were maintained in 
New York, Philadelphia, Boston, St. Louis, and Chicago. The 
officers of the company were: H. W. Hartman, chairman; 
G. H. Wightman, secretary; R. A. Franks, treasurer; and 
F. G. Tallman, general superintendent. 

This company has been succeeded by the following: Carnegie, 
Phipps & Companj^ in 1892; Carnegie Steel Company, Ltd., in 
the spring of 1895; Consolidated Steel & Wire Company in the 
fall of 1895; American Steel & Wire Company of Illinois in 
1898; and the American Steel & Wire Company of New Jersey 
in 1899, absorbed in 1901 by the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion. Since 1899 the works hsive been shut down. 

Emerson. Smith & Company, Limited. — This concern was 
organized under the firm name of Emerson, Ford & Company, in 
1871. In February-, 187 7, a change in the membership of the firm 
gave the new name of Emerson, Smith & Company. This name 
was retained until July 16, 1884, when a dissolution of partner- 
ship occurring, a reorganization under the Pennsylvania limited 
partnership laws was effected, with the present title and with 
a capital of $250,000 of stock paid in. The officers were then: 
James E. Emerson, chairman: Julius F. Kurtz. Sr., vice-chair- 
man and treastirer; and Edward L. Hutx^hinson, secretarv. The 

History of Beaver County 675 

present officers are: J. F. Kurtz, Sr., chairman and treasurer; 
and E. L. Hutchinson, vice-chairman and secretary. The com- 
pany has agencies in San Francisco, New Orleans, and Atlanta; 
and its products, which are saws of all kinds and sizes, and saw 
tools and apparatus connected with mill saws, are in demand in 
all portions of the world. 

Nicholson File Works. — ^The works of the Great Western 
File Company, Limited, were built in 1869 by David Blake and 
James M. Fessenden. Fotir years later the capacity was doubled. 
In 1875 the firm was changed to a limited company, with James 
M. Fessenden, chairman; E. L. Blake, secretary; and F. F. 
Foshay, treasurer. 

On the 19th of April, 1880, the entire works were destroyed 
by fire, with an almost total loss, but in eighteen weeks they were 
rebuilt on a much larger scale and were again in active opera- 
tion. In 1883 Hon. Henry Hice became chairman, and George 
W. Morrison, secretary and treasurer. 

In 1899 the Great Western File Works was absorbed by the 
present company, tmder the style of the Nicholson File Works. 
The firm is composed of Eastern capitalists. At present (1904) 
the plant is not in operation. 

Penn Bridge Company. — This concern was organized by 
T. B. White & Sons in 1868, and the plant was located in New 
Brighton. Ten years later the works were removed to their 
present site in Beaver Falls. The firm was reorganized and 
incorporated in 1887 as the Penn Bridge Company, and was then 
composed of the following members: S. P. White, T. S. White, 
J. F. Miner, J. F. Mitchell, and F. Degner. Its capital is $50,000, 
and the present officers are Hon. Samuel P. White, president; 
T. S. White, vice-president; and J. F. Mitchell, secretary and 

The products of this company consist of wrought-iron, steel, 
and combination bridges, iron sub-structures, buildings, roof- 
trusses, plate, box, and lattice girders, and general architectural 
ironwork. In 1902 they made, and they are still making, large 
additions to their plant. 

Crucible Steel Company of America. — ^This company is the 
successor of the Beaver Falls Steel Works, which were estab- 

676 History of Beaver County 

lished in 1875 ^7 Abel, Pedder & Company, and, three years 
later, bought by the Harmony Society, and operated by them in 
the manufacture of tool and file steel, iron center cast steel, soft 
steel, finished rolling coulters, patent cutlery steel, and cast and 
special plow steel, etc. About eighty hands were employed, and 
the products were shipped throughout the United States, into 
Canada, and occasionally into Mexico. The superintendent was 
Mr. James M. May, who had been connected with the enterprise 
since its origin. In August, 1881, the works of the Beaver Falls 
Steel Company were burned, but they were soon rebuilt, and, 
April 6, 1893, they were purchased from the Harmony Society 
by J. M. May, J. F. Merriman, G. W. Coates, and John T. Reeves, 
who operated them under the same name until July, 1900, when 
the company was absorbed by the Crucible Steel Company of 

American Axe & Tool Company, formerly Hubbard & Com- 
pany. — ^These works were established in 1870 by Joseph Graff 
& Company, and were operated by them until 1879, being known 
as **The Empire Axe & Hoe Works.** March 16, 1875, ^h« 
works were burned down, but were promptly rebuilt, being ready 
for operation again May 16, 1875. Later they were again burned. 

In 1879 the firm name was changed to Hubbard, Bakewell 
& Company, these parties securing the works as a branch to 
their extensive plant in Allegheny County. Later the firm was 
known as Hubbard & Company, and consisted of the following 
members: Charles W. Hubbard, S. A. Rankin, D. M. Long, 
Charles Lockhart, W. W. Frew, and S. D. Hubbard, the last- 
named gentleman managing the works. 

In 1893 ^^is company was absorbed by the American Axe 
& Tool Company. The present superintendent is F. T. Powell. 
The axes made here are sold in the whole of the United States, 
in Canada, and in South America. 

Ames Shovel & Tool Company, formerly H. M. Myers & 
Company, Limited. — In 1869 the "Economy Works*' were 
established by Myers & Armor, and in 1875 ^^® ^"^ of H. M. 
Myers & Company, Limited, was formed, with H. M. Myers, 
chairman; Joseph M. Morrison, secretary, and John, Reeves, 
treasurer. Its products were shovels, spades, and scoops of all 
kinds, and it gave employment to a large number of men. Its 

History of Beaver County 677 

market was the whole Union. In 1902 this company was 
absorbed by the Ames Shovel & Tool Company. Mr. C. H. 
Myers is the general manager. 

Imperial Glass Company. — This company, which occupies the 
premises of the Beaver Falls Glass Company, Limited, was in- 
corporated in 1900 with a capital of $50,000 for the manufacture 
of glassware. 

Co-operative Flint Glass Company, Limited, succeeding the 
Beaver Falls Co-operative Glass Company. — The latter concern 
was organized February 7, 1879, under the management of John 
Stoehr, chairman, and George K. Brown, secretary and treas- 
wrer. At a later date the firm was composed of the following 
officers: William Scheffler, Sr., chairman; C. C. Vogely, secre- 
tary and treasurer; Philip Scharf, foreman. The company 
manufactured general glass tableware, etc., and found a market 
in all parts of the United States and in portions of South Amer- 
ica. This company was succeeded by the Co-operative Flint 
Glass Company, Limited, organized in 1889, with J. H. Ruh- 
landt, chairman, and Charles W. Klein, secretary and treasurer. 

Howard Stove Company. — The works of this company were 
formerly controlled by A. F. Wolf, who started a stove foundry 
in 1868, and after stiffering two losses by fire, sold in 1883. 
The present officers are Jacob Ecki, manager; and James D. 
Perrott, secretary and treasurer; with Howard D. Perrott and 
Frank C. Perrott, traveling representatives. The products of this 
company are all kinds of stoves and ranges, and a good market 
is foimd for them everywhere. 

Knott, Harker & Company organized in 1884, and opera- 
ted for a few months in New Brighton, where they bought 
the property of the American Grate & Fender Company. They 
then removed to Beaver Falls. The officers of the company are: 
Joseph Wilson, president; J, W. Knott, secretary and treasurer; 
and W. G. Harker, superintendent. F. F. and F. K. Brierly are 
also members of the firm. 

The company has a capital of $50,000. They are founders 
and machinists, and manufacture and deal in mantels, grates, 
and all kinds of fireplace goods, and are doing a large business. 

vol.. u.— 5. 

678 History of Beaver County 

Keystone Driller Company. — In 1880 Mr. R. M. Downie in- 
vented and patented a steam-drill, and in 1882 a company was 
formed to put it on the market, with Mr. Downie, superinten- 
^ dent, and Rev. H. H. George, D.D., chairman of the board of 
directors. The company operated successfully in Fallston for 
several years, and then removed to Beaver Falls. The com- 
pany's title was at first the Keystone Portable Steam Driller 
Company, Limited, but in 1891 it was incorporated under its 
present name, with a capital of $300,000. The present officers 
are Rev. D. M. McAllister, D.D., president; R. M. Downie, sec- 
retary and manager, and R. G. Forbes, treasurer. In the fall 
of 1902 the plant was almost entirely destroyed by fire, but has 
since been rebuilt. 

Beaver Falls Planing Mill Company. — ^This company was 
organized in 1878 by Simon Harrold, who had conducted a gen- 
eral planing-mill business imtil 1877, when the concern passed 
into the hands of S. N. Douthitt and Simon Harrold, who styled 
themselves the Beaver Falls Planing Mill Company. In April, 
1886, George C. Wareham and Frank Pearson were admitted 
into partnership; and in September, 1887, the company became 
a limited concern, with the following officers: G. C. Wareham, 
chairman; Frank Pearson, secretary; and S. N. Douthitt, 

In 1893 the company was incorporated as the Beaver Palls 
Planing Mill Company, with a capital of $50,000, and the officers 
as follows: Frank Pearson, president; and Charles F. Ross, sec- 
retary and treasurer. About five or six years ago this company 
absorbed the firm of Wilson & Brierly, which was itself a reor- 
ganization of the old firm of Waddle, Wilson & Company. The 
firm last named, Waddle, Wilson & Company, deserve mention 
as having built in 1866 the first lime-kiln opened near Beaver 
Falls. The first switch laid in the city was one from the rail- 
road track to this kiln. This same firm also made the first 
purchase of real estate sold under the new corporation of Beaver 

J. S. Mitchell & Sons. — ^This firm is composed of James S. 
Mitchell, Fred S. Mitchell, and David J. Mitchell, who, in 1898, 
came to Beaver Falls and bought the property formerly used by 


History of Beaver County 679 

the Steam Planing Mill Company. The latter company had 
been organized Jtme 25, 1887, as the successor of L. E. Pierce. 
Mitchell & Sons deal in rough and planed Itmiber and in general 
planing-mill products. 

The Beaver Falls Chemical Company was organized in 1884 
to manufacture general chemical products. The company is 
composed of Cleveland men. Mr. W. C. Bailey is superintendent. 

Mayer Pottery Company, Limited. — This company was or- 
ganized in 1 88 1, with Joseph Mayer, chairman, and Ernest 
Mayer, secretary and treasurer. The plant is large and com- 
plete in all its details, and manufactures as its specialty tmder- 
glaze printed dinner, tea, and toilet ware. The factory was 
entirely destroyed by fire in 1896, and the new one is a modem 
plant in every respect. This firm does a large business through- 
out the United States. It manufactures yearly $150,000 worth 
of ware, and employs 175 hands. 

On the site of the Mayer pottery a cooper shop was operated 
by James Patterson tmtil 1859. At the same place Chapman 
& Company later made stoneware, crocks and jugs, and still 
later Elijah Webster had here a stone-china pottery. With him 
was afterwards associated Benjamin Nowling. The plant was 
then run for a short time by the Harmony Society, who sold it 
to the Mayer Pottery Company. 

The Beaver Falls Art Tile Company, Limited, was organized 
February i, 1887, with the following officers: John Reeves, 
chairman; F. W. Walker, Jr., secretary and treasurer, and L. 
Roden, superintendent. The products are a superior quality of 
artistic decorative tile, including stove, fireplace, and mantel tiles. 
The present officers are J. M. May, chairman, and F. W. Walker, 
Jr., secretary, treasurer, and general manager. Capital, $47,500, 

The prendses used by this company were originally occupied 
in the fall of 1868 by Isaac A. Harvey, who made ** Liverpool 
Ware.'* Later, Elijah Webster manufactxired door-knobs, and 
still later Joseph Graff manufactured yellow ware in the same 
place. While the latter was in business, the plant was destroyed 
by fire. It was rebuilt by the Beaver Falls Art Tile Company. 

A. S. & R. W. Hall Carriage Works. — ^This firm began opera- 
tions in Beaver Falls April i, 1874. It is the only one in 

68o History of Beaver County 

this line in the town, and turns out a fine make of buggies, 
phaetons, barouches, buck and spring wagons, and general 
carriage goods. 

The Valley Ice Company was incorporated in 1897, with a 
capital of $30,000. The officers are Frank Pearson, president; 
T. M. Adams, secretary and treasurer, and J. K. Fleming, mana- 
ger. This firm manufactures pure ice and deals in ice, coal, 
and coke. 

The Union Drawn Steel Company was incorporated in 1889, 
with a capital of $200,000. Its works and general offices are 
located at Beaver Falls, Pa. It manufactures high-grade cold- 
die rolled steel shafting, pump-rods, piston-rods, and special 
shapes of cold-finished steel on a large scale, employing steadily 
between four and five hundred men, and has the heaviest pay- 
roll in the town. Its product is marketed in all parts of the 
world, and the company has warehouses in New York, Phila- 
delphia, Cincinnati, and Chicago, where a large stock of bright, 
finished steel in rounds, flats, squares, and hexagons is carried 
at all times. It is also represented exclusively in all the 
principal American cities, which gives it exceptional dis- 
tributing facilities. The manufacturing is done tmder patents 
covering machinery and appliances, by a process superior to 
anything known for producing work mathematically accurate 
as to size, of absolute straightness, and of a perfectly polished 

The company is fortunate in being located so as to have the 
service of two railroads — the Pennsylvania and Vanderbilt sys- 
tems — and these roads haul annually for it nearly one hundred 
thousand tons of steel and iron. The officers are F. N. Beegle 
of Beaver Falls, president, and Frederick Davidson of Pittsburg, 
treasurer and secretary. 

Finished Specialty and Machine Company. — ^This company 
is controlled by the Union Drawn Steel Company. It was or- 
ganized in the fall of 1902, purchased the old nail-mill property, 
and employs about fifty men. 

The Standard Gauge Steel Company was incorporated in 1892. 
Its capital is $600,000, and its officers are as follows: A. Rasner, 

History of Beaver County 68 1 

president; J. Wylie Forbes, vice-president; J. A. B. Patterson, 
secretary; P. Dinger, treasurer, and S. Moltrup, superintendent. 
The firm manufactures finished machine keys, machine racks, 
square, flat, rotmd, and special shapes in finished steel; also 
compressed steel elevator guides. 

The Hartman Manufacturing Company, which formerly oc- 
cupied these premises, removed to EUwood City, Pa. 

The Douglas-Whisler Brick Company was incorporated in 
1898. Capital, $75,000, increased to $100,000. The officers of 
this company were as follows: W. C. Simpson, president ; Abelard 
Whisler, secretary ; and J. A. Douglas, superintendent (Douglas 
deceased, December 8, 1900) ; they are now W. C. Simpson, 
president and treasurer ; J. R. Douglas, vice-president ; and 
Abelard Whisler, secretary. This company moved their offices 
to the Masonic building in Beaver Falls in the spring of 1902, at 
which time they began the erection of a plant for the making of 
brick at Eastvale. The offices are now at Eastvale, and the 
plant is in active operation. 

The New York-Pittsburg Company. — ^This company was 
organized in 1902 for the manufacture of typewriters and an 
attachment for sewing-machines for blind stitching. It is lo- 
cated in the remaining building of the property familiarly known 
as the cutlery works. 

The Standard Connecting Rod Company was incorporated in 
1902. Capital, $30,000. They are manufacturers of connect- 
ing-rods, strap-joints, finished crank shafts, and special rods. 
The officers are: A. Rasner, president; W. Moltrup, vice-presi- 
dent; Arthur Ball, secretary, and S. Moltrup, treasxirer. 

Commercial Sash and Door Company, J. M. Hastings, presi- 
dent; Frank Pearson, secretary and treasurer. This company, 
which has its general offices in Pittsburg, built here in the stmi- 
mer of 1902 a large mill which stands over the race near the 
Tenth Street bridge. 

McLean Bros. & Company operated a steam laundry under 
the name of the Mutual Latmdry. The company was incor- 
porated in 1902. Capital, $x5,ooo. Officers: J. L. Kirkpatrick, 

682 History of Beaver County 

president; D. H. A. McLean, vice-president, and J. P. McLean, 
secretary and treasurer. This plant was shut down November 
I, 1903, and in February, 1904, was leased by the assignee, Mr. 
B. F. Dunkle of Bedford, Pa., who will operate it. 

The Beaver Falls Supply Company was incorporated in 1902, 
with a capital of $15,000; officers: A. M. Jolly, president; W- S. 
Morrison, secretary and treasurer; and S. L. Adams, manner. 
The company produces nattiral-gas-pressure regulators. 

The Mound Brick Company was incorporated 1902, with a 
capital of $15,000, and its officers were H. E. McLain, presi- 
dent; H. W. Reeves, secretary and treasurer. They are manu- 
facturers of red brick. 

The Beaver Valley Boiler Works manufactures boilers, stills, 
tanks, plate and sheet-iron work. Charles Miller is manager. 

Beaver Falls Manufacturing & Fuel Company. — ^This concern 
is owned and operated by the Messrs. Hileman, who handle coal 
and manufacture coal-drilling machines. 

The Keystone Store Service Company was organized for the 
purpose of manufacturing computing scales. About the first of 
1902 the concern was absorbed by the National Computing 
Scale Company. 

The Keystone Wire Matting Company, on Seventh Street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh avenues, are manufacturers of wire 
netting. T. C. McPherson is superintendent. 

Max Solomon, dealer in scrap iron, has large yards near the 
west end of Tenth Street bridge. He employs thirty or forty men. 

Ham, Ow & Company's foundry and machine shop was 
operated only a little while and was destroyed by fire. 

J. Bell & Sons were manufacturers of kegs and barrels. The 
concern is not now in existence. 

R. A. Bole, formerly in the flour and feed business, has been 
succeeded by John G. Allen. 

Paper Box Factory. — ^This was a factory operated for some 
years by A. P. Bryson, upon whose death it was discontinued. 

History of Beaver County 683 

Walker & Hillman's Brush Works was on Fifth Street, where 
it crosses Wahiut Bottom Ria. It has not been in operation 
for some time. The brush works was succeeded by the plow 
factory of the Brown Manufacturing Company, now of Zanes- 
ville, Ohio. Later, a son of Mr. Walker of this firm established 
a brush factory in which Mr. Walter Foss was afterwards inter- 
ested. It also has not been in operation for some time. 

The Beaver Valley Brush Works. — This plant was at first 
operated by Statiffer & Pfeffer on the present site of the First 
National Bank. Later, George E. Smith and J. E. Kirchartz 
went into it. It was moved from the place above named to the 
old Masonic block, and from there to Fallston. Another brush 
works was operated by a man named Potter on the present site 
of PfafE Brothers' store. 

The Beaver Valley Trunk Works was established in 1893, 
and operated for a while. Their premises were in 1897 occupied 
by the Roberts Manufacturing Company, which ran about one 


Beaver Valley Water Company. — This company owns the 
water-works of all the towns in the valley except Beaver and 
Monaca. It has its offices in the Masonic building, Beaver Falls 
(see Chapter VII.). 

Patterson Heights Street Railway Company. — Incorporated 
1895; capital, $6000. Officers: John Reeves, president; James 
F. Merriman, secretary; John T. Reeves, treasxirer. 

The road operated by this company connects Patterson 
Heights with Beaver Falls, its terminus in the latter place being 
near the Penn Bridge Works. 

Beaver Valley Street Railway Company and Beaver Falls 
Bridge Company are mentioned in Chapter VII. 

Wholesale houses: Armour & Company; Cudahy Packing 
Company; McHattie Bros, (wholesale fruits, produce, butter, 
eggs, cheese, and grocers' specialties) ; Beaver Valley Produce 
Company; The D. L. Clark Company (manufacturing and whole- 
sale confectioners, cigars, tobaccos, and grocers' sundries) ; Joseph 
B. Lytle (wholesale confectioner, dealer in tobacco, cigars, cakes, 
crackers, and novelties). 

684 History of Beaver County 


Economy Savings Institution. — This strong financial institu- 
tion has been of great importance to the business interests of 
the county. It was established in March, 1868, with Hon. 
Henry Rice, president; H. T. Reeves, vice-president; John 
Reeves, cashier; T. R. Hennon, assistant cashier; George W. 
Morrison, teller. The board of directors consisted of the officers 
and the Harmony Society, acting through its trustee, Jacob 
Henrici. The capital stock was at first $20,000, successively in- 
creased to $450,000, but the whole wealth of the Harmony 
Society was practically back of this institution. Its first place 
of business was at what is now Seventh Avenue and Fourth 
Street, in the building at present occupied by McHattie Broth- 
ers, but, February i, 1870, it was removed to the new building, 
comer Seventh Avenue and Twelfth Street. This institution 
wound up its banking business May i, 1893, ^^^ ^^ succeed- 
ed by John T. Reeves & Company. 

We mention here, as of interest, that the first telephone 
message sent in Beaver County passed between the central 
ofl&ce in the cutlery works and the Economy Savings Institution. 

Exchange Bank was founded in 1880, in the building after- 
wards occupied by the First National Bank. Its ofl&cers were: 
John Reeves, president; C. P. Wallace, cashier. In 1882 Mr. 
Wallace purchased the interest of Mr. Reeves, and removed the 
bank to its quarters on Seventh Avenue. In 1901 Mr. Wallace 
died, and the bank has ceased to exist. 

The First National Bank was organized in July, 1885, with the 
following officers: Hon. Henry Hice, president; Joseph Wilson, 
vice-president; P. Robertson, cashier; J. M. May, John Reeves, 
Simon Harrold, H. W. Reeves, H. C. Patterson, J. C. Whitla. 
J. L. McCartney, and the president and vice-president, direc- 
tors. The capital stock was at first $50,000, which has been 
augmented to $150,000. J. T. Reeves afterwards succeeded 
P. Robertson as cashier, and has been in turn succeeded by 
H. W. Reeves. The present officers are: John Reeves, presi- 
dent; J. M. May, vice-president; H. W. Reeves, cashier; and 
W. F. Bell, assistant cashier. The present board of directors is 
John Reeves, J. M. May, W. A. McCool, H. C. Patterson, John 

History of Beaver County 685 

T. Reeves, H. W. Reeves, George McHattie, Jos. Wilson, and 
J. W. Knott. 

John T. Reeves & Co. — ^This firm, composed of John Reeves, 
John T. Reeves, James F. Merriman. H. W. Reeves, and J. M. 
May, was established April 17, 1893, succeeding the Economy 
Savings Institution. Its capital is $50,000. 

The Farmers* National Bank was organized April 17, 1893, 
with a capital of $100,000, and officered as follows: Frank F. 
Bricriy, president ; Theodore P. Simpson, M.D. . vice-president, and 
George W. Morrison, cashier; directors: F. F. Brieriy, J. R. 
Martin, Esq., Abram Bentley, T. P. Simpson, E. L. Hutchinson, 
J. M. Buchanan, Esq., M. L. Knight, J. C. Whitla, John S. Duss. 

The present officers are: Frank F. Brieriy, president; Theo. 
P. Simpson, M.D., vice-president; George W. Morrison, cashier; 
Walter G. Bert, assistant cashier. Directors: F. F. Brieriy, 
T. P. Simpson, M.D., J. R. Martin. Esq., Abram Bentley, A.M. 
Jolly, J. S. Louthan, M.D.. L. W. Reed, Esq., George W. Mor- 
rison, E. L. Hutchinson. 

The Federal Title & Trust Company of Beaver Falls was in- 
corporated March 24, 1903, and has a capital stock of $150,000, 
fully paid. It began business. October 26, 1903, in temporary 
quarters, and about September i, 1904, removed into its new 
building at the comer of Eleventh Street and Seventh Avenue. 
Its ofl&cers are: Charles W. Klein, president; W. J. Davidson 
and H. C. Purviance, vice-presidents; Walter W. Potts, secretary 
and treasurer. 


Of these useful institutions Beaver Falls has the following: 
People's Building and Loan Association, incorporated in 1888; 
Columbia Building and Loan Association, incorporated in 
1894; Dime Savings and Loan Association, incorporated in 1896; 
Beaver Falls Building and Loan Association, organized in 1878; 
Carbon Building and Loan Association, incorporated in 
1901 ; Union Alliance Building and Loan Association (composed 
of colored people). Two other similar institutions were in exist- 
ence for a short time. viz.. the Workingmen's Building and 
Loan Association and the Homestead Loan and Trust Company. 

686 History of Beaver County 


First Presbyterian Chiirch. — Previous to the existence of a 
Presbyterian congregation in this place, irregular services by 
people of that faith had been held in the old school building; 
and May i, 1866, a union Sunday-school had been started there 
with thirty scholars. 

Sometime in 1867 application was made to Presbytery for 
an organization, and, November 2 2d in that year, a committee 
was appointed by Presbytery to organize a church in Beaver 
Falls, if the way should be clear. This committee organized a 
church with twenty-three members, three of whom, William 
Frazier, A. C. Thome, and W. W. Parkinson, were made ruling 
elders. Until the spring of 1868 the church had supplies, and at 
that time Rev. Albert Dilworth was settled as the first regu- 
lar pastor. In the summer of 1869 a house of worship was 
commenced, which was dedicated April 14, 1870. Mr. Dilworth 
severed his relations to the congregation March 14, 187 1, and 
it was supplied by Rev. R. R. McNtdty until January, 1872. 
In that month and year the present pastor. Rev. J. D. Moor- 
head, began his work. 

Following are the ruling elders in this congregation: M. L. 
Knight, J. A. B. Patterson, John Douds, H. E. Scott, Jas. F. 
Merriman, Geo. C. Wareham, S. C. Gormley, John A. Campbell 
and J. J. Kennedy. 

The deacons are J. M. May, M.D., George W. Morrison, John 
Douds, J. A. B. Patterson, and the Sunday-school superinten- 
dent is B. C. Barnard. 

This church has a large brick house of worship, which a few 
years ago was greatly enlarged and beautified. Its present 
membership is 502. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — In the spring of 1867 the Rev. 
J. J. Mcllyar, then pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in New Brighton, began to hold services in the schoolhouse in 
Beaver Falls, which were continued through the summer and 
fall. During the following winter a protracted effort was made, 
which resulted in quite a number of accessions to the New 
Brighton church. In the early spring of 1868 an effort was 
made to build a Methodist Episcopal church in Beaver Falls. A 


History of Beaver County 687 

subscription paper was circulated and the effort met with hearty 
favor. Having secured the donation of two lots, and a loan of 
$2000 from the Harmony Society, the brethren proceeded to the 
immediate erection of a church. The basement story was com- 
pleted the same year and formally dedicated by Rev. J. J. Mcll- 
yar. The Rev. B. F. Sawhill took charge of the congregation, 
which then ntimbered about twenty members, and remained in 
charge till the spring conference of 1869. Since then the follow- 
ing pastors have served the church: 1869, John McCarty; 1870, 
J. R. Roller; 187 1-4, W. B. Grace; 1874-6, Theodore Finley; 
1876, S. T. Mitchell; 1877-9, D. A. McCready; 1879, Edward 
Williams; 1880, John Conner; 1881, J. E. Wright; 1882-5, 
M. M. Sweeny; 1885-9, A. H. Miller; 1889-94, M. J. Sleppy; 
1894-7, G. W. Terbush; 1897-8, R. T. Miller; 1898-03, R. C. 
Wolf; 1904, R. B. Mansell, D. D. 

During the pastorate of M. M. Sweeny the church was re- 
built at an expense of about $7000. It was again rebuilt and 
enlarged to its present proportions during the pastorate of M. J. 
Sleppy, at an expense of about $12,000. 

This church was incorporated as the * * First Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Beaver Falls," September 19, 1874, its incorpo- 
rators being Henry T. Reeves, Henry M. Myers, William H. H. 
Jones, F. K. Brierly, Daniel C. McCann, F. F. Brierly, Thomas 
Leslie, John Snair, and Joseph Sponsler. 

The Methodist Protestant Church of Beaver Falls was organ- 
ized May 23, 1869, when most of the buildings in the town were 
below the Seventh Avenue hill, by members of the New Brighton 
church who had moved from the opposite side of the river. 

The following persons were the organizers: Henry T. Reeves 
and wife; Charles Taylor and wife; George Zahler and wife; 
Abijah McClain, wife, and daughter Agnes; Mrs. Catharine 
McClain, Mrs. Sarah Howe; Mrs. Sarah Scott; John Kensley 
and wife. 

The meeting-place was the old brick schoolhouse. Seventh 
Avenue, near Eighth Street. Sunday-school was organized July 
II, 1869. Rev. John Hodgkinson was the first preacher in 

In July, 1869, a lot was donated by Mr. Henry T. Reeves, 
on which the present church building was erected. The building 

688 History of Beaver County 

was commenced in May, 1870, and dedicated in Jtdy of the same 
year. The dedicatory services were in charge of the venerable 
Wm. Collier, D.D., who was at that time president of the Annual 
Conference. The church was served by Rev. S. F. Crowther 
for a time, and he was followed by Rev. John Hodgkinson, 1869- 
70. Rev. W. J. Shehan was the first regularly appointed pastor 
of the new church, serving it from September, 1870, to Septem- 
ber, 187 1 ; and at this time the membership numbered forty-one 
and the Sunday-school, 120. 

Since this time the following pastors have served the church: 
Rev. J. F. Dyer, 1871-73; Rev. G. G. Westfall, 1873-75; R«v. 
G. B. Dotson, 1875-76; Rev. E. A. Brindley, 1876-77; Rev. 
M. B. Taylor, 1877-79; Rev. J. C. Berrien, 1879-80; Rev. John 
Gregory, 1880-82; Rev. J. C. Berrien (second appointment), 
1882-91; Rev. W. R. Cowl, 1891-95; Rev. J. B. Nixon, 1895- 
99. Rev. C. F. Swift, the present pastor, was appointed by con- 
ference to this charge, September, 1899. During the pastorate 
of Dr. Westfall in 1874-75, the present parsonage was erected. 

The church has been steadily increasing for thirty years, 
each of the pastors named having been instrumental in bringing 
valuable accessions to the society. During Mr. Berrien's long 
pastorate the church membership was more than doubled, and 
the property was enlarged by the addition of the commodious 
Sunday-school rooms. During Mr. Cowl's pastorate the in- 
terior was frescoed and the audience room reseated. This 
congregation is now building at Thirteenth Street and Sixth 
Avenue a fine new stone church. 

The First United Presbyterian Church of Beaver Falls. — 
This church was organized by a committee of the Presbytery 
July 26, 1869, with a membership of fifty-one. It depended at 
first upon supplies, and the pastorates from the first have been 
as follows: Rev. J. I. Frazer, January i, 1871, to April 10, 1883; 
Rev. E. N. McElree, February i, 1885, to 1892; and Rev. R. W. 
Kidd, from 1892 until the present. 

In 1869 a brick church was built at a cost of $6000, and in 
1894 this was replaced by a much larger and very handsome 
building, also of brick, costing about $17,000. The church is in 
a flourishing condition. The present membership is about four 

History of Beaver County 689 

The Reformed Presbyterian Cengregation of Beaver Falls. — 
This congregation was orgaflized by committee of the Pittsburg 
Presbytery of that denomination, November 24, 1874, with 
twenty-fotir members. J. D. McAnlis, Robert Paisley, and John 
Cook were its first ruling elders; and James Cook, J. B. Max- 
well, and John Kirker its deacons. Its first pastor was Rev. 
&. J. George, who was installed Jime 15, 1875, and remained 
until 1892. He was followed by W. M. Glasgow, 1893-1899, 
and the present pastor, Rev. J. S. Thompson, began his work 
January, i, 1901, the church having had supplies in the interim. 
The eldership was increased at intervals by the addition of the 
following: William R. Sterrett, R. J. Bole, Wilham Pearce, 
R. A. Bole, and the diaconate by the addition of J. J. Ken- 
nedy, William Cook. John Copeland, D. P. White, R. M. 
Downie, S. W. McAnlis, C. J. Love, and William T. Anderson. 

The church had at the date of its organization secured a fine 
lot in the central part of the town and on its principal street, 
Seventh Avenue, on which it shortly afterwards erected a sub- 
stantial brick house of worship. 

First Christian Church. — ^As early as the middle of 1884 a 
few persons in Beaver Palls who held the Christian belief began 
to assemble themselves together in private houses for worship, 
and in the early part of 1886 efforts were made to secure a regu- 
lar organization. At this time occasional services were held in 
a small room on Seventh Avenue, and the people obtained the 
occasional ministry of Elder William F. Cowden of Allegheny 
City, and Dr. I. A. Thayer of New Castle. 

In October, 1886, Elder C. G. Brelos, of Sharon, was called to 
this field by the missionary board of the first district of western 
Pennsylvania. In 1887 the church obtained a charter, and the 
following trustees were chosen: C. A. Barker of New Brighton, 
W. P. Bamum, and Geo. W. Casner. The present pastor is John 
R. McKee, and the membership is about 250. 

First German Evangelical '*St. Paul's Congregation." — ^This 
church was organized in 187 1 with about twenty members. It 
has had two buildings; the first, a small structure, was sold, 
and the present one erected at a cost of about $3000. The 
pastors from the beginning have been as follows: Otto yon 

690 History of Beaver County 

Zech, the founder, 1871-75; G. T. Miiller (supply), 1875-76; 
G. E. Sylla, 1876-77; John Muller, 1878-83; Otto von Zech, 
1883-84; Wilh. Steinmann, 1884-85; M. F. LaufiEer, 1886-87; 
C. J. Bohnen, in connection with New Castle, 1887-89; H. Well- 
hausen, 1889-90; Ewald Hann, 1890; E. F. Steinhagen, 189 1- 
92; Paul Kummer, 1893-96; T. P. Hansen (died during the 
year), 1896; and the present pastor, Johannes Scheer. This 
church has at present seventy-five supporting, and one htmdred 
and fifty communicant, members. 

St. Mary's Protestant Episcopal Church, Beaver Falls, is the 
seventh Episcopal church in Beaver County, and was organized 
October 31, 1870. While the youngest Episcopal organization 
in Beaver County, St. Mary's is the largest, having a confirmed 
membership, in 1904, of 281. This church has been served by 
the following rectors: Rev. Henry Genever; Rev. Charles N. 
Spalding, D.D. ; Rev. Thomas W. Martin; Rev. Samuel Edson; 
Rev. Hugh Q. Miller; Rev. H. J. Beagen; and the present in- 
cumbent, the Rev. Amos Bannister, who took charge of the 
parish August 30, 1893. 

St. Mary's Catholic (German) Church. — The few German 
families who located themselves at Beaver Falls in early days 
were obliged to content themselves with the English services at 
St. Joseph's Church, New Brighton, or to travel to Rochester. 
They finally determined to build a church for themselves. By 
an independent movement they purchased a site, and erected a 
frame church, 60 x 36 feet, which they furnished very neatly, 
and which was dedicated by Bishop Domenec, July 4, 1872. 
Owing to the shutting down of the cutlery works, in which most 
of the members of this church found employment, they had at 
first a hard struggle, and did not obtain a pastor for two years. 
But the earnest efforts of the leaders, such as John Paff, John 
Ebner, Joseph Daibler, John Anders, John Rebeske, and others 
like-minded, tided the congregation over the hard times, and 
the church became prosperous. A brick parsonage was erected, 
and the membership was enlarged and encouraged. The congre- 
gation was at first under the care of the Carmelite fathers, one 
of whom, Father F. Otto, O. C. C, came to the field occasionally 
as a missionary. The first regular pastor was Father Herman 


History of Beaver County 691 

Joseph Frieling, who was, after long service, followed by the 
present pastor. Father J. M. Wertz. 

In 1896 the present noble church building was erected at a 
cost, with the interior furnishings, which are very fine, of about 
$35, 000; and, in 1901, an annex was made to the parsonage 
costing $3797. The present membership is principally com- 
posed of German and English families, which number 172; and 
in addition there are about 100 Polish, 15 Slav, 15 Himgarian, 
and 30 ItaHan families — ^in all, 332 families, estimated to give 
to the parish the care of over 1600 souls. 

United German Evangelical Protestant Church. — In 187 1 a 
few persons met for the purpose of holding a Sxmday-school in 
the old public-school building on the lower end of Seventh 
Avenue, Beaver Falls, and finally associated themselves together 
as members of a congregation. For some time they held ser- 
vices in the buildings of other congregations, and finally bought 
at Seventh Avenue and Ninth Street a dwelling-house, which they 
remodeled into a church. The panic of 1873 followed closely, 
and the congregation were compelled to sell this property, the 
proceeds of the sale being generously devoted to help other 
struggling churches, and for a time the church disbanded. 

July IS, 1888, the following persons came together in order 
to reorganize the United German Evangelical Protestant Con- 
gregation: George Schmidt, Fred. Mix, Fritz Belke, M. Stein- 
brecher, Mrs. K. Selig, George M. Selig, Christ. Sauer, George 
Heineman, William Damasky, John O. Schmidt, John E. Miller, 
Christ. Wm. Reich, George H. Gerber, K. Muny, Christ. Hoik, 
Henry Bimber, Fred. Schmidt, George Burham, Robt. Jahrman, 
William Daum, John Jung, John M. Eppler, Fred. Dressier, J. H. 
Schindehiitte, and Ernst Dunkel. 

George Schmidt was made president, and M. Steinbrecher, 
secretary pro tern, July 2 2d a committee was appointed to pro- 
vide quarters for preaching services and Sunday school, and 
soon after a lot was bought for $1000 at the comer of Fourth 
Avenue and Vine Street. Here in 1890, a neat frame church 
was built, which cost in all about $4500. 

The list of pastors is as follows: Pastor Firgau, 1888-89; 
Frederick Furst, 1889-90; Pastor Bauer, several months in 
1 891; H. Fuchs, August, 1891-93; Pastor Neimian, several 

692 History of Beaver County 

months in 1893 ; Johann Schoenwandt, July, 1893-1900; Michael 
Orend, 1901-02; the present pastor being Rev. Paul Reikow. 
The membership of the church is at present forty. 

Hebrew Congregation. — This congregation was originally or- 
ganized in New Brighton, about forty years ago, by Raphael 
Steinfeld of that place. It has been identified with Beaver 
Falls for about twenty-five years, but the membership has been 
drawn from other places, as New Brighton, Rochester, Beaver, 
and even New Castle. The synagogue is what was formerly 
known as Masonic Hall. The congregation has never had a 
regular rabbi, but has depended upon teachers and readers. 
Raphael Steinfeld was, however, a regularly ordained rabbi, 
made so in Europe, and those who have served the people are 
called rabbis. Of these we have only learned the name of 
Rabbi Wilkofsky, and the present minister. Rabbi Greene. 
There are now about twenty-five members of the congregation. 

There is a Jewish cemetery in New Brighton called the Tree 
of Life, the ground for which was donated to the cemetery 
association by Raphael Steinfeld. This cemetery is used by the 
Hebrews of Beaver and Lawrence counties. 

Christ's Evangelical Lutheran Church, of Beaver Falls, was 
organized on Trinity Sunday, June 20, 1886. This congrega- 
tion was organized to supply the needs of the English-speaking 
Lutherans of Beaver Falls. 

The Rev. J. W. Myers was elected the first pastor, and it 
was under his care and guidance that the congregation was 
organized. There were twenty-five charter members. A char- 
ter was secured in 1887. The first communion was celebrated, 
July 18, 1886. The first services were held in the W. C. T. U. 
rooms on Seventh Avenue. Afterwards services were held in 
the German Methodist (Evangelical Association) Church, comer 
Fourth Avenue and Thirteenth Street, until the completion of 
the present church building, comer Fourth Avenue and Eleventh 
Street. This building, a frame 30 x 46 feet, and with a seating 
capacity of two htmdred, was first occupied and dedicated on 
Trinity Sunday, 1887. The basement is used as a Simday-school 
room, and for mid-week services. The present membership of 
the church is 145, and of the Sunday school, 190. The congrega- 


History of Beaver County 693 

tion also owns a frame parsonage of eight rooms on Fourth 
Avenne, jtist in the rear of the church building. The value of 
the church property, including the parsonage, is $8000. The 
pastors of the congregation have been as follows: J. W. Myers, 
1886; J. Howe Delo, 1888; J. Sarver, 1891; J. C. N. Park, 1894; 
C. Theodore Benze, 1897; John A. Zundel, 1898, the latter still 
in charge. 

Ixnmanuers Church of the Evangelical Association. — Rev. L. 
Scheuermann, who started this church, began to preach in 
Beaver Falls on Sunday afternoons in June, 1876, in a hall 
above a saloon. Some accessions to the congregation were 
secured and the movement was prospering when, throtigh the 
opposition of certain persons, the hall was closed to them. The 
English Methodists then opened the basement of their church 
for their use, prayer-meeting was held, and, with the aid of 
brethren from Rochester, the work was continued. The formal 
organization may be dated from 1877, with William Marx, class 
leader and Sunday-school superintendent; and C. Von Moos, 
exhorter. A. Kunigunde Herwig, Elis. Marx, Anna Hennig, 
Christ. Startz, Clara A. Dreher, and brother and sister Mec- 
kelburg were some of its first members. The following ministers 
have served in this charge: Rev. L. Scheuermann, 1876-77; 
Rev. Theo. Suhr, 1878--80; Rev. Geo. Goetz, 1880-82; Rev. 
J. Vogel, 1882-83; Rev. L. Pfeiffer, 1883-84; Rev. J. G. Ziegler, 
1884-85; Rev. C. Wohlgemuth, 1885-87; Rev. J. H. Huebner, 
1887-88; Rev. A. H. Wendt, 1888-89; Rev. C. W. Neuen- 
dorf, 1889-91; Rev. E. W. Yaecker, 1891-93; Rev. J. Fink- 
beiner, 1894-96; Rev. J. Hoffmann, 1897-99; Rev. Chas. 
Holhger, 1899-1900; Rev. Geo. W. Miller, 1900-01; Rev. J. 
HoflEman, 1901-03. Rev. J. Wahl is now pastor of this charge. 
A small frame church building was erected by Rev. Th. Suhr in 
1878, at a cost of $1500. The present membership is fifty-eight. 

The First Baptist Church of Beaver Falls was constituted 
February 21, 1883, in the old brick schoolhouse at the comer 
of Eighth Street and Seventh Avenue, Rev. M. B. Sloan of 
Beaver acting as moderator, and George W. Yoho as clerk. 

The following persons were constituent members: 

8. H. Myefs, L. M. Guy, William Mellon, George W. Yoho, Richard 
Barton, Henry J. Lonkert, Richard HemphiU, John A. Mellon, W. J. 

694 History of Beaver County 

Pierce, William Cotilter, W. D. Fisher, S. K. Humes, and William T. 
Games; Alice P. Htimes, Pamelia Coulter. Amia Mellon, Nannie Crabb, 
Lizzie Myers, Elizabeth Pierce, Mary A. Guy, Mary J. Mellon, Mary E. 
Jackson, Elizabeth Barton, Emily Christy, Mary E. Lonkert, Maria M. 
Bennett, Mrs. Kaiser, Tillie Kaiser, Ella L. Games, E. J. Dean, Isabella 
Lancaster and Susan Thompson. 

The membership on July i, 1903, was 140, at which time 
the pastor and ofl&cers were as follows: Rev. W. H. H. McKinney, 
pastor; Rev. M. B. Sloan, clerk; Miss Edith Pierce, treasurer; 
George W. Mitchell, James N. Dtmlap, George Lowry, trus- 
tees; G. W. Mitchell, H. O. Craighead, and S. K. Humes, 
deacons; H. O. Craighead, superintendent of Bible School; 
superintendent of the Twenty-fourth Mission Bible School, 
Miss Edna Pierce. 

The church owns a valuable lot the comer of Sixth Avenue 
and Seventh Street, on which there is situated a brick church 
edifice with a seating capacity of 250. 

United Brethren in Christ Mission was opened June 2, 1901, 
in Fox's Hall, comer of Third Avenue and Eighth Street. Pre- 
vious to this, Mrs. Mary J. Campbell and members of her family 
had made arrangements with Rev. J. J. Fimk of Industry to 
preach. At this meeting, June 2d, there were twelve persons 
present. Following this, services were held every Sabbath 
afternoon at three o'clock. June 23d, a finance committee was 
appointed, consisting of D. A. Messner, president; F. Y. Addis» 
secretary; and Thomas Campbell, treasurer. The meetings in 
Fox's Hall were continued until September 8, 1901, when the 
hall at 182 1 Seventh Avenue was opened. Rev. Mr. Funk 
preached twice in this place before the annual conference which 
met in Coalport, Pa., made Beaver Falls a mission station, 
and appointed Rev. J. R: King pastor. Mr. King, with his 
wife, had been superintending the mission work in Africa. 

The church was formally organized, January 12, 1902, with 
Mr. King, pastor. In the fall of 1902 Mr. King returned to 
Africa to resume his work, and Rev. C. W. Hutsler was appointed 
pastor of the church. The present membership is about thirty. 


The first annual report of the public schools of Beaver Falls 
was made in 1867. The old two-room schoolhouse on Seventh 

History of Beaver County 695 

Avenue was the only building owned by the district until 1872, 
when the Eleventh Street or Central building was erected, con- 
taining ten school rooms and a public hall. In 1875 this hall 
was divided, making two more school rooms, which the in- 
creased attendance demanded. In 1880 the Seventeenth Street 
building, with eight rooms, was erected, and, two years later, 
the Fifth Street building. By 1884 the increase was such as to 
require a class room for the relief of the grammar department, 
and one was provided in the Eleventh Street school, and a year 
later assistant teachers were employed in the first primary 
rooms of Eleventh and Seventeenth Street schools. In 1887 
two more rooms were provided; and, in 1888, the Eighth Avenue 
building, with eight school rooms, was erected. The Fifth 
Avenue building, with eight rooms, was erected in 1898, and all 
the schools have now full day sessions. The High School, which 
was the first established in Beaver County, is in the Eleventh 
Street or Central school building. Its first commencement exer- 
cises were held May 20, 1879. The estimated value of the 
school property of Beaver Falls is $135,000. 

The following is a list of the superintendents of the schools 
since their gradation: Miss Margaret Foulk, 1872-73; Rebecca 
Forbes, 1873-75; V. B. Baker, 1875-77; M. L. Knight, 1877- 
89; J. M. Reed, 1889-96; J. Y. McKinney, 1896-97; C. J. 
Boak, 1897-1902; Edward Maguire, 1902-04. 

The public schools of Beaver Falls rank very high in the 
estimation of educators, and are the just pride of its citizens. 

Geneva College belongs to the borough of College Hill, in con- 
nection with which its history is given, but it is popularly spoken 
of as belonging to Beaver Falls, and in reality is a part of the 
educational equipment of that place. 

Two excellent commercial colleges are here also, viz.. Butch- 
er's Business College and Rand's Business College. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was first represented 
in Beaver Falls by an organization which was effected about 
1878, but which did not long continue. On the 29th of June, 
1886, a new organization was effected, the incorporators, who 
were also the first board of managers, consisting of S. D. Hub- 
bard, Robert J. Jamison, J. A. Millan, F. F. Brierly, J. F. Kurtz, 
Prof. E. P. Thompson, Dr. H. C. Watson, H. W. Reeves, Ernest 

696 History of Beaver County 

Mayer, W. H. Chandley, and A. P. Bryson; with the following 
officers: F. F. Brierly, president; Ernest Mayer, vice-president; 
Prof. E. P. Thompson, recording secretary; Lyman R. Swett, 
secretary; and A. P. Bryson, treasurer. For the first three 
months its meetings were held in the city council chamber, 
when commodious quarters were secured in the Surls Block, 
comer of Seventh Avenue and Thirteenth Street. This organ- 
ization did a good work, but finally went the way of its prede- 

The present Young Men's Christian Association of Beaver 
Falls, Pa., had its inception as a section of the State organiza- 
tion in October, 1902. Two rooms over 1224 Seventh Avenue 
were rented and fitted up as a reading and game room. In 
July, 1902, a Board of Directors was formed and organ- 
ized by electing Joseph W. Knott, president; J. C. Brittain, 
recording secretary; and W. T. Reeder, treasurer. At a 
meeting of the directors, held August 18, 1902, Nathaniel 
I. Gordon of Jamestown, N. Y., was called to the office of 
general secretary, and assumed the duties of that office, Septem- 
ber I, 1902. At the same time, additional rooms were engaged 
over 1222 and 1224 Seventh Avenue. 

A charter was granted the Association on April i, 1903. In 
the charter the following were named as trustees: J. F. Merri- 
man, H. W. Reeves, John A. Campbell, F. F. Brierly, R. M. 
Downie, M. L. Knight; and directors: J. W. Knott, J. C. Brit- 
tain, J. F. Merriman, Frank B. Bruce, J. L. Kerr, Thos. Sten- 
house, W. J. Dunlap, I. N. Mason, J. H. Ohnsman, W. T. Reeder, 
C. M. Emmons, Chas. N. Ramsey, Geo. W. Johnson, Robert 
Pearce, and Frank W. Richter. The directors organized by 
electing J. W. Knott, president; Thos. Stenhouse, ist vice-presi- 
dent; J. L. Kerr, 2d vice-president; J. C. Brittain, recording 
secretary ; and W. T. Reeder, treasurer. The Association has 
now 112 members. 

The Ladies Auxiliary is composed of thirty members, with 
Mrs. H. W. Reeves, president; and Mrs. Chas. M. Emmons, 
secretary and treasurer. 


Harmony Chapter, No. 206, R. A. M., organized and char- 
tered in 1870 ; meets in Masonic Building ; Beaver Valley Lodge, 

History of Beaver County 697 

No. 478, F. and A. M., organized and chartered in 1870, meets 
in Masonic Building; Rising Star Encampment, No. 264, I. O; 

0. P., organized December 10, 1883, meets in Lyceum Hall. 
Beaver Falls Lodge, No. 758, L O. O. F., organized March 13, 
1871, meets in Hanauer*s Hall; Valley Echo Lodge, No. 62a, 

1. O. O. F., chartered January 25, 1868, meets in Mechanics 
Hall; Beaver Valley Post, No. 164, G. A. R., Department of 
Pennsylvania, chartered April 8, 1880, meets in Dawson's Hall; 
Encampment No. 4, Union Veteran Legion, chartered Decem- 
ber 2, 1885, meets in Hanauer's Hall; Beaver Valley Camp, No. 
71, Pa. Div. S. v., U. S. A., chartered August 5, 1885, now 

Beaver Falls Lodge, No. 10, L O. O. F., meets in Martsolf 
Block; Beaver Falls Circle, No. 23, P. H. C, Ewing's Hall; 
Beaver Falls Turn Verein, organized August 2, 1871, has its 
own building; Myrtle Council, No. 121, N. U., chartered Janu- 
ary s. 1885 ; Schiller Grove, No. 8, U. A. O. D., chartered August 
22, 1880, Lycetmi Hall; the Fraternal Mystic Circle, chartered 
July 21, 1886, Hanauer's Hall; Beaver Falls Council, No. 311, 
R. A., organized April 18, 1879, Ewing's Hall; Mechanics Lodge, 
No. 28, A. O. U. W., organized September 19, 1872, Lyceum 

Beaver Falls Council, No. 48, Jr. O. U. A. M., chartered 
August II, 1884, Ewing's Hall; Concord Lodge, No. 75, A. O. 
U. W., organized May 28, 1874, consolidated with Mechanics 
Lodge, No. 28, in January of 1901 ; Lone Rock Lodge, No. 222, 
K. of P., chartered December 7, 1869, Hanauer's Hall; Malvina 
Lodge, No. 18, D. of R., organized October 2, 1869, Hanauer's 
Hall; the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, St. Mary's 
Branch, No. 31, St. Mary's Hall; Beaver Falls Castle, No. 299, 
K. of G. E., Martsolf Hall; Knights of Malta, organized in 1891, 
Swing's Hall; Lawton Camp, No. 7397, Modem Woodmen of 
the World, Fox Hall. 

Walnut Camp, No. 2, Woodmen of the World, Fox Hall; 
Beaver Falls Tent, No. 53, Knights of the Maccabees, Fox Hall; 
Beaver Valley Lodge, No. 1288, Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
Fox Hall; Home Guards of America, Ewing's Hall; Beaver 
Falls Lodge, No. 348, B. P. O. E., Hanauer's Hall; Sons of St. 
George, Dawson's Hall; First German Sick Benefit Society, 
Hanauer's Hall; Beaver Falls Circle, No. i, U. A. O. D., Han- 

698 History of Beaver County 

auer's Hall; Social Grove, No. 9, U. A. O. D., Hanauer's Hall; 
Valley Falls Council, No. 6, Loyal Additional Benefit Associa- 
tion, Martsolf Block; Mound Valley Lodge, No. 733, 1. O. G. T., 
Martsolf Block; Falls City Council, No. 385, O. U. A. M., Ewing's 
Hall; William McICinley Commandery, No. 311, Ancient and 
111., K. of M., Ewing's Hall; Honor Cotmcil No. loi, American 
Legion of Honor. 


Beaver Falls has several good hotels. These are: the Sev- 
enth Avenue Hotel, E. Fred Hughes and Robert L. Lowe, pro- 
prietors; Grand Hotel, William Boyle; Central, John M. Magaw; 
Hotel Anderson, Frank Macdonald; Windsor, Frank Teufel; 
and the Book House, John J. Patterson. 

There are two theaters, the Sixth Avenue and the Lyceum. 

Beaver Falls maintains a very efficient fire department. 
There are three companies — ^fifty volunteers and three paid men. 
The apparatus consists of one Silbsy fire-engine, one combina- 
tion hose-wagon, one ladder-truck, and four hose-reels, and there 
are five head of horses to haul these. The three stations of the 
department are located as follows: No. i, at Seventh Avenue 
and Eleventh Street; No. 2, at Twenty-fourth Street and Eighth 
Avenue; and No. 3 at Eighteenth Street and Twelfth Avenue. 

Newspaper Press. — Mention of the excellent local newspapers 
will be found in the chapter of this work devoted to the general 
history of the press in the county. 


The post-office at what is now Beaver Falls was first known 
as Brighton. It was established in 1818 and discontinued, 
April 22, 1857. During this period the postmasters, with the 
dates of their service, were as follows: John Dickey, April 11, 
1818; David Hoopes, May 17, 1821; James Patterson, Decem- 
ber 26, 1832; Archibald Robertson, February 8, 1843; Matthew 
H. Robertson, December 19, 1850; James B. McCallan, June 
19, 1856. Since the re-establishment of the office in 1867 under 
the name of Beaver Falls, the following have served: Edward 
A. Noble, July 3, 1867; Milo A. Townsend, February 11, 1869; 
James L. B. Dawson, December 10, 1872; Samuel S. McFerran, 




History of Beaver County 


January 14, 1881; Wm. H. Grim, February 28, 1889; Harry F. 
Hawkins, February 6, 1893-. 

By the United States Census for 1900 the population of 
Beaver Falls was 10,054. 


Location — ^Depreciation Tracts on which it was Laid Out Described — 
First Flouring Mill— The "Old Red Front"— Aaron Burr's Opera- 
tions — Constable Bros. — Origin of Name, New Brighton— Old Bill 
of Sale of Lots — Pioneer Enterprises — Early Prosperity and De- 
pression — Branch of United States Bank — Early Educational Move- 
ments — Public Schools — Manufactories — Chtirches and Societies — 
Anti-Slavery Agitation — Hotels — Financial Institutions — Post-oflRce 
— Grove Cemetery — New Brighton's Patriotism — Secret Societies 
and Orders — Incorporation — Population — Notable Residents. 

New Brighton is located on the east bank of the Beaver 
River, about two miles from its junction with the Ohio River, 
and is built upon what was designated as tracts Nos. 91 to 95, 
in Leet's district of Depreciation Lands. 

Tract 91 began at the south line of the town, extending to 
Eighteenth Street, contained 160 acres, and was patented to 
Mark Wilcox, January 19, 1786. It was conveyed to Benj. 
Wynkoop, March 20, 1793; by his heirs to David Shields and 
James Allison, November 21, 1834; and by them to Robert, 
David, and Hugh Mitchell, December 24, 1834, the last convey- 
ance of the tract as a whole. 

Tract 92 extended from Eighteenth Street to Thirteenth 
Street, contained 232 acres, and was patented to John Lukens, 
January 18, 1786. It was conveyed to Thomas Lukens by John 
Lukens's executor, April 18, 1807; from Thomas Lukens, by 
sheriff's sale, in 181 1, to James Allison and Parker Campbell; 
and by them to John and Charles Lukens in 1829, who partitioned 
it between them the same year, and then began its subdivision 
into lots. 

Tract 93 extended from Thirteenth Street to Eighth Street, 






History of Beaver County 701 

contained 262 acres, and was patented to Elias Boudinot and 
William Bradford. April 20. 1786. William Bradford died, and 
his interest passed to his brother, Thomas Bradford. In a 
partition between Bradford and Boudinot in 181 2, the tract 
was taken by Bradford. The Bradfords came from Philadel- 
phia, and their ancestor, William Bradford, came from England 
with William Penn in 1682. Bradford conveyed the tract to 
David Townsend, August 11, 1829, who laid out a considerable 
part of it in lots, many of which he sold during his lifetime, 
and many were sold after his death by his executors, John 
Pugh, Levi McConnell, and Nathan Townsend. 

Tract 94 extended from Eighth Street to a point on the 
river bank between the Brighton and Fort Wayne Railroad 
bridges, contained 265 acres, and was patented to Thomas Brad- 
ford, April 21, 1786. Mr. Bradford sold it to Benj. Sharpless 
and David Townsend in 1801; and Mr. Sharpless conveyed his 
interest to Mr. Townsend, August 15, 181 5, who laid out a plan 
of lots, which will be more fully described later on. This tract 
was laid out in lots first, followed by tract 93, the plans supple- 
menting each other. 

Tract 95 extended from the north line of tract 94 to the 
north line of the present borough, contained 286 acres, and 
was patented to Mark Wilcox, January 31, 1786. During its 
early history it passed through the hands of several persons, 
among them Daniel Leet, John Wolf, and David Shields, the 
latter conveying it to Oliver Ormsby in 1829. Ormsby the 
same year conveyed it to James Patterson, who conveyed it to 
Samuel C. Atkinson. Atkinson's title was sold by the sheriff 
to the assignees in trust of the Bank of the United States, and, 
April 20, 1848, the latter conveyed the larger part of the tract to 
John Miner and Silas Merrick. They sold it off in smaller 
tracts, considerable portions being purchased by Edward 
Hoopes, William Kennedy, Samuel A. McGowan, Rev. Joseph P. 
Taylor, and others, and since then several plans of lots have 
been laid out on different parts of the tract, now covered by 
htmdreds of homes. 

These tracts extended eastward beyond the borough line into 
Pulaski township, but all terminated westward at the Beaver 
River. The title to tract 95 was in 1799 conveyed to John 
Wolf, who put in operation a flouring mill near the present dam 

702 History of Beaver County 

and east end of the Tenth Street bridge, known as Wolf's mill. 
This was probably the first mill of any kind east of the Beaver, 
and people came to it from a distance of over thirty miles, even 
from east of Pittsburg, over a bridle path cut through the forest. 
It was operated until 1820, and remained standing until the 
canal was dug. 

In 1803 Hoopes, Townsend & Company erected a building in 
Sharon, the second house from Brady's Rim, for the use for mer- 
chandising of Isaac Wilson, who came from Chester Cotmty, Pa., 
The Hoopes family were from the same county, and the pro- 
genitor of the family came from England with William Penn in 
1682. The building referred to was called the ** Old Red Front," 
and is yet standing, remodeled, and made more modem. Near 
this old building, on the flat between the river and Brady's Run, 
in 1806, Aaron Burr's managers and workmen built a flotilla of 
boats as a part of his expedition down the Ohio to found an 

With this expedition were two English brothers named Con- 
stable, who had no part in the enterprise, but went along to 
see the country and sketch its interesting points. The owners 
of the ** Black Walnut Bottom," where the lower part of Beaver 
Falls now stands, wished to lay out a plan of lots, and engaged 
the Constable brothers, who were engineers, to do the work. 
For their services they were granted the privilege of naming the 
new town, which they called Brighton, after their old home 
in England. 

In 18 1 5 a plan of lots was laid out on tract 94, which led to 
the name given to New Brighton. By an Act of Assembly of 
March 20, 18 10,' a company was incorporated under the name, 
style, and title of "The President, Managers and Company for 
erecting a Bridge over Big Beaver Creek opposite the Town of 
Brighton," where the Brighton (overgrade) bridge now stands. 
If erected where laid out it would not be opposite Brighton, but 
in a township, and in order to conform to the charter, the name 
of East Brighton was given to the plan of lots surveyed on tract 
94, and thus the eastern end of the bridge was built opposite 
(East) Brighton, and the conditions of the charter carried out. 
In course of time East was changed to New, and the newly 

* Sec chapter on the borough of Bridgewater for further particulars of this enterprise. 
•P. L., 169. 



History of Beaver County 703 

laid out village became known as New Brighton, while Brigh- 
ton came to be known as "Old" Brighton. The late Joseph 
T. Pngh had a bill of sale of these lots, in excellent condition, 
dated September i, 1815, from which we quote: "Any person 
purchasing one or more lots shall improve them as follows: If 
one lot, the purchaser shall erect thereon, within three years 
from this date, a building equal to 15 by 20 feet, two stories 
high, with shingle roof and stone or brick chimney; if more 
than one lot, one such building for every two lots." The bill 
is signed by D. Townsend, Evan Pugh, John Pugh, and Benj. 
Townsend, and 54 lots were sold, averaging about $33 each. 
Joseph Hoopes, grandfather of Henry Hoopes, was the surveyor, 
and J. W. Wilson, father of Wade Wilson, the chain carrier. 
The part of the town surveyed was largely a wilderness, and the 
surveyors had to carry a hatchet and chop the saplings out of 
the way, in order to run their lines. The original plot is yet in 
good condition, and is in the possession of Wade Wilson. 

In 1806 or 1807 a man named Walton attempted to establish 
boat yards a short distance below the foot of Thirteenth Street, 
but he met obstacles that defeated his project. The brick 
dwelling formerly occupied by J. W. Wilson, now a part of 
P. G. Rohrkaste's property by the Brighton bridge, was built 
by his father, Isaac Wilson, in 181 7, and was known as "the 
Brick House," being the only brick house in this region. In 
1828 a fine flouring mill was built by David Townsend, which was 
operated for many years by J. W. Wilson, and afterward by his 
son. Wade Wilson, and is now in operation under the name of 
the Quaker Milling Company. It has been remodeled in part, 
and has been burned out, but the strong old walls yet stand. 

New Brighton started on a new career of prosperity with 
the opening of the Pennsylvania canal, but the boom 
came when a branch of the United States Bank was estab- 
lished. In the charter of the Bank of Pennsylvania, under 
the influence of Hon. John Dickey, it was stipulated that 
the bank might establish branches, "one of which must be 
in Beaver coimty." Taking advantage of this the bank 
established a branch at New Brighton, with the following 
officers: President, John Ptigh; Cashier, Dr. William Denny; 
directors, R. Townsend, M. F. Champlin, James Patterson, Ovid 
Pinney, Dr. E. K. Chamberlin, A. W. Townsend, and J. P. 

704 History of Beaver County 

Johnston of Beaver County ; John B. Pearson of Mercer County ; 
and John Gilmore of Butler County. All responsible persons 
were urged to borrow money, which increased the volume of 
business in the community, but at a fearful cost when settle- 
ment day came. Bank obligations had to be met, the mother 
bank in Philadelphia failed, and a financial panic followed, 
causing disaster and ruin. Values were depressed, property had 
no sale, and the effect on the community was disastrous. After- 
wards a large amount of the debts were compromised, by which 
most of the manufacturers were enabled, in a small way at least, 
to resume business, and in process of time confidence was 


July 4, 1833, Marcus T. C. Gould, from Rome, N. Y., adver- 
tised the establishment of the New Brighton Female Seminary, 
wherein young ladies were tatight all the useful branches of 
modem female education. 

May I, 1837, Richard Leech and his wife, of Harrisburg, 
opened a female seminary, announcing that they wotild teach 
the English branches and French and Latin and the higher 

The Beaver Coimty Institute, of New Brighton, was organ- 
ized in 1837, the object being **the promotion of science and 
literature, but more especially of natural history." At a meet- 
ing, January 16, 1838, the association was fully organized by the 
election of the following officers: President, James Patterson; 
Vice-Presidents, Joseph Hoopes, Robert Townsend, and Enoch 
Marvin; Curator, A. W. Townsend; Corresponding Secretary, Dr. 
T. W. Powers; Recording Secretary, Rev. A. Williams; Li- 
brarian, B. B. Chamberlin; Treasurer, M. F. Champlin; man- 
agers, M. T. C. Gould, H. Mendenhall, Dr. E. K. Chamberlin, 
Dr. John Winter, Edward Hoopes, John Collins, and J. W. May- 
nard. The frame building adjoining the News office, burned in 
February, 1899, was the hall of this society for a ntmiber of 
years. It was then located on Third Avenue, near the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

In 1840 the **New Brighton Female Seminary" was char- 
tered. Robert Townsend was the president, and B. B. 
Chamberlin secretary. It was advertised as under the superin- 

John Pugh. 


History of Beaver County 705 

tendence of Mrs. M. Sheddon, assisted by Laiira K. Collins. In 
it were taught Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French, and Italian, with 
music, drawing, and the usual English branches. In 1841 and 
1842 Mrs. Eunice Critchlow was advertised as the principal of 
the seminary. The ** Greenwood Institute," under the direction 
of Miss Myra Townsend and her sisters, was established later. 
It was held in the brick building on Third Avenue, now the resi- 
dence of Chas. A. Barker (then the home of the Townsend sisters) , 
and a part of the time also in the frame building on the comer 
opposite, where the new residence of Charles C. Townsend is 
built. In 1840 and later there was a male academy known as 
the "Brighton Institute,** of which S. L. Coulter was principal 
in 1841. 

In 1 84 1-2 a private school was conducted by Rev. Mr. 
Hawkins, back of the Presbyterian Church, comer Twelfth 
Street and Fourth Avenue; one by A. P. Dutcher in 1843, ^^ 
B. B. Chamberlin's office; and one about the same time by 
Harvey Thomas, at the Steinfeld comer. Third Avenue and 
Eleventh Street. Miss Curtis had a school in the early fifties in 
the building where Hon. G. L. Eberhart now lives and the one 
torn down by Dr. J. S. Boyd, Third Avenue and Thirteenth 
Street. Later a building was erected where the Central school 
building now stands, in which the Davis school, and later the 
Curry Institute were held. In the early sixties the Johnston 
school was held in this building for a short time. It was also 
used afterwards as a Water Cure establishment, an asylimi for 
the insane, and later as a fine boarding house and dwelling. 

In 1855 Rev. Joseph P. Taylor, rector of the Episcopal 
Church, established the Kenwood boarding school for boys. Its 
main building is now occupied by the Beaver Valley General 
Hospital. Subsequently Professor Charles Jacobus was in 
charge of the school. Other private schools were in existence 
that helped to give character to the town and the reputation of 
being one of the finest educational places in the State. 


The first public schoolhouse in New Brighton was built in 
1835, a few rods north of where the Church of God now stands. 
It was a small brick building, with seats of rough planks, and 

7o6 History of Beaver County 

boards nailed to the walls as writing desks, and with no modem 
conveniences. Mr. Moss was the first teacher in the building. 
About 1840 a brick building of two rooms was built on the pre- 
sent site of the Church of God. In 1849 ^^® Board of Directors 
purchased the property, comer Third Avenue and Fifteenth 
Street, now owned by J. F. Miner. Previous to this time the 
frame building on this lot was used for a Friends' meeting-house 
and a private school. These were ungraded schools, and the 
only ones until 1857. In October of that year the three-story 
brick building, comer Ninth Street and Fifth Avenue, was com- 
pleted, and in it was opened on the first Monday of November, 
the first graded school in the county. In 186 1, when the stirring 
scenes of the war were disturbing the ordinary routine of life, 
patriotic meetings were held in the school hall, and seventeen 
of the students of the school enlisted and went to the front. 

In 1884 the fine school building in the Third Ward was 
opened and in 1890 the beautiful First Ward building was occu- 
pied. In 1893 ^^^ large and beautiful high-school building was 
completed and put to use, one of the most attractive in western 
Pennsylvania, and later, 1895, *b® fi^^® Fourth Ward building 
was dedicated. The old Ninth Street building was sold soon 
after it was abandoned for the new high-school building. 

The following persons have been principals of the schools: 
George M. Fields, S. P. Van Pelt, G. W. Kratz, J. B. Orr, J. C. 
Gilchrist, H. C. Missimer, Luther Fuller, Miss S. A. Piatt, 
H. N. W. Hoyt, E. C. Lavers, John Collier, J. B. Richey, and 
J. W. F. Willdnson. 

In 1 88 1 a three-years course was adopted for the high 
school, that being its first year, and the first diplomas were 
puljlicly granted in 1883. In 1889 another year was added, 
and now the course is one of the most complete in the State. 


The beginning of the building of manufactories was about 
1836. Prior to that time there were no factories on the race 
below the Quaker Mill. In 1836 F. D. Houlette, John Gammel, 
and James Erwin put up a building, which was used for a while 
as a wagon shop, then as a woolen mill by Mr. Hyde ; and after- 
ward a saw-mill was built on the same lot, which was operated 
for a number of years by Joseph Darling, a native of Ver- 

Joseph T. Pugh. 


History of Beaver County . 707 

mont, who came here in 1847 from Chautauqua Coimty, N. Y. 
Later, Thomas Seal and Charles Coale occupied it as a sash fac- 
tory. In later years James Erwin and T. B. White operated a 
machine shop in it, after them C. R. Tuttle had a machine shop 
there, and it was then bought by Henry Fetter and run xmtil 
recent years as a planing mill, but is now abandoned. Mr. 
Fetter came here in 1837, and engaged in business as a mill- 
wright, helping to erect many of the factories on the race. He 
retired from business a few years ago. 

In 1836-7 Talbot Townsend erected a flouring mill, which 
was burned. It was rebuilt by Alexander & Kelly, but is 
now dismantled. Just below this mill they erected a building 
which in later years was used as a planing mill by R. H. Mc- 
Pherson and H. McClain, and afterward by R. B. McDanel & 
McClain. About 1838 Benjamin Bedison and Levi McConnell 
built the "Star" flouring mill, which they operated for about 
twenty years, and which has been in operation ever since, for 
some years run by Mellon & Douglass, and now operated by 
Douglass & Co. In the same year Root, Bush & Dukehart 
manufactured stoves, machine, mill, and plow castings in the 
Quaker Mills. At the same time the Beaver County Insurance 
Company was operating in the town. In 1840 Abel Townsend 
and others built the felt factory, which was afterward used by 
B. & W. Wilde as a woolen factory. Ephraim Smith adver- 
tised, November 17, 1841, that he had rented the New Brighton 
felt factory, and intended to card wool for country customers, 
all kinds of coimtry produce to be taken in pay. In 1844 Charles 
Coale and Thomas Seal built what is known as the tub and wash- 
board factory, and also began the manufacture of buckets, in the 
building formerly occupied by the Messrs. Wilde, in connection 
with John W. Gill, of Wheeling. Messrs. Coale & Gill also built a 
saw-mill at the lower end of the race, where they had a large 
pool in which to float the logs. This mill was operated 
by Joseph Darling for a few years at the close of the 
war, and was owned at one time by Wm. Kennedy. The 
Messrs. Wilde erected a new brick building for their own 
use. which was burned down and replaced by the building 
now occupied by McDanel & Sons as a planing mill, the 
walls having been cut down somewhat. They also built a 
brick building north of the Star mills, which was wrecked by 

7o8 History of Beaver County 

high water. The woolen factory passed out of existence many 
years ago. On the present site of Bentley & Gerwig's brick bmld- 
ing was one erected by M. M. Marqtiis, and afterwards owned 
by R. E. Hoopes & Company, and used by them as a foundry. 
Inmiediately adjoining this was a three-story frame building 
used by White & Erwin as a planing mill and machine shop, by 
Beeson & Company as a planing mill, and later by Abram Bent- 
ley as a twine factory. August 12, 1861, a water spout caused 
a sudden rise of the river, which carried away the head gates of 
the race, and completely wrecked these two buildings. 

The Pioneer Flax Mills were established in 1850 by Abram 
Bentley, and are now in successful operation, run by Bentley & 
Gerwig. Just below this point Henry Stauffer erected a mill 
for grinding gypsum, and after a few years turned it into a flour- 
ing mill, and afterwards this was used as a paper mill by 
Frederick Trudley. C. R. Tuttle built a machine shop adjoining 
this last property and operated it for a number of years. Be- 
tween this shop and Bentley & Gerwig's present new brick build- 
ing, T. B. White started the manufacture of bridges, and in 1868 
established the works known as the Penn Bridge Company, now 
operated by his sons and others in Beaver Falls. Charies Coale 
had a japan varnish works in the building at the foot of Ninth 
Street. Ephraim Estep had an axe factory adjoining the Star 
mills property, and carried on the business for many years. On 
the other side of the road, Henry Himter manufactured table 
cutlery for a few years, the building now being used as the ware- 
house of the Star mills. At the lower end of the race Oren 
Waters ^ built a shovel factory, which was used by Waddle, Fetter 
& Company as a planing mill, and later by Buckley & Bradbury 
as a scouring and dyeing establishment. Mr. Fetter retired from 
the planing-mill firm and Joseph Wilson became a member ; and 
in 1867 F. K. Brierly was added to the firm, which was then 
known as Waddle, Wilson & Company. Their business was 
afterwards removed across the river. 

Brick-making is among the early and successful industries of 
the town. As early as 1830 a brick-yard was operated on Oak 

^ In x8a4 0fen Waters came from Stougbton, Mass.. to Pittsburg, where he manufac- 
tured axes and shovels; the first shovels ever made in Pittsburg. He traded his first 
shovel for a barrel of flotir. 

In 1845 he came to New Brighton, where he established a shovel plant, constructing a 
temporary race from the main race. Shortly afterwards a flood destroyed the race and he 
sold his mill and retired from business. 


• % • -•-.*• 


History of Beaver County 709 

Hill, near the entrance to the cemetery, said to be the oldest 
in the county. In 1882 Thomas Wilson began the manufacture 
of brick there, and in 1887 Wilson & Peatling conducted the 
business, which is now abandoned. In 1840 John Glass started 
a brickworks and continued it until 1886, when it was purchased 
by A. F. Smith & Company, who yet conduct it, as well as 
mining clay and quarrying sandstone, and it is a prosperous 
concern. Charles K. Chamberlin, William and Levi Fish, Joseph 
Dewhirst, Alfred and Akroid Dewhirst, and the Pittsburg Clay 
Manufacturing Company have also operated quite extensive 
works. Ingram & Company's brick-yards, established several 
years ago, are in successful operation. The clay in the hills along 
Block House Run and the Fort Wayne Railroad is especially 
valuable for this industry. The Fish Bros, also engaged in 
quarrying stone. Richard Butler was engaged for a few years 
in mining clay and quarrying flag and building-stone. 

About 1857 the car works was built and put in operation by 
Merrick, Hanna & Company in 1859. This was succeeded by a 
steel-coflSin works by Silas Merrick, a foundry by Merrick & 
Company, by a chain works, by the Dithridge glass works, and 
later by the Phcenix Glass Company. The large building has 
now been bought by the Pittsburg Wall Paper Company and 
put in condition for that industry. In 1867 Wisener & Bing- 
ham started a carriage manufactory, of which W. Scott became 
a partner later. They afterwards sold out, and G. W. Carey, 
J. N. Andre, and C. W. Mali engaged in the business, the former 
afterward retiring, and the business was continued by Andre & 
Mali until 1896, when they sold their building to Grace M. E. 
Church and retired from business. The church remodeled the 
lower story and have used it for church services since. A cut- 
lery works was started in the building above the Quaker Mills 
in the seventies, which was afterwards used as a brass foxmdry, 
and later for the Glenn Driller Company, all now abandoned. 
In the eighties a building was erected on lower Block House Run, 
in which to make ferraline, a black glass. This business was dis- 
continued, and in 1886 the New Brighton Glass Company was 
started in the same building, which is now occupied by the New 
Brighton Steel Company. Spokes and felloes were made in a 
building on the race for a few years in the eighties. In the 
latter part of the same decade a vinegar factory was started and 

7IO History of Beaver County 

operated for a while by M. McPherson and W. O. Alexander, 
the property being ptirchased in 1893 by the Pierce-Crouch 
Engine Company, manufacturers of the Brighton gas and gaso- 
line engines. The Logan & Strobridge Iron Company, fotmded 
by Turner Strobridge in 1874, is in operation, making iron 
novelties. The Leard machine shop was established in 1885. 
Martsolf Bros.' large planing mill and lumber yards is another 
of our more recent busy industries. Louis A. Glaser is engaged 
in manufacturing brass, bronze, and castings of other compo- 

The Pittsburg Clay Manufacturing Company included the 
Elverson, Sherwood & Barker pottery and the sewer-pipe works. 
The former is now a part of the Sherwood Bros. Pottery Com- 
pany, and the sewer-pipe works was absorbed by the Sewer 
Pipe Combination. The Sherwood Bros.' pottery was fotmded 
by G. W. and W. D. Sherwood in 1879. The Enterprise Pottery 
was fotmded in 1883 by D. Osborne, F. H. Stuchfield, and others, 
and was later purchased by a company of which F. G. Barker 
was the head, and is now owned by the W. H. Elverson Pottery 
Company. The Oak Hill Pottery was in business a few years, 
but was burned down and abandoned. About 1889 Scott Bros, 
erected a pottery for the mantifacture of tile. The property was 
purchased by the American Porcelain Company in 1896, is now 
in operation, making sinks, trays, etc., of clay, with the finest 
porcelain finish. Later the Brewer Pottery was erected, which 
was bought in 1899 by J. H. Cooper, and is now operated by the 
Keystone Pottery Company. 

The keg works, now in successftil operation, were started by 
M. T. & S. Kennedy in 1836, in Fallston. These gentlemen were 
bom in Beaver Cotmty, their ancestors coming from Cotmty 
Deny, Ireland, in 1790. The New Brighton plant is an offshoot 
of that at Fallston and was established in 1876. It is now 
operated by Thomas, William A., T. Livingston, and George F. 
Kennedy, sons of the founders. 

The Standard Horse Nail Company was started in 1872 by 
Charles M. Merrick and Job Whysall, the latter retiring in 1880, 
and succeeded by E. E. Pierce. The works were burned in 
1884, in Fallston, and were then removed to New Brighton. 

In 1887 Dawes & Myler started in business to manufacture 
enameled iron ware and pump cylinders, and later they made 


History of Beaver County 711 

enameled iron plumber goods, giving special attention to enam- 
eled iron bathtubs. 


The earliest Society of the Friends, or Quakers, at the Falls, 
was in Fallston, the meeting-house being located on the hillside, 
near the road leading from the river bank to the hill. After the 
separation, which occurred in the twenties, the Orthodox So- 
ciety had a house where J. F. Miner's residence now stands. It 
was used as a public-school building from 1849 ^ 1^57 » ^^^ 
after that it was occupied as a dwelling, and was afterwards 
burned. The Hicksites had a brick meeting-house on the site of 
the present oflSice of the Standard Horse Nail Company, and it 
was torn down to give place to the new building. Meetings had 
not been held for some years. 

The First Presbyterian Church was organized in November, 
1834, with M. F. Champlin and Robert Ferguson, ruling elders; 
and William Cannon, treasurer; Rev. J. W. Johnston in charge, 
with Rev. T. E. Hughes, Moderator, who preached the sermon. 
The original members were : Mr. and Mrs. M. F. Champlin, Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Ferguson, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lukens, Mr. and 
Mrs. James Patterson, John M. Lukens, Sarah Lukens, Samuel 
Vanemmon, Margaret Baker, Elizabeth Kimberly, Sarah Pat- 
terson, Susan Maynard, Jane Seinor, Hannah Davis, Margaret 
Davis, Rachel Davis, James Cummings, Maria Gould, Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. Cannon and Mrs. Eliza Corbus. Rev. H. H. 
Hays was called as pastor, June 22, 1835, ^^^ served imtil 
March 5, 1836. May 27, 1836, Charles Lukens donated a 
lot on Broadway, now southeast comer Third Avenue and 
Twelfth Street, on which a chtirch building was erected. 
July I, 1836, Rev. Aaron Williams was Moderator of the session. 
He was installed pastor, October 5th, and retired October 19, 
1840. Rev. Benjamin C. Critchlow was elected pastor, Jtme 
17, 1 84 1, and was installed October 5, 1841. He remained as 
pastor until December 14, 1874, when he requested a dissolution 
of the pastoral relation. The organization was chartered by the 
court, November 24, 1848, as the ** First Presbyterian Church 
of New Brighton, Pa." In January, 1866, a new building was 
formally proposed, and on May 21st the committee reported 
that $28,000 had been subscribed. Work on the building was 

712 History of Beaver County 

begun, but for lack of funds was suspended until 187 1, when it 
was completed at a cost of $42,466.37. July 13, 1873, Rev. 
Dunlop Moore, of Lurgan, Ireland, was called to the pastorate, 
and resigned January 19, 1892. October 24, 1892, Rev. S. H. 
Thompson, of St. Paul, Minn., was called. He resigned in 1897, 
and was succeeded by the present pastor. Rev. Thomas W. Swan. 
The Sabbath school was organized by M. F. Champlin in 1829. 

First M. E. Church. In 1836 a class of nine members met 
in the office of Isaac Walker, Justice of the Peace; and. May 8, 
1837, a Simday school was organized, with James Langhead, 
superintendent, and twenty-nine pupils, the sessions being held 
in the village schoolhouse. The church was organized in 
1837-8 by Rev. Z. H. Coston, assisted by Jeremiah Knox, Jr. 
The New Brighton members were Isaac Walker and wife, Thomas 
G. McCreary and wife, S. Dunlap and wife, Mary Ferguson, Sr., 
Mary Ferguson, Jr., George Champion and wife, Mary A., Joseph, 
William, and Coston Champion, F. D. Houlette and wife, W. O. 
Lourimore and wife, James N. Bebout and wife, Thomas Deven- 
ney and wife, John Glass and wife, J. M. Alexander and wife, 
Henry Young and wife, Isabel Seppy, Mary Brian, J. W. Thomp- 
son, Wm. Nichols and wife, and James Langhead and wife; the 
Fallston members — ^Joseph McCreary and wife, John Mahon and 
wife, D. B. Brown and wife, Robert Kelty and wife, Lydia John- 
son, Susan Collins, Eliza James, Joseph McCreary, Jr., and John 
Roberts; the Old Brighton members — John Baker and wife, 
Wm. Clayton and wife, James C. Sims and wife, Joseph Clayton, 
Margaret Sims, Hugh Woods and wife, Mrs. Ransom and Mrs. 
Large. A building was erected in 1838, now owned and occu- 
pied by the A. M. E. Church. The present building was com- 
pleted in 1869. Among the preachers who have served the 
congregation are: Abner Jackson, Edward Burkett, Joshua 
Monroe, Wm. F. Lauck, G. D. Kinnear, D. R. Hawkins, George 
McCaskey, W. Devenney, J. Dillon, W. P. Blackburn, H. D. 
Fisher, M. M. Rutter, James Beacom, S. Crouse, B. F. McMahon, 
T. J. Higgins, A. J. Rich, W. B. Watkins, S. F. Jones, J. J. 
Mcllyar, J. R. Mills, J. Henderson, J. L. Deens, E. M. Wood, 
J. A. Swaney, M. McK. Garrett, John Conner, W. P. Turner, 
S. H. Nesbit, H. S. Free, J. B. Risk, Charles L. E. Cartwright, 
J. B. Taylor, J. T. Pender, and A. J. Ashe. The Second M. E. 


» E 

> H 




5 ^ 


5 IT, 

History of Beaver County 713 

Church was organized in i860, with Rev. R. T. Taylor, the first 
pastor, and J. M. Carr the second. In 1862 this society was 
consoUdated with the M. P. Church. 

Associate Presbyterian. At the meeting of the Chartiers 
Presb3rtery of the Associate Presbyterian Church, November 4, 
1 80 1, a petition was received from this section asking for a sup- 
ply of preaching. Rev. Thos. McClintock was appointed to the 
field, and in July 1805, a preacher was assigned to Big Beaver, 
Little Beaver, and Dariington; and, September 3, 1806, Rev. 
David Imbrie was settled pastor over this charge. Subsequently 
services were held near the head of Crow's Run, later at Mr. 
Moore's and Mr. Sloan's by Rev. J. France, from 1820 or 1825, 
and ceased 1841. About 1830 the first house of public worship 
was built a short distance north of New Brighton, called 
New Bethel. About 1844 Rev. B. F. Sawyer became pastor 
of the congregation and continued until 1858, when the union of 
the Associate and the Associate Reformed Synods absorbed the 
principal part of the Seceder Church in the new organization. 
A new house was erected in 1854 in New Brighton, and the 
name was changed to the New Brighton Congregation of the 
Associate Presbyterian Church. A remnant of the congregation 
rejected the combination of 1858, and have since kept up this 
organization; in August, 1898, securing Grace Chapel on Thir- 
teenth Avenue. Rev. S. Ramsey is pastor. 

The Methodist Protestant Church was organized in 1842, in 
the New Brighton Institute Hall, by Rev. Phineas Inskip of 
Pittsburg, with twenty-five members, among whom were W. W. 
Willis, Eliza Willis, Hugh Robinson, Nancy Robinson, B. Gray, J. 
R. Devenny, Esther Squire, James Coates, Melchoir Shuster, 
Sarah Shuster, Thomas Webster, Wm. Miller, Milo Adams, Cynthia 
Adams, John T. Miller, Sophronia Miller, Hannah G. McCul- 
lough. Services had, however, been held at different times for 
perhaps ten years previously. The first church building, a small 
frame one, was on the comer of Fifth Avenue and Thirteenth 
Street, on land donated by Hugh Robinson. Here the society 
worshiped for nearly twenty years. On March 7, i860, a char- 
ter was presented and adopted, and the present building was 
begun the following summer. The first floor was made ready for 
occupancy, September 4, 1861, when the annual conference met 

714 History of Beaver County 

in it. In 1863 the btiilding was finished and dedicated. A par- 
sonage was elected in 1887. The Sunday school was organized 
in 1848 by Henry T. Layton and Henry T. Reeves. The follow- 
ing pastors have served the church : Revs. Phineas Inskip, 

Piper, Simpson, J. C. Hazlett. G. B. McElroy, N. Watson, 

R. T. Simonton, Wm. Reeves, Dorsey, A. Marple, Alex. 

Clark, David Jones, T. H. Colhotier, S. F. Crowther, A. P. Pierce, 
A. D. Brown, G. G. Conway, A. L. Reynolds. G. B. Deakin, W. 
H. Gladden, A. T. Steele, and A. E. Fletcher. 

Christ Episcopal Church was organized in 1850, and incor- 
porated June 5, 1 85 1, being an offspring from the old St. Peter's 
Chtirch of Fallston. The comer-stone of the present building 
was laid in 185 1. The first service was conducted in 
this building by Rev. W. H. Paddock, missionary in charge. 
The rectors have been: Revs. J. P. Taylor, William Ely, C. H. 
VanDine, Charles N. Spaulding, Thomas W. Martin, John 
Loudon, Frederick Thompson, T. J. Danner, David Jones, and 
A. D. Brown. The first vestrymen were: Benjamin Wilde, 
William Wilde, Edward Warner, Thomas Reno, Walter Sorby, 
John King, George Jamer, and John Reno. 

The Church of God was organized in 1857, through the 
agency of Elder Abram C. Rayson, with nine charter members. 
About i860 a brick schoolhouse on the present site of the church 
was bought and fitted up for church purposes at a cost of $1000, 
and in 1881 the house was rebuilt at an expense of $1400, and 
was improved in 1899 to the extent of $250. The pastors who 
have served the church are: Revs. Abram C. Rayson, J. M. 
Domer, John Hickemell, J. Glen, Peter Loucks, M. Coats, J. S. 
McKee, M. C. Pritts, J. C. Corke, G. J. Bartlebaugh, D. Wenty, 
J. Grimm. C. Criswell, A. R. McKahan. W. H. H. McKel- 
veen, C. H. Grove, J. W. Davis, W. J. Umstead, John W. 
Whistler, and W. S. Woods. 

The United Presbyterian Church was the outgrowth of the 
union of the Associate and the Associate Reformed congrega- 
tions, about 1858. The two congregations worshipped as one 
in the unfinished house of the Associate congregation. January 
I, 1863, Rev. J. D. Glenn began his pastorate, and was installed 
April 14th. In November, 1867, Rev. A. G. Wallace, D.D., was 


History of Beaver County 715 

called, and on the first of the following April began the pastoral 
care of the congregation. July 26, 1869, the Beaver Falls con- 
gregation was organized; and, August 19, 1870, the Oakland 
congregation, taking away the families living in those places. 
Dr. Wallace closed his labors, May i, 1884, and was succeeded 
by Rev. W. B. Barr, who assumed his duties, April 8, 1885, and 
was installed July 14th following. Mr. Barr was succeeded 
by the present pastor. Rev. R. L. Hay. The prayer-meeting 
dates from 1840, and the Sunday school began in the 
Associate Reformed congregation in 1847-48, the pastor being 
superintendent. The first house of worship was on Tenth 
Street and Eighth Avenue, which was abandoned in 1886, 
when the building on Third Avenue was occupied. The 
congregation numbered 289. The Fallston Mission School, 
under the control of this church for eleven years, was organized 
January 15, 1882, with Mr. Calhoon as superintendent. The 
chapel in which the school meets was built in the summer of 

St. Joseph's R. C. Church. April 14, 1863, the Catholics 
living in New Brighton bought the brick church owned by the 
United Presbyterians for $5000. The interior was remodeled, and 
it was dedicated by Bishop Domenec, December 6, 1863, under 
the invocation of St. Joseph. The Rev. Fathers who first at- 
tended the new congregation were Rev. J. A. Shell and Rev. 
Basil Keating, who visited it monthly from Pittsburg. Rev. J. M. 
Mitchell, the first resident pastor, was appointed in 1865, and 
celebrated Mass alternately here and at St. Rose's, Cannelton. 
February 2, 1866, Rev. J. C. Bigham was appointed to succeed 
Father Mitchell. When he took charge there were 250 souls in 
the parish. In April, 1866, five acres of ground were purchased 
north of town for a cemetery, the roadway, 800 feet long and 
20 feet wide, being donated by the late C. O'Rourke. The 
cemetery was laid out in lots 8 by 16 feet, and some of it is 
reserved for free ground. In April, 1870, a lot of ground 180 
feet square, where the church now stands, with a brick resi- 
dence, was bought for $8000, the old pastoral residence was sold 
for $3100, which sum was increased to $6000 and paid on the 
new property, the balance being paid in two years. The comer- 
stone of the present church was laid, November 12, 1871, by 

7i6 Histc»y of Bearer County 

Ri^^ R«v. Bbobop Dameoec. Tlie fitzmr woA was completed in 
i^73^» aobd a wjg»imi iras erected mliliLu tiie walls for eetertain- 
meocs ZDT ^iie chmfh The T^^f.riigiiit was cxmpleted and dedi- 
catad« Octssber 17, 1^75- The old duutii was improved 
for a cJUBTt^ ha.11. is wiudi was a libraiy of 400 vohnnes, 
and rte wiiofe was tmroed, June 25. 1876. In 1S87 St. 
Rotses Omrdb was separated from St. Joseph's. By this time 
the Qoe^mgxxxm bad been mcreased to i k» soak. The dmrch 
was t^es asmpkted. and was dedicated in 16S5. The basement 
wais ^tsad for a parochial school taught by lay teadiers for two 
years, and the Sisters of St. Joseph's were employed in 1890. 
Is I $91 Rev. J. C. Bigham was appointed pastor of St. Bridget's, 
Pittsboig, axKi was succeeded by Rev. John T. Bums, who, 
after 5ve years' pastorate, was appointed to Comiellsville. He 
was sacoeeded by Rev. E. P. Brady, who remained one year. 
Rev. £. P. Griffin came to the charge in 1S97, and the present 
pastor. Rev. M. J. Ryan, in 1903. 

The First Baptist Church was organized in 1867 with sixteen 
members. The first pastor was Rev. John Winter, who was 
succeeded by the following pastors: Revs. David Williams, C. H. 
Johnson, T. J. Bristow, J. W. Plannett, J. R. Strayer, W. H. 
McKinney, G. B. McKee, W. L. Anderson, and W. M, Ryan. 
The congregation erected and occupied their first house of wor- 
ship. Third Avenue near Sixth Street, in 1869, abandoning it 
to occupy their present handsome building on Eighth Street and 
Fourth Avenue, which was erected in 1893. When the Beaver 
Falls Church was organized about thirty letters were granted 
from this society. 

Wayman Chapel, A. M. E. Church, was organized in 1870 by 
Rev. Cornelius Asbury, and is an offshoot of the Bridgewater 
A. M. E. Church. In 1878 the old frame structure formerly 
occupied by the M. E. Church was purchased, thoroughly re- 
paired, and fitted for use. The pastors of the church have been: 
Revs. Cornelius Asbury, G. C. Sampson, T. A. Thompson, John 
E. Russell, G. T. Prosser, J. J. Jones, Jesse Smith, R. H. Morris, 
W. H. Brown, A. E. Waldon, Richard Brown, I. B. Till, Walter 
S. Lowry, and H. A. Grant. 

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church. — In the fall of 1887 


History of Beaver County 717 

Rev. J. W. Myers, pastor of Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Rochester, held services in private houses and in Autenreith's 
Hall, and organized a Lutheran church, which was completed, 
February 29, 1888, by the adoption of a constitution and the 
election of John A. Houk, John Martsolf, and Henry Ross, 
deacons. Sixteen persons signed the charter. Mr. Myers 
retired in 1888, and the church called Rev. J. H. Delo, of Trinity 
Church of Beaver Falls, for part time. He retired in 1890, when 
the church was united with the Church of the Redeemer, Monaca, 
into a missionary parish, and Rev. F. W. Kohler was appointed 
missionary. In September, 1891, a lot on the comer of Tenth 
Avenue and Tenth Street was purchased, and in December the 
contract was let for a building, valued at $5000, which was 
consecrated Jtme 26, 1892. The present pastor is G. W. 
Critchlow. In 1899 the debt was canceled. 

The Free Methodist Church was organized October 20, 1892, 
by Rev. S. Wellington, with about twenty charter members. 
The organization of this society was really the fruit of a meeting 
held by some band workers in a tent on Ninth Avenue, neat 
Eighth Street. After the meeting in the tent closed they held 
services in Grace Chapel. From there they went to a private 
house near Ninth Avenue, and thence to Autenreith's Hall. In 
February, 1896, during the pastorate of Rev. M. B. Miller, the 
old Baptist Church property on Third Avenue was purchased 
by. the society. The following ministers have served this so- 
ciety: Revs. R. H. Freshwater, M. L. Schooley, A. C. Showers, 
R. H. Bentley, M. B. Miller, F. F. Shoup, A. L. Whitcomb, and 
W. H. Wilson. 

Grace M. E. Church was organized by Rev. A. L. Petty, D.D., 
Presiding Elder of the Allegheny district, Pittsburg Conference, 
Wednesday evening, October 16, 1895, i^ ^^^ Thirteenth Avenue 
Mission chapel, with a membership of 176. At a meeting of the 
congregation, April 15, 1896, a charter was adopted, and, August 
26th, by-laws tmder this charter were framed. The society 
rented the first-floor room of the Andre & Mali carriage 
works and fitted it up for use, November, 1895, and bought 
the property in 1896. The ministers who have served the 
church are: Rev. R. N. Leak, Rev. J. R. Wolf, D.D., Rev. 
D. H. McKec, Rev. J. E. Wright, and Rev. G. M. Kelley. 

:» Beaver Counn- 

- .- . iic..2>: T:rsrr±. ^colored) was orpsiiizei Msj lo. 

.. ._-: jL-==::.--?r5 s^nc secured quarterE ir Ar^enrshh's 
- "'i'rrr TS'ai 'jailed a? the first pan^r snz was 

_., .- . ." — .<iii= Arvxiation— This sorieTT* vsi: crran- 
. .-. , >.- McJ"-.!: J.3, 1891, the Ycninr Yen's L:- 

: :« :_.;. 'irz.^! over to the Y. M. C. A. al" :t= zTyz^errr 

-. .^^. :i--T- -Kcii fcTuided in 1850. 

.-.^ r .^hn^tiar] Temperance Union -was organized 
.-. . .^M -r:'i ha? done a jrv^d work in the towz. 

. . N T : - «? L A V KhY Ann ATI ON 

- ;- . -.r r Cill? Colonization Society, auxiliary' to the Penn- 
- . . ^T.*; Men's Colonization Society, was organized in \ew 

. ... '_>:•. •.':::":<-r r. ift37, and officers were elected, January 

>. -> :.!!cvvn: j.:resident, Richard Leech; vice-presidents, 

'i .hiiriiberhn and Benjamin Davis; secretarj'. C. W. 

-:t:-t>urer. Harvey Blanchard; managers, T. H. Thomiley, 

■.V:;iiams. and M. B. Mason. This society led to the 

'..■. :i ..•: the Beaver County Society in 1838, with James 

::. ; roident. The love of liberty on the part of these 

■;^'<j\x» people lc<l to the establishment of the ** underground 

.y." by which many a poor, hunted slave escaped safely to 


Ainuui^ the earliest hotels in New Brighton may be men- 
.. :icd the Blount House, which was built about 1848, the build- 
LL^ yet standing on the line of the old canal. Below it, near 
:he keg factory, was another house kept by Mr. Blount, and 
icar it was the Lukcns House, the building being after- 
wards moved and now used as a dwelling. Later came the 
Park Hotel, made so popular by the Magaws, and by 
H. L. Sttiber, and now run by Sidney Cook; and the Sour- 
beck (now Kenwood) made known all along the railroad by 
its early proprietor, Daniel Sourbeck, and now managed by 
S. E. Gallagher. The Huron House, built in 1857, opposite the 
passenger station, is still standing, but not in use. In 1855 


History of Beaver County 719 

the building now owned by Dr. C. T. Gale, was built for a hotel, 
but has been a residence for over a third of a century. The 
Clyde House was built in the eighties, and is now run by William 
Leckemby. The old schoolhouse, after its abandonment for 
school purposes, was bought and turned into the White House, 
but is not now open as a hotel. The most ambitious house of 
the kind was the **New Brighton House," built in 1837 ^7 
M. T. C. Gould and others on the comer of Third Avenue and 
Eleventh Street, fronting 100 feet and 8 inches on Third Avenue 
and 62^^ feet on Eleventh Street, being four stories high. It was 
not finished, and during the silk manufacturing excitement 
prevailing at that time it was used as a place in which to 
feed silk worms. There was also a large building near Alle- 
gheny Street and Eighth Avenue where silkworms were fed. 
In the upper part of town, on the flat above Eighth Street, 
were grown a large number of mtilberry trees, the leaves 
from which were used to feed the worms. Very little, how- 
ever, was accomplished in the manufacture of silk. In 185 1 
the building was completed and became the ** Merrick House,** 
one of the most popular houses in this section. It was burned 
about noon, October 5, 1855. The ruins stood until 1871, 
when the "Opera House" block was erected, the two lower 
stories being owned by private parties, and the hall in the third 
story by the Broadway Hall Company. It was a popular play- 
house for years, but fell into disuse as such, and was occupied 
as the armory of Company B, loth Pennsylvania Regiment, for 
about nine years. It was destroyed by fire, February 16, 1899. 
On its site the present News building and the Martsolf build- 
ing have been erected. 


The National Bank of New Brighton was organized October 
29, 1884; capital, $100,000; M. T. Kennedy, president; and 
C. M. Merrick, cashier. It succeeded the National Bank of 
Beaver Cotmty, capital — $200,000, which began business No- 
vember 12, 1864, and was the first, and for years the only, 
national bank in Beaver County; Silas Merrick, president; and 
Edward Hoopes, cashier. This bank succeeded the Bank of 
Beaver Cotmty, a State bank organized in 1857; Silas Merrick, 

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History of Beaver County 721 

Kennedy, president; Samuel Hamilton, secretary; and F. G. 
Barker, treasurer. 


New Brighton was unable to secxire a post-office for many 
years after its importance warranted it, and was dependent upon 
Fallston for its mail. The first office in the town was established 
in 1849, when B. B. Chamberlin was appointed postmaster, dating 
from November 12, 1849. He had been in the office of Millard 
Fillmore, who was elected Vice-President in 1848, and through 
his influence the post-office here was obtained. The succeeding 
postmasters were Charles H. Higby, John Glass, Isaac Covert, 
John C. Boyle, Mrs. E. B. Cuthbertson, 1869; Walter S. Braden, 
i886; A. J. Bingham, 1890; William Wallace, 1894; D. R. 
Corbus, 1897; Charles M. McDanel, 1902-4. 

The location of the post-office has been changed several 
times, being from 1859 to 1883 in the brick building in rear 
of the News building, later in the Walker room, between Ninth 
and Tenth streets, and then in the Bert room, between Tenth 
and Eleventh streets. Since April i, 1902, it has occupied the 
new federal building. The erection of this building was 
authorized by Congress in 1899. Bids were asked for a 
site for the building, and that offered by Thomas Bradford and 
Charles C. Townsend, on the northeast comer of Third Avenue 
and Tenth Street, was accepted. It is a curious fact that for at 
least forty years the post-office has been located within a square of 
the site that the Government selected for the new building. For 
a short time only it was taken off Third Avenue. The new 
building is a fine structure, erected at a cost of about $60,000. 


March 18, 1859, Grove Cemetery was incorporated by the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania, and the grounds, about thirty-two 
acres on Block House Run, were dedicated to the purpose of 
burial, on the 13th of October of the same year. A board of 
managers was chosen, with William P. Townsend, president; 
George S. Barker, secretary; and M. Gilliland, treasurer. A 
handsome soldiers* monument, in memory of the struggle of the 
Civil War, is one of its attractions. 

722 History of Beaver County 

KBW Brighton's patriotism 

During the Civil War the town sent two companies to the 
front for three years — Company H. 9th Pennsylvania Reserves, 
Captain, John Cuthbertson, of which 96 members were from New 
Brighton; and Company C, 63d Pennsylvania, Captain, Jason 
R. Hanna, most of the men being from the town. In addition 
to these there were men in a number of other commands, Tnalring 
in all nearly 300 men from this town. In 1863 Captain G. S. 
Barker took to the front a company of three-months men, and 
another company, largely composed of New Brighton men, 
was sent. 

In the Spanish-American War of 1898, Company B, loth Regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, went from New Brighton ; 
58 of its members, 8 members of Company A, and Major H. C. 
Cuthbertson of the same regiment, being from New Brighton — 
67 in all. In addition to these there were 22 men in other com- 
mands — ^volunteer and regular regiments — ^making a total of 89 
from this town, or more than four times its quota under the 
calls of the President. 


Robertson Lodge, No. 450, I. O. O. F., chartered July 18, 
185 1 ; Union Lodge, No. 259, F. and A. M., instituted Novem- 
ber 20, 1851 ; Ruth Lodge, No. i, D. of R. ; Evergreen Encamp- 
ment of Patriarchs, No. 151, I. O. O. F., instituted February 16, 
1867; New Brighton Lodge, No. 301, I. O. G. T., instituted 
April 7, 1867; Social Lodge, No. 351, K. of P., instituted May 
I, 1872; Beaver Valley Lodge, No. 81, A. O. U. W., instituted 
September 23, 1874; E. M. Stanton Post, No. 208, G. A. R., 
organized 1881; Royal Arcanimi, organized May 19, 1887; New 
Brighton Circle, No. 42, P. H. C, instituted May, 1888; Knights 
of the Golden Eagle, organized July 8, 1889; Beaver VsJley 
Council, No. 301, O. U. A. M., instituted June i, 1890; Star 
Council, No. 55, Jr. O. U. A. M. ; Beaver Valley Camp, No. 3, 
Woodmen of the World, instituted December 22, 1891; New 
Brighton Tent, No. 190, Knights of the Maccabees, instituted 
October 6, 1893 ; Central Labor Union of Beaver County. 


New Brighton was incorporated as a borough by Act of 


General John S. Littell. 

Grace Greenwood. 

(Sarah Jane Clarke.) 

Robert Townscnd. 

Edward Hoopes. 

History of Beaver County 723 

Assembly in 1838.' At the March sessions of the court in 1855 
a petition, signed by J. R. Martin, burgess, and M. T. Kennedy, 
Joseph T. Pugh, Joseph McConnell, J. S. Winans, Jacob E. 
Sharrar, Henry Hippie, and T. A. Barker, councilmen, was pre- 
sented, asking that the borough be placed under the provisions 
of the Act of April 3, 1851. The court granted the request, 
June 7, 1855." 


By the United States Census of 1890 the population of New 
Brighton was 5616; in 1900 it was 6820. 


"Grace Greenwood" (Sarah Jane Clarke), the well-known 
writer, was for some years a resident of New Brighton. She 
lived in the house now occupied by Dr. Evelyn S. Pettit. Her 
brother, Albert H. Clarke, Esq., still resides in the town. 

Another eminent literary woman, Anna Dickinson, lived here 
for some time. She was a pupil in the school taught by Myra 

Stephen C. Foster also resided at one time in New Brighton, 
and wrote here some of his early songs. He lived in the one- 
story cottage house still standing on the southeast comer of 
Tenth Street and Seventh Avenue, then owned by General 
Milton Townsend. 

» p. L.. 564. 

• No. 6. Biarch Sess. 1855, Road Docket No. 2, p. 48s. 


Location — Indian Occupation — Brady's Adventures — Pioneer Settle- 
ments — Kanufacturing Developments — Harris's Directory — FaHstoo 
Bridge — Religiotis and Educational Features — Newspapers — Post- 
office — Poptilation — Incorporation. 

Fallston is beautifully situated on the west bank of the 
Beaver, just below "the Falls" from which it took its name.' 
It is immediately opposite New Brighton and about a mile 
below Beaver Falls, with which it was formerly coimected by a 
road running through the ** Narrows, "or the contracted space be- 
tween the hills and the Beaver. This road was vacated at the 
time the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway was btiilt. Down these 
* 'Narrows'* a race-way was built from a dam at the Lower 
Palls, the water-power from which supplies the works at present 
in operation, and formerly gave the place its great importance 
as a manufacturing center. 


The site of Fallston borough is connected with some of the 
most important incidents in the pioneer history, and industrial 
development of Beaver Coimty. In the period of the Indian 
occupation it was a spot much frequented by the savages, and up 
the little stream which comes dashing down the wild glen on the 
west of it ran a path leading to one of their great towns in what 
is now Ohio, viz. , Sandusky. This path was much used by Captain 
Sam Brady and the rangers from Fort Mcintosh. It was some- 

' " The Beaver river, within five miles from it» mouth, falls 69 feet. 'The Palls* origia- 
ally consisted of a stuxestion of rapids for about two- thirds of that distance. By individoal 
and State enterprise the stream has been made to assume a succession of pools and dams." 
Day's Hiitorical CoUections (1843), p. xo8. 


History of Beaver County 725 

where near Kuskuskee, on this trail or one of its branches, that 
Brady in 1780 rescued Jenny Stupes and her child, who had been 
taken captive by the Indians on the south side of the Ohio.^ 
The little stream and the hill back of the borough are both 
known to this day as "Brady's Run'* and ** Brady's Hill." At 
the foot of Brady's Hill an Indian trail branched northwest, and 
passed by the site of Darlington to what is now Petersburg, 
Ohio. Opposite the present site of Fallston was the block- 
house which was built in the fall of 1788, when, by order of 
Congress of date October 2d, that year, Fort Mcintosh, at what 
is now Beaver, was ordered to be demolished. Lieutenant 
Nathan McDowell was placed in command at this post, which 
was intended to protect communication up the Big Beaver and 
to cover the country after the removal of Fort Mcintosh.' In 
the spring of 1791 Brady figured again in an affair which was 
connected with this blockhouse and vicinity. He and about 
twenty others were following the trail of some Indians, who 
were supposed to have committed various depredations on the 
inhabitants south of the Ohio River, and, coming up the west 
side of the Beaver, when they had arrived at about where Falls- 
ton now is, opposite the blockhouse, these rangers discovered a 
party of nine Indians, with horses, who were engaged in 
trade with William Wilson, an Indian trader. The ran- 
gers immediately opened fire, killing several of the- Indians, 
among them being two women; the rest fled and Brady and 
his company crossed the creek and secured the horses, arms, 
and merchandise that the Indians had purchased. This deed, 
by the better portion of the people of the frontier, was denounced 
as an atrocious murder.3 

* Sec account of this resctie in Chapter IV., pp. 164-65. 

* See Chapter III for notice of this blockhouse and of Lieut. McDowell; also of Major 
John Toomey, who commanded there in 1793. 

* The following from Craig's History of Pittsburgh (pp. 223-33) will show the seqtiel to 

this affair: 

*' Pittsburgh, Blay as, xyos. 

"On Monday last, the aoth of this month, a Court of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol 
Delivery, and otNisi Prius, for the coimty of Allegheny, was held at this place by the Chief- 
Justice and Tud|^ Yeates. 

"The only criminal business that came before the Judges was the trial of Capt. Samuel 
Brady, who, when the Judges were last here, had been indicted for murder, in killing cer- 
tain Indians near the mouth of Beaver Creek, in the spring of the year 1791. 

"It was proved to the satisfaction of the court, that notwithstanding the treaties of 
Port Stanwix, M'Intosh, Muskin^imi, and Miami, which established peace between the 
Indians and the people of the Umted States, and obliged the Indians to surrender all who 
should commit any murder on our frontiers— certain banditti of them had from time to 
tsme infested the western frontier, stolen horses, taken boats, and murdered ou^ cit^irnr ^ 
that recently, before the killing of the Indians, for which Brady was noi^C tfied, «isTer»j* ■ 
people from Ohio coimty, partictilarly Boggs, Patil Riley's family, and Mrs.* Vanlniskirksv 
VOL. II. — 8. 

•:io rtJSairr c«f Bcai-er Codeieit 

N'ear -J» -wise *3if of the preaeart FiJiiaac liiidgt was a 
'-Hinti. -urmtLadeti *^ & dkenat thicket . m Trindfc tht l-nrKgnc atbesi 
Hicret»i •:in:r::::aei'T«K- i:»r iLe pnrpoBe of atnAcik. -irifirc. iriiEn ob- 
jer/ed. 'he'- ■»»--Uiii :»t irtsd upor by ihe s:«i<iierF zn the likoddioaise. 

SstiiernecVr -irtrt earjy uiade at this pcirni. Ctot of liie first 
:ij T»A«"f=- irzcr-.T^^iaftms where Falli>tQii uo-w i^Uinds. vzls John 
]icKee. -c ^h^- li now McKeesport. On the isth 02 March, 
:r*iO. Jse -"rsL-n'ti^ftd ac article of aj^reement iK:ith oine Levi B. 
Scu-iTt. -A X-'x-t: township. Allegheny County, in wibcii he agrees 
to j^ve Staan 

i pAr: :i bi:* sCatstation that \i<fii on the west side of Big Bca-rer c roek 
oppc&^is *.h«: buockhoiisc; and beginnin)^ at a stooe on Dazbei L<«a s corDer 
.jh Bt^ B^raYtrr. tbtn running up j>aid creek about eigitty jiercbes to m 
sicuiil >-j^ar trw: 03 said bank, thc-n u> run a west coursie to Damei Hifl's 
lin*:. tiaenoe ajocg said line to Daniel Leet's. and so along said lice to the 
p^ikiX X beginning. This descrjJ^ird part of said plantation, be it more or 
less, is to be said Stuart's for living and clearing on his ow-n part what 
the law requires: — said Levi B. Stuart landing himself, his heirs, executors 
and .idnxiixistrators to live <jn. f/r (-auvr some family to live on. the said 
pi&atat:c^ for the full term of five: years, and to make an improvement 
as the law directs. 

Januan- 26, 1798, Stuart formally assigned his rights, tinder 
the title thus bestowed, Uj Joseph Wells, who in turn assigned 
all his rights to David Townsend, Januar>' 26, 1799, and the 

hiid been put to death; tJiat to jnjn>uc the Indians who had committed these morders. 
jiid to rvcovcr wnnc yvi\)*rny htf/ltn. a j/arty of volunteers from Ohio cotmty. of which 
BicaJly was one. cn^svfd t>i<: Ohio, and led by th<: trail of the Indians towards the place where 
the killing happened, fifd and k>ll#*d thov- for whose death Brady was tried. It was 
proved by the (>ath of Kcya»huta, an Indian r.hief. that the Delawares had long before 
let go the chain, that th*ry. the SliawancM:, Chipuewas. Ottawas. Wyandots. and some 
resbe^ade Minxoes. were in t)i«' 1/attle aKainst ijvrx. Harmar. i7«o. It was also proved that 
the attack and firinK of Capt. Kirkw^^d's h^niw; was by Delawares, that some of the in- 
itaxwes c»f mxirder and rajiine alx;v<; nicntionecj were by Delawares, that the persons killed 
were Delawares and liad in th/nr ix>«jteRsion s<;me of the property just before taken from 
Ohio cvnmty, manifenU-d an intention of pnx:eedinK to commit other murders on our 
citizens, and, when fin-d on by thow- who attacked them, and whom they had just discovered, 
were in the art of mmxui^ thHr Kunn: and. moreover, the relation of John Hanulton, a 
trader on the si^'it, Mituhed the court of the maliKnant and hostile temper of those very 

"The Chief Jn«li«e, in a « har^e dislinKuished not less by learning than humanity, ex- 
plained the laws ni war. and the ri«ht of tmtting enemies to death, urged the impropriety 
of killing those who iiiiKlit with wilely W taken pristjners, and the baseness of killing 
women: lamented tlviit any artH of outrage by our citizens should occasion retaliation on 
themselves; but nlating that in his opinion, the Indians were hostile, directed, if the jury 
coocurred in his opinion, of whit h he had no doubt, they should acquit the prisoner without 
leaving the Ixir. The jury did wi, ancl the «()urt ordered Captain Brady to be discharged 
on payment <»f feen." 

To the alcove ai-eotmt tlie editor adds; " In relation to the testimony of Guyasutha, in 
this case, tlic late Jauieii Ui)ftji, I'ls^i., who was Brady's counsel, told a characteristic story. 
The testimony of that Indian was mo very strong in favor of the defendant, that even his 


History of Beaver County 727 

property was deeded by John McKee to David Townsend, June 
19, 1799. Soon after this, one hundred acres of this property 
came into the possession of a company composed of David 
Townsend, Benj. Townsend, and Benj. Sharpless, who sold, De- 
cember 13, 1802, the -j^ of this tract to Evan and John Pugh. 
In 1800 David Townsend started a saw-mill; and in 1804 the 
Messrs. Pugh set up a flouring mill, the first improvements made 
in Fallston, when it was yet a wilderness. The Pughs came here 
from Chester Cotmty. In 1682 two brothers, James and John Ap 
Hugh, came from Wales with a party of their coimtrymen to 
this State, and the name was subsequently Anglicized into Pugh. 

In 1808 David Towsend erected a mill for the manufacture 
of linseed oil, and one for the manufacture and spinning of cot- 
tons. He connected a store with the factory, and in 1814 was 
succeeded in this business by Messrs. Thomas Thomiley and 
Armitage, and eventually Evan and John Pugh became members. 
The Thomileys came from England in 1790, and to Beaver 
County in 18 13. Septimus Sharpless started the first woolen 
mill in 1809, and was succeeded by Abel Towsend in 18 14. In 
181 2 James Douglass started the manufacture of carding ma- 
chines. Marsh & Stone began the manufacture of scythes in 
1823, and in the year following William Blanchard engaged in 
the same business, running it until 1836. In 1825 William Eich- 
baum and E. Clark Stockton started a paper mill, which was 
afterwards carried on by Messrs. Johnson and Stockton. Wil- 
liam Cannon was superintendent of this mill, and also of the 
general store kept in connection with it. 

About 1825 a cotton factory was started by John and Evan 
Pugh, Hall Wilson, and Thomas Thomiley. In 1826 John 
Miner, M. F. Champlin, W. Porter, and B. F. Mathers began the 
manufacture of buckets and tubs, under patents obtained by 
Amos Miner, father of John Miner, in a frame building, on the 
site of the present Thomiley foundry property. Two years 
later they built what was afterwards known as the Darragh 
Machine Shop. In 1836 Silas Merrick became a partner, and the 
firm name was changed to Miner & Merrick. In 1837 the new 
firm built the bucket factory on the site of Blanchard's scythe 
factory,' and afterwards built the brick factory at the head of 

* This building, the bucket factory, is still standia^Ti And is now owned by C. C. and £. P. 
Townsend. Whete the brick factory stood is now the power-hotise of the Valley Electric 

728 History of Beaver County 

the race, and changed the oil mill into a tub factory. This was 
the chief industry of the valley for a number of years. The 
business was sold to Bailey & McCandless in the spring of 1865, 
and was continued until 187 1. The Miners came here from 
Onondaga County, N. Y. ; their ancestor, Thomas Miner, having 
emigrated to this coimtry from England in 1630. The Merricks 
were from the same coimty in New York, and their ancestors 
came from Wales in 1634. Both famiUes first settled in New 
England. The Champlins came from the same cotmty. New 
York, and their ancestors from France between i6oo and 1700. 

In the Darragh Machine Shop, M. and S. H. Darragh oper- 
ated a machine shop and foimdry until a short time ago. John 
and J. W. Thomiley ran the same business for several years in 
the property yet standing, and later the Keystone Driller Com- 
pany and an enameled sign concern operated there. 

In the year 1828 the wire and rivet mill was established by 
Robert Townsend, Reese C. Townsend, Robert Beer, and John 
D. Baird of Pittsburg, under the style of Townsend, Baird & Co. 
This firm was succeeded by W. P. Townsend, son of Robert 
Townsend, and his sons, C. C. and E. P., in 1866, under the 
firm name of W. P. Townsend & Company, who in turn were 
succeeded in 1894 by C. C. and E. P. Townsend, the works 
being in existence here seventy-three years. The Townsends 
were from Chester County, and their ancestor, Richard Town- 
send, came from England with William Penn in 1682. 

In 1832 Joseph T. Pugh, who lived on Third Avenue, New 
Brighton, began the manufacture of window sash, and after- 
wards the manufacture of flour barrels, in partnership with 
John Collins. The building erected for the sash factory was 
used in later years for a handle factory by R. G. Phillips, and 
until a few years ago it was occupied by S. A. Dickey & 
Sons. It was torn down in 1898 to give place to the building 
for the Valley Electric Company. 

The Fallston Academy was built in 1832, and was used for 
school purposes and church services, being open to all denomina- 
tions. It was bought by H. M. Bums of New Brighton, in 
1897, who established a lumber yard there. In 1836 M. T. and 
S. Kennedy began the manufacture of cabinet and wheelwright 
work, which was later changed into a nail-keg, and afterwards 
into a lead-keg, factory. It is still in operation tmder the man- 

History of Beaver County 729 

agement of the sons of the founders, largely increased and 

In 183 s ^ saw-mill was put in operation by Charles Lukens 
and others, which was continuously run until 1864, when it was 
burned. It was succeeded by a mill erected by J. F. Miner, 
Hiram Piatt, and David Critchlow, which was continued by this 
firm tmtil 1885, and was operated after that for a few years 
by H. M. Bums, who leased it. It is now abandoned, its water 
power being used by the Valley Electric Company. In 1835 
John Pugh & Company started another linseed oil mill, which, 
as stated above, was later changed into a tub factory by Miner & 
Herrick. About 1837 Richard Moreland built a flouring mill at 
the lower end of the race, which was later overhatded and in- 
creased by James Dimcan and John Edgar & Company, who 
operated it a number of years, and it is now run by S. D. Ken- 
nedy & Company. 

Harris's directory 

What Harris's Pittsburgh Business Directory for the year 1837 
has to say about Fallston is so interesting that we copy the 
notice entire, retaining the original spelling, which the reader 
can correct by the foregoing: 


This Borough is situated immediately on the Beaver river, on the 
Falls, about two miles from its mouth. It was incorporated by the 
Legislature in 1829, and contains upwards of 1,000 inhabitants; who are 
principally engaged in the various manufacturing operations, carried on 
by means of the immensely important water power here possessed. The 
construction of the race, by an incorporated water company, enabling 
them to avail themselves of the water of the Beaver to its full extent. By 
this water power, the following manufacturing, and other establishments, 
are now in operation : 

Two Saw-mills, one owned by Thomas Johnston, who can cut from 
700,000 to 1,000,000 feet of boards annually. The other, by Charles 
Lukins & Co., who can cut upwards of 3,000,000 feet per annum. 

John Pugh & Co.'s Oil Mill — with an Hydraulic press, where is manu- 
factured between 6,000 and 8,000 gallons of oil, per annum. 

Pugh & Bacum's Sash Factory — where Sash of all sizes and descrip- 
tions is manufactured, for the eastern and western markets. 

Townsend, Beard & Co.'s Wire Manufactory — Here Wire of all sizes 
to the amovmt of sixty tons, per annum, is manufactured. This is one of 
the most complete and operative establishments of the kind in the Union, 
trora whence the great valley of the Mississippi is supplied in this article. 

730 History of Beaver County 

North. Brown & Co.'s Woolen Establishment — where are made jeans, 
sattinets and flannels. 

Miner & Champlin's Bucket Factory, is a curious, interesting and 
extensive concern, where are manufactured about 30,000 of those neat 
and necessary domestic articles, so well known to every housewife. 

C. C. Wolcott has a large factory for the manufacturing of jeans upon 
a very extensive scale, with splendid machinery unsurpassed for excel- 
lence and beauty, by any in any part of the country. 

E. & J. Pugh*s Flour Mill, with four nm of stones, is capable of manu- 
facturing 12,000 barrels of flour per anntim. 

Johnston & Stockton *s Paper Mill, is in full operation, and manu- 
factures paper to the amotmt of $25,000 yearly. There is also a large 
store attached to the mill. 

R. & W. Wilson, carry on a Woolen Factory of jeans, sattinets and 
plain cloths. 

Samuel Kennedy has an extensive Chair and Wheelwright Factory 
carried on by water power. 

Richard M'Parland's Flour and Oil Mill, in full operation, two pair 
of stones running, principally employed in the cotintry trade. 

Thomby & Townsend. extensive machinists, cabinet makers and 
mantifacturers, with six pair of carding machines. 

In this place is one brick academy, which serves as a place of public 
worship, for various denominations, in which are kept two day and one 
Sabbath school. 

In New Brighton, with which we are about being connected by a 
beautiful bridge over the Beaver, Mr. and Mrs. Leech's female academy 
is established, in a most charming situation, surrounded with romantic 
and picturesque scenery. This institution is in its infancy, but the 
reputation of its principals has been long established, and it bids fair 
to be extensively useful. Here is also published the Fallston and Brighton 
Gazette, edited and published by John Winter, every Saturday. 

This place and the surrounding neighborhood, bids fair to be exten- 
sively increased, in consequence of the immense mineral and water ad- 
vantages which it possesses. 


Postmaster — E. K. Chamberlin. 

Merchants — Lukens & Bons, Mendenhall & Millhouse, M. Gilliland, 
Julius D. Dorris, R. Wamick. 

Druggist — John Winter — ^keeps also an extensive store of general mer- 

Physician — E. K. Chamberlin. 

Boot and Shoemakers — G. Barnes & Co., Watson & Brown, Nicholas 

Saddler — ^J ackson. 

Merchant — In the village of Sharon, within the borough of Fallston, 
John Dickey. 



History of Beaver County 731 

During the period to which the above notice belongs, 
and even as early as 1830, Fallston was famous for the extent 
and variety of its manufactures, being the chief and almost only 
point of mechanical and manufacturing industry in the cotmty, 
except Economy. James Patterson, in his short sketch of 
Beaver Cotmty history, says: 

The history of manufactiires in this place is very suggestive, particu- 
larly in an economical view. In 1830, and for a short time before and 
after that date, wool carding for the farmers was a large business of the 
place. The farmers would bring their wool here to be carded, and when 
done would take it home and spin it into yam, and either weave it at 
home or bring it, which was most commonly the case, to the woolen 
mills to be made into goods for male and female wear. In a short time, 
however, they came to believe it best to sell their wool for cash, or trade 
in the stores for wearing apparel. This ruined the business of wool 
carding, and in a great degree of the woolen factories. 

Neariy all the minor industries of the early period referred 
to by Harris have disappeared, giving place to the large and 
important works of the Townsends and Kennedys, in the borough, 
and the other plants back of the borough which have been 
already mentioned. There is here also the power-house of the 
Valley Electric Company. In the period of which we have been 
speaking Fallston and New Brighton were closely allied in 
business and other relations. Nearly all the manufacturing was 
done on the Fallston side, but most of the owners of the concerns 
lived on the opposite side of the Beaver. The two places were 
formerly connected by a good covered wooden bridge, built in 
1837 by Lathrop & LeBarron, which was swept away by the 
flood of 1884, and has since been replaced by a fine iron 


As previously stated, various denominations used the hall of 
the Fallston Academy for church purposes, and the religious life 
of the place was largely identified with that of New Brighton 
across the Beaver. 

The fourth Episcopal church established in Beaver County 
was incorporated in Fallston, under the name of "St. Peter's 
Church, Beaver Falls," on March 2, 1843; the incorporators 
named being Thomas Williams, Thomas T. Reno, John Reno, 
George Gamer, James H. Blinn, Benjamin Stevens, William 

732 History of Beaver County 

Richardson, S. R. Adams, and William Hurst. A large church 
edifice was erected, but never finally completed, and the dis- 
persing of the congregation by removals made the parish sink 
under its heavy debts until its property was sold by the sheriff, 
and the corporation became defunct on November 27, 1848. 

This little borough has a school building which would do 
credit to a much larger town, and the work of the teachers is 
equally creditable. 

Fallston has had in the past several newspapers, the history 
of which may be read in the chapter of this work devoted to 
the press. 


The post-office at Fallston was established June 25, 1829, 
when Hall Wilson was appointed postmaster. His successors 
have been as follows: 

E. K Chamberlin, M.D.. June 3. 1833; Elihu T. Pugh, May 8, 1840; 
Alfred G. McCreary, Jan. 29, 1842: James Carotheis, Nov. 19. 1845; 
Joseph McCreary, May 15, 1849; Andrew Jackson, Feb. 28. 1854; E. B. 
Thompson, June 10, 1854; Samuel Edgar. March 29, 1855; Robert D. 
Cooper, June 15, 1857; Alexander G. Devenny, Aug. 7, 1879; William 
V. Taylor. Jime 14, 1880; Benjamin Franklin, Nov. 9, 1882; Mrs. S. J. 
Katara. April 15, 1886; Mrs. Katara having failed to qualify, Frederick 
Katara was appointed April 21. 1886; Benjamin Franklin, Nov. 20, 1889; 
Thomas J. Johnson, Sept. 25. 1890; James P. Mowry, April 12, 1899. 

This office was discontinued, June i, 1857, but was re-estab- 
lished on the 15th of the same month. It was discontinued 
again, November 6, i860, but soon after re-established. 


The population of Fallston in 1843 is given in Day's His- 
torical Collections, published in that year, at 865. In 1870 it 
was 629, and by the United States Census of 1900 it was 549. 


By an Act of Assembly, approved March 19, 1829, the vil- 
lage of Fallston was incorporated into a borough.* At the 

' P. L., 67. A supplement to this Act approved Jan. 19, 1S31, separated the bonmgh 
of PalUton from the township of Brighton. (P. L. 24.) 

The boundaries of the borough were extended by a further supplement to the original 
Act, approved April 0. i36q. (P. L., 770.) 

History of Beaver County 


November term of the Beaver County Court, 1854, a petition 
signed by Joseph Thompson, burgess, John Jackson, G. N. Tay- 
lor, James Duncan, James Beacom, Samuel Kennedy, Albin 
Coats, and Andrew Jackson, was presented, asking that Fallston 
borough should be made subject to the provisions of the Act of 
April 3, 1851, relating to boroughs. The decree, granting the 
prayer of the petition, was made November 30, 1854.' 

* No. 4, Nov. Sess.. 1854. Road Docket No. a, p. 476. 


Location — The Canal — Railways — Incorporation — The Indian Village — 
Roneer Settlements — Relation to Beaver Bcnxnigji — Ancient Lanes 
— Influence of Canal — Rochester's Names — ^Harris's Directory — 
Marcus T. C. Gould — Manufacturing Interests — Financial Institu- 
tions — Churches — Schools — Passavant Memorial Home — Secret So- 
cieties — Hotels — Cemeteries — Post-oflBce — Semi-Centennial Celebra- 
tion — Growth and Population — East Rochester — ^North Rochester. 

As elsewhere remarked, the Ohio River, after flowing ahnost 
due northwest from Pittsburg for twenty-six miles, makes a 
majestic sweep around to the southwest. In this great bend of 
the river, at the mouth of the Big Beaver Creek, lies the borough 
of Rochester. A glance at the map will show that this town 
holds the key-position in the Beaver valley. 


When the Pittsburg and Erie Division of the Pennsylvania 
Canal was built, Rochester was naturally its southern terminus, 
and here the traffic of the Great Lakes on the north, and that 
of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers on the south, found their 
point of contact. The shipping trade by canal and river thus 
gave an impetus to the growth of the town. 


The passing of the canal and the advent of the railway still 
left Rochester its advantage of position. From Pittsbtirg to 
this point three lines of the Pennsylvania Company run on a 
magnificent fotir-track system. These lines are the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago, the Erie & Pittsburg, and the Cleveland 


History of Beaver County 735 

& Pittsburg. At Rochester these lines separate, the Cleveland 
& Kttsburg contintdng down the Ohio River valley, and the 
other two following the valley of the Big Beaver Creek, until 
they again diverge at Kenwood station. Between Pittsburg and 
Rochester there run, on this division of the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany's lines, in each direction six days in the week, twenty-five 
passenger trains, most of which stop here; and the service of 
the trains on the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway is available at 
Monaca and Beaver by trolley cars running across the bridges. 


Rochester was incorporated as a borough by an Act of Assem- 
bly, approved March 20, 1849 '; and in 1871 the town council 
adopted a resolution that the borough should take advantage of 
the Act of Assembly, passed April 3, 1851. This action was 
confirmed by the court on September 7, 1871.^ From that time 
the borough has been under the general borough law of the State. 


There was a village of Mingo Indians on the present site of 
Rochester, probably near the point where the Cleveland & 
Pittsburg Railroad bridge crosses Beaver Creek.^ This was 
known in the latter part of the eighteenth century as "Logan's 
Town," because the famous chief, Logan, had his lodge here at 
that time. The mouth of the Big Beaver was an important 
rendezvous of the various Indian tribes, both in peace and war. 
Many Indian relics have been found there, and bones have been 
dug from what were doubtless graves of the vanished red men. 


Early after the opening of the northern side of the Ohio to 
settlement of the whites the natural advantages of the spot 
began to attract attention; but for some years the principal 
part of the immigration went farther up the stream to the Falls 
of the Beaver or to the opposite side, where the village of Sharon 
grew into being. Here and there, however, an occasional settler 

» p. L^ 283. 

* No. 7, Sept. Sess^ 1871. Road Docket No. 4- 

• See map in Christopher Gist's Journals, Darlington, pp. 80-81 : also Vol. I. of our work 
pp. 34, a6-a7. 

736 Histor>' of Beaver County 

located his cabin and clearing in the immediate vicinity of, or 
on, what is now a part of Rochester borough. The earliest of these 
settlers is not now known, but in 1799 the Rev. Francis Reno, 
who is mentioned in our chapter on the religious history of the 
cotmty, an Episcopal clergyman from Washington County, 
Pa., and earlier from Virginia, built a log cabin just below the 
spot on which the Passavant Memorial Hospital buildings now 
stand. An early date is assigned, though no year can be fixed, 
for a log cabin which was btiilt on the site of the present resi- 
dence of the heirs of Atlas L. Lacock ; and for one at the mouth 
of Lacock's Rim, which was occupied by a woman named Atkin- 
son. Near the river bank, immediately below where the Na- 
tional Glass Works now stand, was the log house owned by 
Reese Nannah, father of Jesse Nannah, and in which Jesse was 
bom. In the same neighborhood stood the cabin of Jonathan 
Leet, son of William Leet, whose wife was Susannah Lacock. 
Another cabin stood at what is now the comer of New York 
Street and Rochester Avenue, the home of a man named Earl 
Merriman, who sold his land in 181 7 to Lewis Reno. Samuel 
Bell, a very early settler, built a stone house on the site of the 
Ovid Pinney residence, now the property of John J. HofiEman. 
Two other log cabins are known to have been built at a very 
early period, one near the mouth of the Beaver, in which lived 
a ferryman named Benjamin Potmds, and one farther up, be- 
yond McKinley's Run, the home of a man named Wehr.» 


The land now embraced within the limits of the borough of 
Rochester was, one himdred years ago, a part of the borough 
of Beaver. The Act of the Legislature erecting the borough of 
Beaver (March 29, 1802) ' gave as part of the bounds thereof, 
** the line of the out-lots of the reserve tract of land at the mouth 
of Big Beaver creek which have already been sold." These out- 
lots, seventy-nine in number, lay on the east side of the Big 
Beaver. By legislative enactment, approved January 14, 1804,^ 
all lands on the easterly side of the Big Beaver were cut oft 
from the borough of Beaver. 

' Sec Rochester SenU-Centennial Souvenir, jMge 9. In the preparation of this chapter 
we have drawn freely upon the data furnished by this Souvenir. 

•P. U, 495. ' P L-. ". 

History of Beaver County 737 


The plan of the out lots referred to shows the following 
lanes, some of which are now Rochester's principal streets. 
East Bank Lane ran from the Big Beaver along the river bank 
to the eastern line of the borough of Rochester; Island Lane, 
from the mouth of the creek northward along its bank; and 
Deer Lane, starting from the latter a little below McKinley's 
Rim, extended eastward to Fox Lane, now called Virginia Street. 
Panther Lane ran from Deer Lane down Connecticut Street, and 
along Pinney Street to the eastern borough line. Tiger Lane 
was what is now called Adams Street. 


Previous to the construction of the canal between New 
Castle and the mouth of the Big Beaver, there was little growth 
of population at this place. Travel on the river passed it by, 
the steamboats making Stone's Point and Bridgewater their 
stopping-places. The growth of the village of Rochester began 
with the building of the canal. Freight from the canal boats 
was unloaded at a landing near where Jacob Stahl's house now 
stands, and transferred to the steamboats on the Ohio at a 
landing on Water Street. This portage was sometimes im- 
necessary, for with a good stage of water in the river, the canal 
boats could be taken through the locks into the river direct and 
towed by the steamboats to their destination. Several ware- 
houses were built on Water Street: one near the present Shu- 
gert property by Hamilton Clark, and one by John Dickey, 
both of which were removed here from Bridgewater; and one by 
J, A. Sholes. Clark and Dickey also built wharf boats for 
receiving freight. Similar boats were built here by C. Bid- 
well, John M. Lukens, and a man named Collins. A very large 
freight business was done here, and a regular line of passenger 
packets ran to and from New Castle and points beyond. The 
latter ceased soon after the railroad was built, but freight ship- 
ments continued to be made by the canal until it was sold. 


What is now Rochester has had several different names. In 
the deeds of Hemphill and Hinds, and in their plans of lots 

738 History of Beaver County 

made about 1834, the name "East Bridgewater" occurs. This 
seems to have been applied to that part of the place immediately 
opposite Bridgewater. In a deed from James A. Sholes to 
Titus W. Power, dated 1836, the name "Fairport" is used. Both 
names were used by M. T. C. Gotdd in an article published in 
Hazzard's Register of Pennsylvania for 1835, and seem to desig- 
nate two separate parts of the collection of houses in what 
became the village of Rochester. He says: " East Bridgewater 
and Fairport, quite in their incipient stage, promise soon to 
attain a respectable rank among their neighbors. Mr. Ovid 
Pinney has invested some thirty thousand dollars in lands at 
the above places, and is preparing to build up a large town." 
Two years later the name "Fairport" would appear to have 
gained acceptance for the place as a whole. The Pittsburgh 
Business Directory, published by Isaac Harris in 1837, so refers 
to it. Another name for this place in early days was "Beaver 
Point." This was frequently employed in addressing letters 
and other mail matter. 

Rochester, the present name of the town, was probably 
given to it sometime between 1837 and 1840. The honor of 
first giving this name to the town is assigned by Richard's His- 
tory of Beaver County (page 477) to Ovid Pinney, but belongs of 
right to Mitchell Hammond, who kept a grocery store on Water 
Street, and had this name of his own selection put upon some 
goods which he had bought in Pittsburg and shipped by boat 
to his home.' 

Harris's " directory*' 

Harris's Pittsburgh Business Directory for 1841 gives the fol- 
lowing list of names of Rochester's business men for that year: 

Merchants — Clarke & Co., William D. Johnson, William Alexander, 
James Fulton and William Waring. Farmers — S. S. Reno, John Reno, 
Joseph Irvin, John Davidson, Hiigh McClain, James Black, William 
Moore, Lydia Reno, John Fink. Thomas McNamara, David Trinels, 
Robert French, J. Kelley, W. Lagona, Mrs. J. Moore, George Hinds and 
Lewis Reno. Physicians — F. R Moore, A. F. Snider. Jtistices of the 
peace — Samuel Moore, Joseph Irvin. Hotel Keepers — ^Jacob Jones, 
*'U. S. Hotel," John Boles. "Canal Hotel," H. Bausman, "Fairport 
Hotel." School-teachers — William McGowan and John MarshalL Boat 
Builders — ^James Porter, Robert French and John H. Whisler. Canal 
Boat Captains — Capt. Woods, Thomas Campbell and John Stiles. Steam- 
^ Rochester Semi-Cenunntal Souvenir, page 104. 

^^■c '^M 



Marcus T. C. Gould. 

Heretofore unpublished portrait. From original painting by Bowman in possession of 
Mrs. Harrison Mendenhall, New Brighton, Pa., a daughter of Mr. Gould. 

History of Beaver County 739 

boat Pilots — ^William Hamilton. Francis Reno. William Reno, Crate 
Reno, A. Fisher and Jesse Nannah. Boatmen — ^Jobn Javens, William 
Powers, James Murray and J. Crane. Engineers and Surveyors — ^Abner 
P. Lacock and Atlas E. Lacock. Blacksmiths — J. Jackson, R. Jackson, J. 
Cooster. Shoemakers — ^A. Fowler, Mr. Smith. Carpenters — H. Jackson, S. 
Powell, S. Keys, J. Hart, J. Umstead and Milo Moore. Chair Makers — 
Jemuel Woodruff, J. Thompson, J. McCnmi and J. B. Hill. Gardeners — 
W. Mclntire and Abraham Hall. Boarding House — John O'Connor. 
Teamsters — John Wasson, John Inglis, Lawrence Marqtiis. Laborers — 
D. Cable, R. Jackson, J. McKeever and J. Parrish. Miscellaneous — ^A. 
Smith, tailor; John M. Lukens, clerk; John Webster, lock-keeper canal; 
Mr. Bailey, miller; C. Geer, lumberman; Ed. Gillespie, cooper; W. Leaf, 
stone mason; Horatio N. Frazier, gentleman; J. B. Shurtleff, editor 
Beaver Patriot; Samuel Barnes, firebrick maker. 


Among the early citizens of Rochester none was more promi- 
nent, or did more to advance the business interests of the place 
than Marcus T. C. Gould. His name and influence were con- 
nected with the most important enterprises in the county, and 
especially in this immediate vicinity. Some of these enterprises 
are mentioned later in this chapter. He was a man of large 
ideas and of boundless enthusiasm. Believing confidently in the 
future greatness of this region he conceived the plan of a city 
which should extend from the mouth of the Beaver to the Falk 
of that stream, and labored imtiringly to interest capitalists in 
the towns throughout the valley. For Rochester especially Mr. 
Gould sought to devise liberal things. He came here shortly 
after the town was incorporated, to look after the sale of the 
large land holdings acquired in this place by Ovid Pinney. A 
map was made, called *'A Map of the Borough of Rochester,** 
which was a copy of several maps belonging to individuals who 
had plotted small parcels of land. This map was made, Decem- 
ber 31, 1851, and has since been known as ** Finney's Plan of 
Lots in the Borough of Rochester." Two years later Mr. Gould 
induced Hiram Walbridge of Philadelphia, and John Thompson 
of Rhode Island, to invest a large sxmi of money in these lands. 
The deed by which the purchase was conveyed is dated October 
10, 1853. Four htmdred and six town lots, as laid out on the 
"Pinney Map,'* together with certain other pieces of land in the 
borough and vicinity, were conveyed in consideration of $43,706. 

Mr. Gould's large conception of the future Rochester or 

740 History of Beaver County 

"Beaver City" was expressed in a map which he constructed, 
showing the town of Rochester and a hundred miles around it, 
with "commentaries" thereon addressed to the Pittsbiu^ Board 
of Trade, calUng attention to the advantages of the site and its 
surroundings. The present prosperity of the Beaver valley, 
and its hopeftd industrial and commercial outlook, prove the 
farsightedness of this active mind. Mr. Gould was the origina- 
tor of a system of stenography which was long in use, and also 
the inventor of the first fountain pen. He died November 
19, i860. 


One of the eariy enterprises in which, as we have said, Mr. 
Gould was a leading spirit was the Rochester Manufacturing 
Company, which was organized, August 27, 1854, for the manu- 
facture of iron from ore, the casting of car wheels, and the 
making of various other kinds of machinery, even to locomo- 
tives. A large stone building was erected where the Speyerer 
Hotel now stands, but it seems that this company never actu- 
ally engaged in the business of manufacturing. The structure 
was, however, later used for the manufacture of barrels by 
Rhodes, Kennedy & Company, and afterwards by Rhodes & 
Kirk in making cars for the railroad. The Rochester Manu- 
facturing Company passed out of existence in 1865, when its 
property was sold to James I. Bennett for the sum of $16,500. 

The Pendleton Brothers, a firm composed of Captain Gilbert 
and Joseph Pendleton, established one of the earHest industries 
of Rochester, an important firebrick works, started in 1856, 
Captain Daniel Fitch and Mr. John Stahl later became con- 
nected with the firm. 

Anderson's Foundry was established in 1861 by Jacob Jones 
Anderson in the old octagonal-shaped building, which stood tmtil 
a few years ago at the foot of New York Street. This plant was 
operated successfully for several years. 

The Rochester Tumbler Company, which for twenty-seven 
years owned and operated the principal industry of Rochester, 
and one of the most important tumbler works in the world, was 

History of Beaver County 741 

organized in the spring of 1872. Five acres of the Lacock prop- 
erty, in Rochester township, just outside of the borough limits, 
were purchased. The stockholders were Jesse H. Lippincott, 
Henry C. Fry, Samuel Moulds, William Moulds, Samuel M. 
Kane, Richard Welsh, Thomas Carr, William Carr, Robert Carr, 
and John Carr. The first officers elected were as follows: Henry 
C. Fry, president; Jesse H. Lippincott, secretary and treasurer; 
and Samuel M. Kane, manager. 

The shares of stock were originally five htmdred dollars, 
but they ultimately appreciated greatly. The company com- 
menced the manufacture of glass with one ten-pot furnace and 
with ninety employees, making tumblers a specialty. 

The capacity was then 1 200 dozen per week. During the final 
year of its existence it operated seven furnaces with ninety pots, 
gave employment to 11 00 people, and had a capacity of 75,000 
dozen per week, or 150,000 tumblers per day. These seven large 
furnaces were kept in operation constantly, and some idea of their 
capacity may be had from the fact that each week they con- 
sumed about one hundred tons of white sand alone, not to men- 
tion the several other ingredients, of which large quantities 
were used in the manufacture of pressed and blown tumblers 
and goblets, both of crystal and finest lead glass. The build- 
ings of the Rochester Tumbler Company covered seven of the 
ten acres of groimd belonging to the company, lying between 
the P., Ft. W. & C. RR. tracks and the Ohio River. The plant 
was operated night and day, was lighted throughout with elec- 
tricity furnished by the company's own motors, and consumed 
daily 2,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas, which was brought 
from the concern's own wells through fifty miles of natural-gas 
mains. The products of this concern were sold throughout the 
civilized world, and compared favorably with the finest wares 
of France and Belgium. 

On the morning of February 12, 1901, the larger part of this 
great plant was destroyed by fire, and the people were dismayed 
at its loss, but the enterprise of the citizens and of the owners 
was sufficient to meet the situation. The National Glass Com- 
pany, which is spoken of a little below, and which in 1899 
had taken control of the plant, at once took steps to rebuild in 
even greater dimensions; and H. C. Fry, its former president, 
organized a new glass company. 

742 History of Beaver Coonty 

H. C. Fry Glass Coxnpainr, a corporatioii organiied with 
$400,000 capital, under the m a nnfacturin g laws of Pennsyl- 
vania, co mmenc ed business in 1902 with a new and ap-to-date 
glass works at North Rochester. H. C. Fry is president; and 
John N. Taylor, of the great pottery concern of Knowies, Tay- 
lor & Knowles. East LiverpooL Ohio, vice-president. This plant 
manafactares high grade blown tumblers and frne cnt table glass- 
ware, on a new improved patented process. It is considered the 
finest and best eqtdpped glass factory in the United States, and is 
mannfactoring perhaps as fine goods as were ever before pro- 
duced in this or any other country. It has over 500 employees 
to start with, and bids fair to become a very important fac- 
tor in Beaver County's many manufacturing enterprises. 

The Business Men's Association of Rochester, which was 
organized March 30, 190 1. with H. H. Newkirk as president; 
Garrett T. Bentel, secretary ; and Geo. H. Cross, treasurer, and 
whose object is to secure the mutual benefit of business men by 
promoting their interests, securing their co-operation and ad- 
vancing the welfare of the town, nobly stood by Mr. Fry, giving 
him indispensable assistance in his great enterprise. The only 
suitable location for a plant of this kind being on a terrace, 
high above the great railway system and the river, a railway to 
this point was necessary, involving an expenditure of many 
thousands of dollars, and the overcoming of great engineering 
difficulties. The Association appointed a committee, known as 
the ** Switch Committee." This committee consisted of Frank 
Fe>'ler. Curtis C. Xoss, James T. Conlin, S. A. Engle. and Joseph 
I. Reno; Mr. Feyler, chairman. The committee procured a 
large ntmaber of the citizens as security- for the money needed for 
the railway, which was soon built and opened with a celebration 
at North Rochester, on the 28th of Jime. 1902. 

William Miller & Sons. — William Miller, contractor and 
builder, came to Rochester in 1S55, and in 1869 established, 
with A. S. Dobson and Jacob Trax. the firm of Miller. Dobson 
& Trax. In 1872 the firm became Miller & Trax. and in 1875 
it was succeeded by William Miller. In 1884 the firm of Wm. 
Miller & Sons succeeded William Miller; and. November 6, 1898, 
William Miller retired, the firm name remaining Wm. Miller & 
Sons. This firm is composed of the brothers John A., George 

History of Beaver County 743 

W., Charles M., and Henry J. Miller; Charles M. and George W. 
Miller being in the Pittsburg office, and John A. and Henry J. 
Miller in Rochester. 

The plant and lumber yard of Wm. Miller & Sons, located 
between the railroad and river, covers about six acres, and they 
employ from forty to seventy-five men. They handle all kinds 
of lumber, their specialty being hardwood interiors, bank and 
office fixtures, etc. They also do a general contracting business, 
from their Pittsburg office, located in the Frick Btdlding. 

The following are a few of the more prominent buildings 
they have erected: the Montgomery County court-house at 
Norristown, Pa.; Washington Coimty court-house and jail. 
Washington, Pa.; York County court-house, York, Pa.; the 
Arrott Office Building in Pittsburg; the Pittsburg Bank for 
Savings; and the new Union Station of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road at Pittsburg. 

Keystone Pottery Company. — ^This firm, which was composed 
of Wm. Miller & Sons, was incorporated in 1890. John Gripp 
of Pittsbiu^, deceased, was a member of the firm at its organiza- 
tion. June 26, 1895, the plant was destroyed by fire. The 
site of the pottery was taken possession of by Wm. Miller & 
Sons, with H. V. Barteaux, who then formed the Miller Brick 

The Miller Brick Company. — ^This company was incorporated 
in 1900 for the manufacture of face and paving brick. The 
officers of the company are Wm. Miller, Sr., president; Wm. L. 
Miller, secretary and manager ; and John A. Miller, treasurer. 

Rochester Point Bottle Works was first called the Rochester 
Flint Vial and Bottle Works, and was organized in the fall of 
1879. Its directors were David McDonald, Sr., David Mc- 
Donald, Jr., Wm. Anderson, Wm. Miller, Sr., Michael Camp, 
P. McLaughlin, Irvin McDonald, and John Taylor. David 
McDonald, Sr., was president; David McDonald, Jr., secretary 
and treastirer; and Wm. Anderson, manager. This company 
erected a plant which now forms the main portion of the btdld- 
ing occupied by the Point Bottle Works Company. In 1882 the 
company was reorganized, and given the name of the Point 

744 History of Beaver County 

Bottle Works Company. The directors of the new company 
were: P. McLaughlin, John Scheiss, Wm. McCague, J. C. Irvin, 
John Flint, James R. Dougherty, Henry Hexuing, Thos. Joyce, 
Sr., P. McLaughlin was its president; John Scheiss, secretary; 
J. C. Irvin its first treasurer; and Wm. McCague its second. 
The factory was operated under this management until 1887, 
when it was again reorganized, the following being the directors: 
Henry Heuring, P. J. Huth, James R. Dougherty, Lewis Hol- 
lander, John Flint, Reinhart Radtke, and Wm. O'Leary. Henry 
Heuring was elected president; P. J. Huth, secretary and treas- 
urer. This management continued without a change until 1898^ 
when C. A. Dambacher was elected president, and Henry Heur- 
ing, superintendent. The factory is located at the junction of 
the Beaver and Ohio rivers, and at the junction of the C. & P. 
and Fort Wayne railroads. The works cover about one acre of 
ground. The present management has greatly increased the 
capacity of the plant, and recently erected a two-story packing 
room 64 X 128 feet, and a warehouse 32 x 80 feet. 

When first started the goods manufactured were flasks and 
fruit jars, but now a general line of prescription and liquor 
bottles are made. The plant has a capacity of 200 gross of 
bottles per day. It gives employment to 135 hands, with a 
yearly pay-roll of about $50,000. 

Keystone Tumbler Company. — The Keystone Tumbler Com- 
pany was organized in Februar^^ 1897. I^s officers were: John 
Conway, president; George A. Malone, secretary; August Hel- 
ler, treasurer; Chas. Runyon, general manager. Its directors 
were: John Conway, August Heller, John Moulds, James T. 
Conlin, and Charles Bentel. The capital stock was $75,800. 
The factory began operation August 23, 1897. "^^^ plant 
occupies a building, 300 x 310 feet, besides a boiler-house 
and other out-buildings. Thirty-five pots is the working equip- 
ment of the plant, and 360 people are employed. November i, 
1899, this property was taken over by the National Glass 

The National Glass Company was organized November i, 
1899, with an issued capital of $2,325,000 stock and $2,000,000 
of bonds, and on that date took over the following properties: 

History of Beaver County 745 

Beatty-Brady Glass Co., Dunkirk, Ind. ; Canton Glass Co., Marion, 
Ind.; Central Glass Co., Summitville, Ind.; Crystal Glass Co., Bridge- 
port, Ohio; Cumberland Glass Co., Cumberland, Md. ; Dalzell, Gilmore 
St Leighton Co., Findlay, Ohio; Fairmont Glass Co., Fairmont, W. 
Va,; Greensburg Glass Co.. Greensbvirg, Pa.; Indiana Tiunbler and 
Goblet Co., Greentown, Ind.; Keystone Glass Co., Rochester, Pa.; Model 
Flint Glass Co., Albany, Ind.; McKee & Bros. Glass Co., Jeannette, Pa.; 
Northwood Glass Co., Indiana, Pa.; Ohio Flint Glass Co., Lancaster, 
Ohio; Riverside Glass Co., Wellsburg, W. Va.; Robinson Glass Co., 
Zanesville, Ohio; Rochester Ttmibler Co.. Rochester, Pa.; Royal Glass 
Co., Marietta, Ohio; West Va. Glass Co., Martins Ferry, Ohio. 

The company since that time has met with disastrous fires 
at Rochester, Pa., and at Greensburg, Pa. 

They have rebuilt the portion of the Rochester Tumbler 
Works that was burned at an expenditure of over $300,000, and 
have also built a large works at Cambridge, Ohio. 

The company at this time is employing about 7000 people. 
At the consolidated Rochester- Keystone plant at Rochester, Pa., 
the company has 1300 people on their pay-roll. 

It is expected that the Rochester-Keystone plant will pro- 
duce $1,500,000 worth of goods during the current year (1903). 
Their pay-roll will run about $50,000 per month. The directors 
and officers of the company are as follows: A. W. Herron, 
president; Addison Thompson, secretary; A. L. Strasburger, 
treasurer; who, with George I. Whitney, Frank L. Stephenson, 
and L. B. Martin, compose the board of directors. 

From July i, 1903, Charles Runyon was superintendent 
and general manager of the Rochester plant. 

Beaver Valley Glass Manufacturing Company, popularly 
known as the ** Dinkey*' Glass Works, was established in 1882 
by Alex. Pfiffner, John McManus, and Floris Thomas. The 
ownership passed to Messrs. Irvin & McLaughlin, who, in 1885, 
leased the plant to Mr. John D. Carter, and the firm name 
became the John D. Carter Glass Works, not Limited. The 
product was flasks, brandy bottles, and prescription vials, and 
the business was actively conducted until July, 1890, when the 
plant was destroyed by fire and never rebuilt. 

The Beaver Palls Cutlery Company first started on a small 
scale in Rochester, on the premises on the Brighton Road or 
Delaware Avenue, afterwards occupied by the ** Dinkey" Glass 

746 History of Beaver County 

Works, bnt was soon removed to Beaver Falls, where it became 
a great concern. 

Bonbrights* Starch Factory. — ^About 1844 John and William 
Bonbright came to Rochester and started a starch factory on 
the site more recently occupied by the above-mentioned works. 
They manufactured three grades of starch. The Bonbrights 
were brothers of Mrs. Dr. A. T. Shallenberger. John was a 
merchant, and btiilt the house now owned and occupied by 
John Conway as a bank and dwelling. William Bonbright 
built the house in which Marcus T. C. Gould afterwards lived, 
which stands on the bluff just above the Point Glass Works, 
and is now occupied by William Graham. 

The Rochester Planing Mill Company, formerly known as the 
Rochester Planing Mill. George E. Woodruff, proprietor, was 
chartered December 4, 1902. with a capital of $60,000. and with 
the following officers and directors: Orin H. Mathews, president; 
George E. Woodruff, secretary and treasurer; directors — B. E. 
Surls, R. E. Tallon. and H. D. Jackson. Jemuel Woodruff, the 
father of George E. Woodruff of this firm, came to this vicinity 
in 1832, and was at first engaged in the clock business. He 
later built a cabinet shop and manufactured fumittire. In 1858 
a planing mill was built by Monroe Miller, Wheelen Dolby, and 
Charles Lukens, in which Mr. Woodruff was employed. In 1875 
or 1876 he bought this mill for himself, and tmtil his death in 
Januar\% 1899, continued the business. At the time of his 
death, when he was about ninety-five years of age. Mr. Wood- 
ruff was the oldest Freemason in the United States. ha\'ing 
become a member of the order in 1S25. For some years pre- 
vious to his death, his son George was associated with him in 
the business of the mill, and was afterwards its sole proprietor 
tmtil the present firm was established. This firm employs 
about thirty men and does a large business. 

The Rochester Cut Glass Company. — The Rochester Cut 
Glass Company was organized in the fall of 1896. with Jno. M. 
Pfeiffer. president; F. L. Williams, secretar>-; and C. B. Con- 
way, treasurer. They are manufacturers of rich cut ttmiblers, 
fingerbowls, sherbets, stemware, water-bottles, and cut bar 
bottles. Forty skilled workmen are given employment by this 

History of Beaver County 747 

concern, and the annual production is of about $50,000 value. 
The x>resent officers of the company are: president, Jno. Moulds; 
vice-president, F. L. Williams; secretary and treasurer, John M. 
Pfeiflfer; and manager, Robt. E. Johnston. 

The Olive Stove Works were originally established by Cap- 
tain Daniel Fitch and the Herrington Brothers in 1872. In 
September, 1879, they sold these works to the present company, 
and on September i, 1879, **The OHve Stove Works, Limited," 
was incorporated and a board of seven managers were elected. 
John Conway was made president; and John R. Eakin, secre- 
tary and treastirer. The works were then located at the river, 
on the east comer of New York and River streets. In 1882 it 
was decided to enlarge the works, and the present site was 
purchased and suitable buildings were erected thereon. March 
3» 1 903* this plant was destroyed by a fire, caused by a gas 
explosion, but was immediately rebuilt. In 1899 ^ ^^^ charter 
was obtained, and the Olive Stove Works was made a corpora- 
tion. The present officers are: John R. Eakin, president; 
Joseph M. Eakin, secretary and treasurer; S. G. Woods, superin- 
tendent; John W. Dowell, traveling salesman. 

The production is confined to manufacturing cooking and 
heating stoves and ranges and general castings. 

The Rochester Roller Flouring Mills, G. Henry Karcher and 
Jno. A. Karcher, proprietors, are located on Railroad Street, 
opposite the Fort Wayne freight depot. The firm was 
organized in 1882, under the title of Karcher Brothers, who 
erected a flouring mill on the location on which the present 
mill stands, which was burned in December of 1890, together 
with several other buildings located in that part of the town. 
They rebuilt during the summer of 1891. The present mill is 
four stories high, 50 x 85 feet in size, and is built of brick. Its 
capacity is 125 barrels of flour daily. It is equipped with the 
latest improvements in the way of rolls, bolting reels, and wheat 
cleaning machinery. It also contains a corn-meal system, 
which is the latest improved process for bolting and purifying 
com meal, also roller machinery for making all kinds of chop, 
com, oats, and rye feed. The power for the mill is supplied by 
a 75-horse-power tubular boiler and 65-horse-power automatic 

748 History of Beaver County 

engine. They also have their own electric plant, which ftir- 
nishes the lighting for the mill, and a large building 50 x 50 feet 
square, two stories high, which is a warehouse for flour and 
hay and a stable combined. 

The Rochester Clay Pot Company was organized JsLxmary 
25, 1902, and chartered April 14, 1902. It manufactures glass- 
house pots of every description. The present officers are Dr. 
J. C. McClaren of Pittsburg, president; George A. Rahe of 
Pittsburg, vice-president; and Edward Willetts of Rochester, 
secretary and treasurer. 

The Beaver Valley Pot Company was organized. May 26, 
1902, with the following officers: Samuel Yoimg, president; 
J. Howard Fry, secretary; Leonard Albrecht, treasurer. The 
company was formed for the purpose of manufacturing glass 
melting pots, tank blocks, bench clay and furnace blocks of all 
kinds for glass factories. The plant has a capacity of 900 pots 
annually, besides the other supplies. The present officers of the 
company are: Edward Kaye, president; Edward T. Davis, 
treasurer; Walter R. Irvin, secretary; Samuel Young, manager; 
directors: Edward Kaye, E. T. Davis, W. H. Surls, M. S. Mar- 
quis, and H. C. Fry. 


Speyerer & McDonald Bank. — ^This was the first banking 
institution started in Rochester. Its firm members were G. C. 
Speyerer, J. V. McDonald, H. J. Speyerer, and W. J. Speyerer. 
The capital was $30,000. The first deposit was received Novem- 
ber 3, 1869. In 1872 the firm name was changed to Speyerer & 
Company, with the same amount of capital. The members were 
then G. C. Speyerer, H. J. Speyerer, W. J. Speyerer, John Greab- 
ing, Sr., L. H. Oatman, and Louis Schneider. September 23, 
1873, the business was turned over to the Beaver County Bank- 
ing & Safe Deposit Association, Rochester, Pa., which was 
organized with a capital of $75,000. The first officers and 
directors were: G. C. Speyerer, president; H. J. Speyerer, 
cashier; directors: G. C. Speyerer, Louis Schneider, H. J. 
Speyerer, John Greabing, Sr., and L. H. Oatman. This insti- 
tution is no longer in existence. 

History of Beaver County 749 

John Conway's Bank. — ^This is the second oldest banking in- 
stitution in Rochester. It was organized in 187 1 as John Con- 
way & Company. From time to time Mr. Conway has bought 
out his partners, until he is now the sole owner. The bank is 
on the comer of Madison Street and Brighton Road. Mr. Con- 
way does a general banking business on safe and conservative 
lines, and is an able financier. 

First National Bank of Rochester. — This bank was established 
Jime i8, 1883, with Henry C. Fry, William S. Shallenberger, 
Edward B. Daugherty, Gilbert Pendleton, I. F. Mansfield, 
Thomas M. Armstrong, Tobias Hetchie, Moses B. Sloan, Board- 
man S. Ranger, Benjamin Mulheim, and Dr. A. T. Shallenberger, 
signers on the certificate of organization. The first directors 
were Henry C. Fry, W. S. Shallenberger, I. F. Mansfield, 
Gilbert Pendleton, A. C. Hurst, John M. Buchanan, Jesse 
H. Lippencott.. Henry C. Fry was chosen president of this 
bank at the time of its organization, and has continued to occupy 
that position from that time till the present. 

The bank first opened for business on the i8th of Jime, 1883, 
in the brick building on Brighton Street, now owned and occu- 
pied by Mrs. John Kaszer. At that time the bank owned this 
property. In 1887 the property was sold to Mrs. Kaszer, and 
the bank removed to its present convenient location, on the 
comer of New York and Pleasant streets. 

Hon. W. S. Shallenberger was made cashier of this bank at 
the time of its organization. Mr. Shallenberger was succeeded 
as cashier by Charles J. Wack. Mr. Wack was a teller at the 
time of his election. He held the position from that time till 
August 3, 1894, when he died. 

Thomas C. Fry was elected to succeed Mr. Wack, and Mr. 
Fry was succeeded by the present cashier, Mr. John H. Mellor. 
The capital stock of this bank in 1900 was $50,000, and its sur- 
plus, $50,000; in 1903 the capital was increased to $150,000, 
and the surplus is now $35,000. 

The Rochester National Bank. — ^This bank was organized, 
December 17, 1898, with the following officers and directors: 
James G. Mitchell, president; W. J. Mellon, vice-president; 
Joseph C. Campbell, cashier; Elmer J. Mengel, teller; directors: 

750 History of Beaver County 

James G. liitchell, W. J. Mellon, Joseph C. Campbell, Charles 
R. Eckert, Robert W. Darragh. Charles P. Brobeck, Robert L. 
Hood, Alfred P. Marshall, and Edward J. Schleitcr. 

It began business, March 13, 1899, with a capital of $50,000. 
The banking house was located in a handsome brick building, 
comer of Brighton and Washington streets, erected by James 
G. Mitchell. In 1902 this bank was absorbed by the Rochester 
Trust Company. 

The Rochester Trust Company. — Early in the fall of 1902 a 
few of the most enterprising of Rochester's business men began 
to talk seriously of the organization of a new bank, believing 
that the growth of the town and increasing business of the 
cotmty justified such a venture. Dr. W. A. Rose and Mr. 
Henry J. Miller were the prime movers in the enterprise, and 
their first idea was of a bank or trust company capitalized at 
$150,000. So favorably was this plan received that in less than 
two days* canvas Mr. Miller succeeded in getting nearly the 
whole proposed amoimt subscribed. A trust company was de- 
cided upon on accotmt of there being no organization of that 
kind in Rochester, and on account of its wider field for business. 

On the nth of October, at the office of William Miller & 
Sons, was held the first meeting for the organization of the 
Rochester Trust Company. Those present were: Messrs. John 
A. Miller, Walter A. Rose, Curtis C. Noss, William A. McConnel, 
Frank Feyler, Henry J. Miller, Adie K. B. Wilson, George H. 
Karcher, and Thomas C. Fry — all subsequently directors in the 
company. John A. Miller was elected chairman, and Thomas 
C. Fry, secretary, of the meeting. The capital was placed at 
$1 50,000, and Thomas C. Fry appointed treasurer of the company. 

A little later it was found that the Rochester National Bank 
would consider a proposition to sell its stock. Messrs. John A. 
Miller, Wilson, Noss, and Shugert, were appointed a committee 
to confer with the bank, and reported that the bank stock 
could be bought for $200 per share. This deal was immediately 

As the original $150,000 had already been subscribed, a 
resolution was passed on the 4th of November increasing the 
capital stock to $200,000. On November 20th the first stock- 
holders meeting was held at the office of C. C. Noss & Company. 

History of Beaver County 751 

At this meeting the directors, fifteen in number, were elected, 
namely: John A. Miller, Dr. Walter A. Rose, William A. Mc- 
Coimel, Joseph C. Campbell, Curtis C. Noss, George H. Karcher, 
Wesley E. Bonzo, Henry J. Miller, George A. Baldwin, Frank 
Peyler, Dr. Guy S. Shugert, Adie K. B. Wilson, Dr. John C. 
McCauley, James H. Ewing, and Thomas C. Fry. 

The Rochester Trust Company commenced business in the 
rooms of the Rochester National Bank, on December i, 1902. 

On the 23d of December a meeting of the stockholders of the 
Rochester National Bank was held, and resolutions passed to 
place the bank in volimtary liquidation on January 6, 1903. 

Mr. Joseph C. Campbell, formerly cashier of the Rochester 
National Bank, continued with the Trust Company until Feb- 

The officers elected by the directors of the Rochester Trust 
Company were: John A. Miller, president; Dr. Walter A. Rose, 
vice-president; Thomas C. Fry, secretary and treasurer; Herbert 
W. Douglass, assistant secretary and treasurer; Elmer J. Mengel, 
teller; and Charles A. Stewart, assistant teller. 

The Rochester Savings and Loan Association was incor- 
porated, August, 1894, with an authorized capital of $10,000,000. 
The officers were: George W. Miller, president; Paulus E. 
Kohler, vice-president; George C. Deming, secretary; Thomas 
L. Darragh, treasurer. In 1902 this Association was merged 
into the Farmers* Building and Loan Association of Brush Creek, 
Pa., whose place of business is in Rochester 

The Central Building and Loan Association of Beaver 
County. — Since its organization in 1888 this has become one of 
the largest and most successful institutions of its kind in Penn- 
sylvania, with about 1400 shareholders, carrying nearly 7000 
shares of stock, on which the annual receipts exceed $200,000. 
The Hst of officers and directors is as follows: William M. Fisher, 
president; G. T. Bentel, vice-president; A. Heller, treasurer; 
J. T. Conlin, secretary; Hon. M. F. Mecklem, attorney; John 
Bender, H. B. Ruth, R. Radtke, John Flint, William List, H. L. 
Morgan, E. Romigh, J. H. Gordon, and Wheelen Dolby, directors. 

Rochester Building and Loan Association. — This associa- 
tion was organized in the spring of 1894, and the charter was 

752 History of Beaver County 

granted June i, 1894. At the time of the organisation the 
officers and directors were: A. C. Htu^. president; William 
Moulds, vice-president; W. S. Shallenbeiger, treasurer; Thomas 
H. Javens, secretary; William Miller, Sr., John Coleman, John 
J. Hofibnan, Robert H. Marshall, Harrison J. Chandler, Prank 
L. Robinson, A. N. Gutermuth, Frank Woodruff, and Joseph J. 
Zimmerman, directors; and the organization has remained the 
same ever since, except that when Mr. Shallenbeiger left Roches- 
ter, John J. Hoffman was elected to the office of treasurer; and 
Mr. Woodruff retiring from the board, John E. Nelson was 
elected in his stead. W. A. McConnel is solicitor. The capital 
stock is $i,ooo,cx>o, with the privilege of increasing it to 


Trinity Episcopal Church of Rochester was organized, May 
29, 1851, and chartered March 18, 1852. The charter members 
were John Reno, John Clark, F. Reno, John Cooke, D. W. C. 
Bidwell. The first vestry was composed of John Reno and Wm. 
Owens, wardens; and Wm. Hurst, secretary and treasurer. The 
parish was organized by Rev. Wm. H. Paddock, and the first 
pastor was Rev. Joseph P. Taylor, who immediately began the 
erection of the present church on a lot presented by M. T. C. 
Gould, as agent for the land company. Mr. Taylor was rector 
from 1851 to 1867, and at times was assisted by Rev. J. T. 
Protheroe and Rev. J. L. G. Fryer. Mr. Fryer was a very 
promising young minister, but death claimed him while con- 
nected with this church. Rev. C. N. Spalding, D.D., became 
rector of Trinity, in connection with New Brighton parish, in 
1872. Rev. Wm. Ballard became rector of this parish and 
Georgetown in 1873, and had many improvements made upon 
the church property, and was followed by Rev. John K. Karcher. 
In 1876 Rev. Wm. A. Fuller was rector of this parish, with 
Trinity Church, New Castle; St. Paul's Church, Fairview;and 
St. Luke's, Georgetown. Rev. Thos. J. Martin was next, and 
was succeeded by Jno. Loudon in 1884. Rev. J. A. Farrar next 
took charge. During his pastorate the parish received a gift 
of $5000 from Lewis Taylor, Esq., which was used to purchase 
a rector>' and put the church in repair. In September, 1886, 
Rev. T. J. Danner became rector, and had the belfry erected to 

History of Beaver County 753 

receive the chimes, which were presented to the parish by 
Amelia Blake of East End, Pittsburg, formerly a member of the 
church, and a daiighter of Wm. Hurst, one of the first vestry. 
Rev. J. L. Taylor next succeeded to the rectorship of the parish. 
In 1897 Rev. A. D. Brown took charge. 

Tradition says that the first church started and completed 
in Rochester was the Episcopal, the first foundation for which 
was begun on the lot now owned by Hon. H. P. Brown, comer of 
Adams and Vermont Streets. For some reason this foundation 
was not completed, and the congregation accepted the present 
lot and proceeded to erect the present building. 

St. Cecilia's Roman Catholic Church. — ^The first Roman 
Catholic church organized in Beaver County was that of Beaver, 
known as SS. Peter and Paul's. By 1854 a number of German 
faniiilies had come into the parish, and by these a separate 
organization was begtm in the town of Rochester. From Ovid 
Pinney, who owned a large part of the ground in that place, 
and had laid it out in town lots, a gift of two lots on Washing- 
ton Street, the present location of the church, was obtained by 
deed bearing date, April 29, 1854. Two years later the erection 
of a frame church, 25 x 46 feet, was begtm. This church was 
dedicated on Sunday, November 22, 1857. The Rev. Father 
Michael Muhlberger was the first regular, though not resi- 
dent, pastor of this parish. There was no resident pastor for 
many years, the congregation being too poor to support one, 
and for some time services were held but once a month. 

The Reverend Father J. Reiser in 1859 became the second 
pastor of St. Cecilia's Church, which, towards the end of that 
year, was attached to St. Mary's, Allegheny, from which it was 
visited twice a month for about nine years following. The 
names of the pastors appearing on the church register during 
this period and later are as follows: October, 1859-61, the Rev- 
erends P. J. Hoffznogott, Passionist, and Michael Aigner, Mis 
sionary; 1861-62, the Reverend Father C. Klockner; 1862, the 
Reverend Fathers Carolus Schuler, J. A. Shell, and Anton Basch; 
1863-66, the Reverend Fathers Brandstetter and J. B. Weik- 
man; 1866-68, the Reverend Fathers Martin Kink and A. 
McGurgan; 1868, the Reverend Father Adam Gtmkel. 

July 14, 1868, Father Reid, of Beaver, died, and the churches 

754 History of Beaver County 

of SS. Peter and Paul's and St. Cecilia's were united in one 
charge. For some time previous, however, the same priests had 
been saying Mass in both churches; but during 1869 the Pas- 
sionist Fathers attended Beaver, and the Reverend Father 
Zwickert succeeded Father Gunkel as pastor of St. Cecilia. The 
name of the Reverend Father A. Winter appears as having been 
at St. Cecilia during 1869. 

In the winter of 1873 the Reverend Father Joseph Bohm 
became pastor of both churches, which remained together tmtil 

The Reverend Father J. Romelf anger took charge of the 
parishes about the year 1874, and a parsonage having been 
purchased in Rochester, from this time on the priests resided 
at that place. 

The Reverend Father J. Kaib succeeded Father Romel- 
f anger in October, 1877, and he in turn was followed by the 
Reverend Father Frederick B. StefEen, in November, 1878. 
Father Steffen was a young priest greatly beloved by his people, 
and, as elsewhere stated, died of smallpox, having contracted 
the disease while ministering to a parishioner who was ill with 
it. He died in December, 1881, and was buried in Daugherty's 

The Reverend Father John Quinn was the next pastor. He 
was succeeded in the spring of 1882 by the Reverend Father 
J. A. Canevin, who remained until 1885. Since that date the 
pastors have been the following: Reverend Fathers, Joseph 
Fleckinger, two years; J. F. Bauer, 1887-92; William Jordan, 
one year; Michael A. Frank, June 18, 1893, until August, 1894; 
B. Gerold, August, 1894-May 7, 1899. Immediately following 
Father Gerold came the present pastor, the Reverend George 
M. A. Sch6ner. 

July 22, 1900, the Reverend Father Anthony Vogel became 
pastor of the church of SS. Peter and Paul's, which was then 
made, and is still, a separate charge. 

On April 4, 1898, the Beaver church was destroyed by fire, 
and St. Cecilia's became for a time the home of both congrega- 
tions. Later the third floor of Hurst's Hall. Bridgewater, was 
fitted up, and Mass was celebrated there for the members of the 
Beaver congregation tmtil the new church of SS. Peter and 
Paul's was erected. 

History of Beaver County 755 

Missions at Industry and Smith's Ferry had for many years 
been attached to St. Cecilia's, but they are now under the charge 
of the pastor of the Beaver church. The activities of the church 
have, besides, been represented in the work of many different 
societies, such as the Sons of St. George, Sons of St. Patrick, 
and the Emeralds, the Young Men's Institute, etc., and by the 
parochial schools. The congregation of St. Cecilia's is no 
longer distinctively a German one, nearly all of its members 
being able to speak English, and the pastor conducting the 
work of teaching mainly in that tongue. The old church was 
torn down in 190 1, and since then the services of the church have 
been held in Cole's Hall, on Adams Street. 

The new church building of St. Cecilia's now in course of 
construction, will be a magnificent structure. Its comer-stone 
was laid with imposing ceremonies on Sunday, October 25, 1903, 
the Reverend Father A. A. Lambing of Wilkinsburg presiding, 
and the address being delivered by the Reverend Father Joseph 
Gallagher of New Castle, Pa. Many visiting clergymen par- 
ticipated in the exercises, which were witnessed by nearly two 
thousand people. 

The design of this beautiful church is the work of the pastor, 
Father Schoner, who studied architecture in Germany, and is 
superintending the construction of the building and purchasing 
the material for it. 

Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church. — ^This church was or- 
ganized in the year 1854 by the late Rev. Dr. W. A. Passavant 
of Pittsburg, in the building then called the car factory. In 
1855 Dr. Passavant secured two lots on the comer of Adams 
and Ohio streets, and on the third day of July the comer-stone 
of the new church was laid. This building was occupied in the 
summer of 1856, although not entirely completed at that time. 
Boards placed on blocks and nail kegs were used for pews. Dr. 
Passavant served the congregation until the spring of 1863, 
when the late Henry Reck assumed charge of the newly estab- 
lished Orphans' Home on the hill, and also became pastor of this 
congregation. Mr. Reck preached to the congregation until the 
autumn of 1870, when he resigned. 

The congregation then elected as pastor the Rev. Dr. H. N. 
Roth, now of Chicago. Dr. Roth preached until July i, 1878, 

756 History of Beaver County 

when Rev. C. H. Hemsath assumed charge. The old structure 
known as the '* Gravel" church was in part rebuilt, and a num- 
ber of other improvements were made during his pastorate. 
He resigned the pastorate in March, 1882, but the resignation 
was not accepted. In the following vear he resigned, and this 
time the resignation was accepted, to take effect December 21, 
1883. On Friday night, December 21. 1883, the church build- 
ing was destroyed by fire. The congregation was left without 
a church in which to worship, and without a pastor. At a 
meeting held in St. Paul's Church, on Adams Street, December 
24th, they resolved to rebuild. A few weeks later Dr. H. N. 
Roth again began to act as pastor, preaching every two weeks; 
and Rev. L. Happe of Greenville, Pa., the alternate Sunday. On 
July 28, 1885, the comer-stone of the new building was laid, and 
on Sunday, April 25, 1886, the present church building was 
dedicated. The entire cost was about $6000. May 2, 1886, the 
Rev. J. W. Meyers assumed the pastorate, and labored until 
April 25, 1892, when he resigned. The pastorate of the church 
was vacant vmtil July, 1893, when Rev. J. K. Heckert took 
charge, and served the congregation tmtil March 13, 1898. A 
call was then extended to Dr. J. E. Whittaker. He accepted 
the call, and began to preach September the first. He resigned, 
December 28, 1900, and the present pastor, Rev. F. A. Bowers, 
assumed his relation to the church, Jtme 16, 1901. The congre- 
gation has now a membership of 440; the Stmday-school, 303. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — In the month of March, 
1867, at a session of the Pittsburg Conference, held in Massillon, 
Ohio, a request was made for the organization of a Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Rochester, Pa. In response to this re- 
quest, Rev. Lewis Paine was appointed to the charge, and soon 
afterward a meeting was held in the town hall, where seventy- 
five persons, most of whom had been connected with the Bridge- 
water Church, were requested to constitute the membership of 
a new church. Eleven others were soon afterwards received, 
making the membership of this church eighty-six. Its services 
were held in the town hall for two and one half years, until the 
lecture-room of the new church building was ready for occu- 
pancy. In 1869 the church biiilding was completed, excepting 
the furnishing of the auditorium, at a cost of $11,000. During 

History of Beaver County 757 

the pastorate of T. S. Hodgson, in the year 1874, the auditoritim 
of the church was completed and dedicated. 

The following persons have served the church as pastors: 
Revs. Lewis Paine, John Grant, W. W. Darby, T. S. Hodgson, 
D. L. Dempsey, D.D., S. T. Mitchell, William Cox, D.D., D. L. 
Dempsey, D.D., J. B. Risk, W. D. Slease, L. R. Beacom, S. M. 
Bell. Mr. Bell died during his pastorate, and Rev. William 
Cox, D.D., served the church during the remaining part of the 
year. He was succeeded by Rev. W. C. Weaver, who left in 
October, 1900, when the present pastor. Rev. W. S. Lockard, 
came to the field. 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's Church (German). — 
Prom about 1856 to 1866 two German congregations were or- 
ganized in the Beaver valley; the one a Lutheran at Bridge- 
water, and the other a Reformed at Rochester, which in the 
year 1867 united tmder the name of the Evangelical Lutheran 
St. Paul's Church. Two lots on the comer of Adams and Con- 
xiecticut streets were purchased, September 24, 1867, for the 
sum of $575, and a new brick building, 35 x 50 feet, was erected 
thereon. The contract price is not known. When the building 
was finished, a debt of $1400 was resting on the congregation, 
but in a few years this was paid through a Building and Loan 
Association. Rev. Prof. C. F. Giese, teacher in Thiel Hall, 
Monaca, served as the first pastor from 1867 to July, 1868; 
Rev. B. F. Zahn in 1868; Rev. C. F. Sheinbach from 1868 to 
1870; and Rev. P. Bom from 1870 to 1876. In the summer of 
1876 the congregation being without a pastor, the Rev. F. C. E. 
Lemcke, then a student at the theological seminary, Philadel- 
phia, was sent here by the president of the Pittsburg Synod, to 
serve them until a pastor was called. The labors of Mr. 
Lemcke proved satisfactory to the congregation, and before he 
left in October to return to school, a call was handed him, which 
he later accepted. Rev. Mr. Dethlefs, of Sharpsburg, served 
the congregation during the winter. Rev. F. C. E. Lemcke re- 
turned on April i, 1877, and was pastor from that time until his 
death in 1901. 

The congregation organized with twenty-one members, and 
has at present about two hundred communicants, owning two 
lots 80 X 120, a parsonage, and a brick church. The present 

TOL II.— lO. 

75$ History of Bearer County 

pusu^^ Rev. G. A. Fedmer. a rtmriiwl dttzrgt in the fall of 

First Baptist Cfeoaxh. — ^Asgiist 3. 1*73. a ntimber of mem- 
bers of Baptist cfanrcbes met ai the hoase of WilHam S. Shallen- 
herder for consultation in reference to the organization of a 
church. Henry C. Fry, David Robinson, Ridand Lloyd, Dr. 
A. T. Shallenberger, Edward lA. Power, William S. Shallen- 
berger, Mrs. Jane Evans, Mrs. Susan Power, Mrs. Eliza A. Rob- 
inson, and Mrs, Jane Ashworth were present. Other meetings 
were held and, February 4, 1874, it was resolved that a church 
organization be effected to be known as the '* First Baptist 
Church of Rochester, Pennsylvania." February 19, 1874, a 
council of recognition, composed of the pastors and delegates of 
various Baptist churches, met in the town hall in Rochester. 
Rev. J. W. Plannett, pastor of the church at Sharpsburg, was 
chosen moderator, and William S. Shallenberger, clerk. 

The following persons were recognized by the cotmcil as 
"The First Baptist Church of Rochester. Pennsylvania": Henry 
C. Fry, Mrs. Eunice Fry, George W. Fry, Edward M. Power, 
Thomas Matthews, Mrs. Jane Evans, Mrs. Amanda Donaldson, 
Mrs. Josephine Shallenberger, William S. Shallenberger, Aaron 
T. Shallenberger, Mrs. Susan Power, Mrs. Matilda Porter, Mrs. 
Jane Ashworth, Miss Jennie Ashworth, Mrs. Anna Shepler, 
David Robinson, Mrs. Eliza A. Robinson. Roland Lloyd, Mrs. 
Martha Lloyd, Jacob Fisher, Mrs. Sophia Fisher, Mrs. Mary J. 
Anderson, D. B. Salade, Mrs. D. B. Salade, Mrs. Mary A. Lloyd, 
Miss Nettie Lloyd, Mrs. Maria J. Sheibum. June 10, 1874, the 
church was received into the fellowship of the Pittsburg Baptist 
Association. October 28, 1874, Rev. J. A. Snodgrass was called 
as the first pastor of the church, and continued his services until 
September 30, 1877, when he resigned. The members of the 
church having secured a lot, a frame church building was erected 
at a cost of about $9000. It was dedicated, February 11, 1875. 
From the resignation of Mr. Snodgrass to January 23, 1878, 
preaching was by stated supply. Rev. A. J. Bonsall was then 
called and served the church until Sept. i, 1904. 

The First Presbyterian Church. — Upon a petition presented 
to the Presbytery of Allegheny, a committee consisting of Rev. 
E. E. Swift, D.D., Rev. James AUison, D.D.. and Rev. J. M. 

History of Beaver County 759 

Shields, was appointed to organize a Presbyterian Chtirch in the 
town of Rochester, Pa. 

The committee met in the town hall, Rochester, April 14, 
1874, and organized a chtirch, under the name of "The First 
Presb3rterian Church of Rochester,** with forty charter members. 
Mr. James H. Kinzer and D. S. Marqtiis, M.D., were elected, 
ordained, and installed as ruling elders. 

George C. Surls, J. Woodruff, J. H. Whisler, C. R. Blanchard, 
Perry Brown, and John Davis, constituted the first board of 
trustees. During the first year the church was without a pas- 
tor, but was regularly supplied with preaching. Rev. E. P. 
Lewis was the first pastor. He entered the field in April, 1875, 
and continued to serve the church in connection with the Pres- 
byterian Church of Freedom, until April, 1878. 

Rev. Jeffries served the church as a supply for a time. 

In December, 1879, Rev. R. B. Porter became pastor. Mr. Porter 
served until April, 1881. Following this, the church had supplies 
tmtil Rev. W. G. Stewart was called and took charge, in October, 
1883. Mr. Stewart served the congregation until April, 1887. 

The fourth pastor was the Rev. J. H. Bausman, whose pas- 
torate began November i, 1887. Mr. Bausman served the 
congregation until April, 1892. For nine months enstiing, the 
congregation had supplies. January i, 1893, R^v. T. B. Ander- 
son, D.D., became pastor, and has continued in charge of the 
congregation until the present date. 

In 1874 the congregation erected a substantial brick house 
of worship on the comer of Franklin and Freedom alleys, at the 
northeast comer of the public park. In 1895 they repaired 
their house of worship and built a lecture-room to the church, 
at a cost of I1500. The present membership is 150. 

Zion Church of the Evangelical Association of Rochester 
was organized about the year i860 by L. Scheuerman. Rev. 
G. G5tz was in charge of the Rochester congregation in the 
years 1880, 1881, and 1882. He was followed by Rev. C. A. 
Walz, who served the congregation for the next two years. 
Rev. H. Weigand was the pastor for 1885-86. Rev. Geo. 
Ott succeeded him and labored in Rochester for one year, and 
was followed by Rev. R. A. Hartung, who was pastor during 
the year 1888. Rev. G. Gahr occupied the field during the 

760 History of Beaver County 

year 18S9. when he was removed to Clevelaxid. Rev. G. 
Zeigier served the Rochester congre^tioii daring 1891, 1892, 
and 1S93. Dtxring his pastorate the services were made part 

Rev. G. G3tz was pastor here again daring the year 
i8q4, after which he was transferred to Canton, Ohio. Rev. 
J. A. Hetche, whose home was in Freedom, had charge of 
the congregation for the succeeding three years. Rev. John 
Hoffman was pastor for several years, and was succeeded by 
Rev. G. W. Miller. The present pastor is Rev. A. Peter. 

The First Congrcgational Chnrch. — ^The movement for the 
organization of this chorch was started in LeaTs Hall on the 
afternoon of Sabbath, the 17th of April, 1892, when seventy- 
three persons declared their desire to join in a society under the 
Congregational form of government. The formal organization 
of the church was effected on Friday. April 29, 1892, at a meet- 
ing in LeaTs Hall called for that purpose. Ninety persons 
joined in adopting Articles of Faith and a Covenant in harmony 
with the doctrines and polity of the Congregational churches of 
the United States. Rev. Joseph H. Bausman was called and 
accepted the call to be pastor of the church, and the following 
officers were elected: deacons: Messrs. J. C. McWilliams, Wil- 
liam M. Douds, and William Darling; clerk, Mr. Cornelius 
Masten; and trustees — Messrs. J. H. Schlagle, C. Masten, Charles 
Snure, C. A. Vanderslice, and Charles P. Brobeck. 

On the 5th of May, the same year, a cotmcil of recognition 
was held in the same place, and the church and its pastor were 
received into the fellowship of the Northwestern Association of 
Conjjre^ational Churches, Pennsylvania. The membership had 
at thin time increased to 117. 

This church held its services in Leaf's Hall until 1895, 
when it undertook the erection of a house of worship, and in 
November of that year the beautiful building that it now 
occupies as a church home was dedicated. This building is on 
Adams Street. It is of brick and stone, semi-colonial in style. 
Its total cost was $12,000. Mr. W. J. East was the architect. 
The present church membership is 175, and that of the Sunday 
school, 125. Mr. Bausman is still (1904) pastor. 

The German Evangelical Protestant Church is .located on 

History of Beaver County 761 

Reno and Ohio streets. It was btiilt in 1894. Its first board 
of trustees were Christian Mattmiller, John Bender, Michael 
Dietz. The membership of the church is twenty-two, and the 
Sunday-school has thirty members. The first pastor was Rev. 
J. C. Shoenwandt, who remained for several years. Since his 
resignation the church has had supplies. 

The United Presbyterian Church. — ^The United Presb3rterian 
Church of Rochester was formally organized on November 29, 
1898, at a meeting held at Patton's Hall, by a committee con- 
sisting of Rev. R. L. Hay of New Brighton, and Messrs. A. D. 
Gilliland, Joseph F. Mitchell, Wm. H. McCaw, and Wm. F. 
Boyd, members of his church session. 

Services had been held for several months previous to this 
time, however, and the present pastor, Rev. Jas. F. Ray, had 
been preaching to the congregation since September ist. The 
church was organized with forty-five members, and has a present 
membership of 116. In 1902 the congregation pxirchased a lot 
on Washington Street for $1600, and began the erection of a 
handsome brick church, of which Mr. W. J. East of Pittsburg 
was the architect. The total cost of this structure, including 
the lot, was about $15,000. 

Free Methodist Church. — In July, 1888, a camp-meeting was 
held at Daugherty's grove, near Rochester, by the New Castle 
District of the Free Methodist Church, of which J. S. McGeary, 
of New Castle, was at that time District Elder. 

At this time there was no Free Methodist society between 
Pittsburg and New Castle. The following October, S. Portman, 
from New Castle, commenced preaching in the Town Hall, 
Rochester; and in January, 1889, the first society was organized 
consisting of four members. 

In the following autumn the society, with eight members, 
sent to conference for a preacher and supported him unaided. 
In 1890 a church was built at Pleasant Valley, and in 1892 a 
church and parsonage were built in Rochester. This was the 
beginning of Free Methodism in this section. 


The first school house in Rochester was the frame building 
until recently used as the parsonage of the Evangelical Associa- 

;5» History of Beaver County 

tk>n Chtirrh. In 1862 the brick bmidin^, containins? four 
olmmroomft. in the Second ward, was erected. This was later 
onlftrged. The Third Ward school btdidm^ was erected in 
|8}<4-H<, and in 1891-92 an addition of four rooms was made, 
nt ft cfyffi of $8400. By a resolution of the hoard. June 2, 1890, 
th<» Rorhefiter High School was established, and in rqoi ground 
vrfifi purchased from Mr. Charles Muse and Mrs. Sadie E. 
J^peverer on Pinne\' Street, at a cost of S5600. for the site 
of .^ High School buildinj^. W. J. East was employed as 
architect t/> draw plans for the same, and on June ro, 1901, 
the ron tract wa*; let to Kountz Bros. This building was erected 
Ht ;* total rnst of ^4^.270. It is in every respect a modem 
btiildingj of the best type, and, as will be seen from the cut 
facinsj thi«; page, of simple and effective architectural design. 
The public schools of Rochester are of a high :.^rade. 

The Pa«savant .\femoral Home. — This Home is on the hill- 
!5id© itist above the town of Rochester, and consists of three 
well-arranged buildings and <\xty acres of dne farming land. 
It is a home and hospital for epileptics. 

The Home is undenominational . and any sufEerer whose 
application is favorably passed upon by the board is received 
as a patient. Twelve trustees have the management, four of 
whom must ]->e f^utherans; eight may be connected with any 
other churrh or no ohurrh at all. 

The manag<«?ment in the ffome is under an approved deaconess 
of the fyutheran <".h-:7rrh. 


Thf". Vf?i?on?. HrtrYie^tes Jy^x'lge, No. 229. F. and A. M.. was 
institute April rr, r^4^. The charter members were David 
Eaton, ff rrrjf.l Wr^/druff. (,. St. Clair Hussey, S. B. French, X. P. 
Fettcrmari. Ov)d F'inncy, C. W. f^loss, James A. Sholes, Martin 
Pishfr. Jo^huAi Lfiy/rin. In the year 1873 Past Master Ovid 
Pinn^/ fc{^iv<^ t/» i\}f^ Iod$<f the lot on the comer of Rhode Island 
Street. ^iTid f hr |niblir s<|iiftrc,and in 1884 Lewis Taylor. Esq.. gave 
the lodf/c l^if' stirn <;f tf 0,000, under the condition that the lodge 
w(;iild provide ft like sum lor the [ of erecting upon the 
land owficd bv tli'^fn n Masonic building. This was done, and in 
the spring of r885 the f»nilding was completed and the Masons 

History of Beaver County 763 

took possession of it and dedicated it. With the necessary 
equipments it cost about $25,000. It is one of the finest 
Masonic btiildings in the State outside of the larger cities. 

Eureka Chapter, No. 167, Royal Arch Masons, was organized 
July 14, 1849. 

S. M. Kane Lodge, No. 786, I. O. O. F. — January 24, 1880, 
this lodge was instituted, tinder the name of Rochester Lodge, 
No. 786. 

Samuel M. Kane, who had always been a zealous worker in 
everything pertaining to the efficiency of the lodge, was in- 
stantly killed upon the railway crossing, January 17, 1895, 
while returning home from work, and as a deserved tribute to 
his memory it was decided to change the name of the lodge to 
the S. M. Kane Lodge. This was accordingly done by a dispen- 
sation of the Grand Lodge, granted April 26, 1895. I^s mem- 
bership is between 250 and 300. 

In 1888 certain of the members and their wives applied for 
a charter for a Rebecca Degree Lodge, and "Winifred Rebecca 
Lodge" was instituted on the 19th day of April, 1888. 

John W. Stokes Encampment, No. 285, I. O. O. F., was in- 
stituted December 21, 1889, in Odd Fellows* Hall, Opera 
House building, Rochester, Pa. 

Woodmen of the World. — Apple Tree Camp, No. 5, Pennsyl- 
vania, was instituted in Odd Fellows Hall, Opera House build- 
ing, Rochester, Pa., on Wednesday evening, February 10, 1892, 
and is at this date, 1904, in a flourishing condition. 

The Yovmg Men's Institute, '* Dewey Council," was organ- 
ized May I, 1898, by the Roman Catholic young men of Roches- 
ter, in the Grand Army Hall on Brighton Street. 

Post No. 183, Grand Army of the Republic, Department of 
Pennsylvania, located in Rochester, Pa., was organized July 7, 
A.D. 1880, with fourteen members. The charter members were: 
James C. Stewart, Williamson Graham, W. S. Shallenberger, 
Henry C. Fry, H. J. Chandler, A. Val. Woodruff, Thomas 
Matthews, Thomas Carr, Wm. D. Reno, Stephen A. Craig, S. J. 
Swoger, W. J. Ware, R. F. Mcllvain, Henry Weber. 

Rochester Lodge, No. 274, Knights of Pythias, was organized 

-♦, H«aan* of Beaver County 

Tv.^Ms^-i.« :i TT^-^z. sua has ever since had a steady growth, 
^..«M...-in. ■ TTipmnffTsiip at present about 140. 

... -fro:. •ain.-'i. No. 114, Junior Order United American 
v,.-m.*n;.-* u'-^ .irrtnired and instituted December 31. 1S81. in 
^ - K >i>i). w-iTh twenty-five charter members. 

i.»..^h.-»^r:' ..,v:jTe. Xo. 283, B. P. O. E.. was organized in 
Sni, M^y p. 1891. 


-.%rw >.^>:eir\- in what was East Bridgewater. now 
Ni-, vi.>cf.j v'fis^ JKnown as the Leaf House, still standing on the 

., -, S).%^j/.s and Maine streets. This was built in 1834 by 

*:.'.:.. -I .,>k. conducted by him for several years, and then 
^^<o. t. V v.A" named Barnes. This was a well-known hotel 

. .A, .;, -v /: :he canal. It is now occupied as a dwelling by 
., %i?^sfc.'.:5 Another hotel was kept by Alex. Atkinson 

.x... tK" r vioneral Thomas Power afterwards lived. 

^,v . V K*'vi hotel was the Rochester Hotel on Water Street, 
*^..i :. N^S by John H. Camp. About 1850 he sold out to his 
.^,..N. t* V:.*V»ael Camp, and removed to the Point Hotel, which 
x sv. :*:o National. 

•V :^:. James Hotel was built in 1845 by Andrew Purdy. 
...V t.i.^ :V.on known as the Pavilion Hotel. Chester W. Bloss 

» ic vit-st proprietor. In 1862 Michael Camp exchanged the 

v v«K-.xA*v Hotel for the Pavilion, the exchange being made with 
....X Ss'huoider. Mr. Camp remained the proprietor of the 

^. .:k':'. Hotel until 1886. when he sold it to Christian H. Clark. 
».i*. ,>..^-i».v:cd its name to the St. James. It has since been in 

iv VLuls of Thomas Lee, Mrs. Anna Lee, his wife; and now 
1- . .1'. Harsha. This hotel is the only one now occupied which 
,.... ,\-.i.iMished and under vsuccessful operation when Rochester 
s.v..^<h was incorporated. 

•''iv^ Doncaster House. — In 1865 Richard Doncaster bought 

u .»Ul Johnston House, and in 187 1 established the present 

V'iuMster House. After his death in 1882, his daughters, 

Xi.ah, Annie, Klizabeth, and Jemima, assumed control, with 

Xiiah. proprietress, and J. N. Dowell, manager. On April r, 

James W. Doncaster, a son of Richard, took the manage- 

History of Beaver County 765 

ment, and repairs costing $12,000 were made. Atigust 17, 1897, 
Richard and James W. Doncaster purchased the property. 
Richard is now in control. 

The Hotel Speyerer was established by a stock company, 
formed December 18, 1890. The leading members of the Spey- 
erer Hotel Company were Herman J. Speyerer, Adam M. John- 
son, J. Newton Dowell, and Andrew J. Welsh. The site of the 
old plow factory on the comer of Water and New York streets 
was ptwchased, and in January, 1891, the contract for the erec- 
tion of a large building was let to Simon Harrold of Beaver Falls. 
The hotel was opened to the public, December 21, 1891. Its 
entire cost, including furnishings, was $67,832. Captain W. J. 
Bickerstaff is the present proprietor. 


There are two cemeteries at this place, Lacock's, just on the 
edge of town, and Irvin's, about a quarter of a mile to the north- 
east of the borough line. Lacock's is the oldest, having been 
chartered in September, 1863. 


The theater-going public of Rochester are served by the 
Grand Opera House, Mr. George W. Challis, lessee and manager. 


The first ferry-boat plying across the Ohio River between 
Rochester and Phillipsburg was the Borough Bee. In 1862 a 
new boat was built, named the W. C. Gray, In 1873 Captain 
Joseph R. Campbell purchased this boat from Capt. J. V. Mc- 
Donald, and had it rebuilt in 1880, calling it the Mary C, Camp- 
bell, for his wife. Captain Campbell had charge of it until 1884, 
when he sold it to Capt. M. Winnett. The boat was afterwards 
owned by a company, and was run until the building of the 
Ohio River bridge, when it was withdrawn from service here. 


The first postmaster of the borough of Rochester was R. G. 
Parks. He was at that time in the forwarding business, and 
was appointed when the office was first established, and served 
until 1853. He was succeeded by Chester W. Bloss, who kept 

766 History of Beaver County 

the office in a small building which he had erected for that pur- 
pose on Maine Street. He held the position through two ad- 
ministrations, and was succeeded by Captain John S. Shepler 
in 1 86 1. Captain Shepler. it seems held the office but one 
year. It was then located in the Schlelein building on Madison 
Street. Thomas M. Taylor was next appointed, and continued 
to hold the office from 1862 until 1877 — ^fifteen years. During 
this period the office was located either in the brick building 
that stood on the comer of Maine and Madison streets, or in the 
frame shoe-store building belonging to Squire Taylor, and stand- 
ing on the lot adjoining. 

Mr. Taylor was succeeded by Williamson Graham, who was 
appointed December 22, 1876, and performed the duties of the 
office from 1877 to 1887. The greater part of this time the 
office was kept in Mr. Graham's residence on Shields Street. 
Toward the latter part of Mr. Graham's term, the location was 
changed to the Linnenbrink building on Brighton Street. He 
was succeeded by William H. Black, who was appointed Febru- 
ary 28, 1887, ^^^ served four years. George C. Deming was 
appointed, February 16, 1891, also serving four years. He was 
succeeded by Franklin Feyler, appointed March 5, 1895, "^^o 
served until Albert A. Atterholt, appointed Januar}' 8, 1890, 
assumed charge. June 15, 1904, the latter was succeeded by 
Hon. M. F. Mecklem. July i, 1900, the office was moved to its 
present location in the Opera House building; and, June i, 
1902, free delivery was established in Rochester. 


The Semi-Centennial Celebration of the incorporation of the 
borough of Rochester had been decided upon by the town coun- 
cil early in 1899. The charter of Rochester was approved by 
the Governor of this State on March 20, 1849. The celebration 
of this event could not well be held on the proper date, however, 
on account of the cold weather. It was decided, therefore, to 
hold a special meeting of the citizens of the town in the Opera 
House on the evening of that day, and have the celebration on 
the 28th and 29th days of June. That meeting was held. Ad- 
dresses were made on subjects appropriate, and vocal and 
instrumental music was rendered, and the celebration was car- 
ried out as arranged for on the above dates in June. 

History of Beaver County 767 


In 1850 there was property in the borough that was assessed 
at $106,010. To-day (1904) the assessed valuation of property is 
$2,675,387. Then there were twenty places of business; now 
there are seventy. Then there were about one thousand in- 
habitants; now there are over four thousand, with a growing 
subtirban population that increases that number by a thousand. 
By the United States Census for 1900 the population of the 
borough was 4688. 


East Rochester is a suburb of Rochester, lying within the 
Umits of Rochester township. In September, 1888, it was 
partly plotted into town lots by H. C. Lacock and others, the 
plot being known as the **H. C. Lacock plan of lots**; and in 
July, 1903, a plan of lots was laid out by Curtis C. Noss, known 
as the ** Stewart plan of lots.*' 

The United Brethren Church of East Rochester was organ- 
ized in Patton*s Hall, Rochester, Pa., February 18, 1895, by 
Rev. S. W. Welsh, who became its first pastor. The first trus- 
tees were Lewis Vandevort, Edmond Kline, and Lewis Gross. 
In November of the same year Rev. E. H. Earnhardt was ap- 
pointed pastor by Rev. J. W. Stahl, presiding elder. Mr. Earn- 
hardt served the congregation for four years. In the year 1898 
a lot was given to the church by Henry C. Lacock and his wife, 
in East Rochester, on which a neat frame house of worship was 
erected. This building was dedicated in April, 1899, by Eishop 
E. B. Shephard. The following ministers have served the 

church: S. W. Welsh, E. H. Earnhardt, Smith, J. J. Funk, 

S. M. Miller, and A. V. Vondersmith. 


This is a suburb started by the Business Men*s Association of 
Rochester, and laid out by the North Rochester Improvement 
Company on lands of Hugh and Joseph Irvin. The site of the 
H. C. Fry Glass Company's plant, mentioned above under the 
head of " Manufacturing Enterprises,*' was donated by the Im- 
provement Company. 


'i.'ri-fcw.v I* ■■ '^i-iT Borough — Consolidation with Sharcc — SiraiiiDQ — 
V -lT ..fcZ-:^ Bridge — Early S*. tilers — Directories of Sharro and 
^r ^ g^ * i : ^ r — Aaron B urr *s Ojxrrations — Silk Culnire — Incccpora- 
'.^1-- -." ,>^'vr. Hfrr.phill — 'Beaver Point*' and 'Stone's Prast " — 
x.u.>I>'j^:.iirLg — Bridgcwater in Early 40's — Militar\" Organizations 
-XAii^'i.'iiiring — Schools — Peirsol's Academy — Churches — Post- 
. . • v\- - H .-^i els — Populat i on . 

'.N:> ro'ft-n was formerly a part of Beaver,' and to-day the 
^o :owni would seem to the casual obser\'er to be one. They 
.w*e, however, two distinct boroughs. The present Bridgewater 
.s :iie result of the consolidation under the Act of the Legisla- 
:u:e ^>i March 19, 1868,* of the two towns of Sharon and Bridge- 
•*iL«;r. It lies along the Beaver Creek, from the Fallston line 
.0 :he Ohio. The upper, or Sharon, part is the older, settle- 
::^ac having been made there probably as early as 1798. The 
Ti^c bridge across the Big Beaver was built at Bridgewater. near 
A oil Lane, a full description of which is given in Chapter VII. 


Major Robert Darragh was a very early pioneer in Beaver 
L'vmnty . having come to this place from Ireland in 1 798. The first 
building in Bridgewater was erected by him, and was a place of 
i.»ubUi' entertainment. He also opened a store there. Major 
Parragh serv'ed one term as State Senator from Beaver County. 
He died at the advanced age of ninety-six. The Hon. John 
L>ickey lived in Sharon for many years and died there. Other 
early settlers were William Davidson, George Hinds, Samuel R. 

' See note on Beaver borough, page >j3i. 'P. L.. 390. 


History of Beaver County 769 

Dtinlap, and John Boles. Another btiilding, which was erected 
in 1803 by Hoopes, Townsend & Company, was one of the im- 
portant general stores of Sharon and was known in later times 
as the "Old Red Front." 


Gordon's Gazetteer of Pennsylvania, published in 1832, says 
of Bridgewater: 

The village of Sharon is adjacent and both may be considered as one 
town. There are here a saw mill, salt works, for which coal is found 
within a few perches; an iron foundry, brewery, several boat yards, a 
wind mill factory, and other mechanical and maniifactnring establish- 
ments. "Stone's Harbor" is also here, considered as one of the safest 
and most commodious on the Ohio. It is the principal depot for the 
trade passing up and down the Beaver valley, and to and from the West- 
em Reserve in the state of Ohio. Bridgewater and Sharon contain to- 
gether about no dwellings, 4 taverns, 5 stores and i Episcopal [Methodist 
Episcopal] church. 

Harris's Pittsburg Business Directory for 1837 ^^5 the follow- 
ing notice of Sharon: 

Sharon is pleasantly located on the left bank of Beaver river, about a 
short mile from its confluence with the Ohio river, and about the same 
distance from the borough of Beaver, Bridgewater and Fallston. The 
leading road to Ohio passes through the town, and it is the residence of a 
ntimber of very industrious, deserving citizens. 

Directory of Sharon: Merchants — Robert Darragh, John Dickey. 
Tanners — ^Joseph and Samuel Moorehead, James Darragh. Boot and 
Shoemakers — ^J. T. Miller, S. Scott. Boat Builder — William Davidson. 
Blacksmith — Thomas McClelland. Innkeepers — J. Murray,' J. Davis. 
Justice of the peace — R. A. Carlton. Clergyman — ^Jonathan Davis, 

The same Directory for 1841 gives the population of Sharon 
at about three htmdred, and the following names of its business 
men, with their occupations, occur: 

Patent tub and bucket maker — Giles Paris. Foundry, employing 10 
hands, operated by Robert Darragh, J. S. Darragh, Mattison Darragh and 
S. H. Darragh. Gtmsmith — ^A. H. Armstrong. Sawyers — George Ashael, 

' Mtirxay's Hotel, mentioned by Harris in 1837 Directory, stood at the mouth of Brady's 
Ron. Here, in 1840, Mormon meetings were held and some converts were baptized in the 

770 History of Beaver County 

DtftTid Camp. Carpenters — John Beam, Samcid EooS^ John Fisher, 
G«Of]Se Holdship. Hugh McGtdre, Charles Rodenbangh, Reuben Swagger, 
S. S Webster. George Wray. Fomider — ^Jeremiah Bannon. Holder — 
John Bannon. Book-binder — John Brown. Tailor — K. A. Carlton. 
Boat-Builders — John Curry. David McGuire, WllHam Davidson. Tanner — 
James Darragh. Merchants — Robert Darragh and sons. J. S.. Mattison 
and S. H. Pilot — George Evans. Shoemakers — J. A. Frazier, Wm. B. 
Miller. J. T. Miller and Thomas Scott. Teachers — Samuel Goss. Miss 
White. Engineer — John Jones. Cabinet and windmill makers — Samuel 
Jones, S. S. Webster. Miller — Jeremiah Jones. Tiib and bucket mTs — 
S. G. Long & Co.. John Long. Mason — ^John Moffat. Blacksmiths — 
Thomas McClelland, John Noland. Bank Cashier — Hiram Stowe. 
Teamster— E. White. 


The upper part of this settlement, that which was known as 
Sharon, was the scene of a part of Aaron Burr's operations in 
carrying on his great conspiracy for the establishment of an 
empire in the southwest. In 1805-06 Burr had a number of 
boats built in this place for use in his expedition down the Ohio 
and Mississippi to New Orleans, and it is believed that he him- 
self at one time visited the spot to inspect the work. 

The connection of Burr's enterprise with this place is well 
supported by the evidence of old and reliable citizens of Sharon 
and vicinity. It is said that Dr. McCaslin, director and surgeon 
of the proposed expedition, brought two men, Tyler and Smith 
by name, as business managers, and located here a boatyard 
about a mile and a half from the mouth of the Beaver. Amasa 
Brown, who came to Beaver County from Utica, N. Y., father 
of the late Captain Perry Brown, and grandfather of Hon. 
Hartford P. Brown of Rochester, was the superintendent or 
master boat-builder. The craft constructed for this expedition 
were similar in style to the old keel boats, except that they 
were covered over closely, making them weather proof. They 
were called by some "arks," and on account of their destina- 
tion were also known as '* Orleans Boats." The boats were from 
sixty to seventy feet in length, and were capable of holding a 
large cargo. The workmen employed in this enterprise were 
lodged in a house next to the "Old Red Front" mentioned 
on the preceding page. Payments for the work done were 
made promptly by drafts on New York, and all drafts were 
honored except the last one, which was presented sometime after 

History of Beaver County 771 

the bubble of empire had burst. We can see no good reason for 
discrediting this story, the visit of Burr included.* 

Early in the forties many people in Sharon became inter- 
ested in silk worm ctilture. The cocoons were sold mainly 
to the Harmony Society, which was then engaged in the manu- 
facture of silk. A Cincinnati firm bought up most of the prop- 
erty, but as they failed soon afterward no care was taken of it, 
and the business was abandoned. Business of all kinds now 
began to center in the lower part of the community, or Bridge- 

Bridgewater proper (including the consolidated towns) was 
incorporated as a borough under the Act of Assembly, dated 
April I, 1834,* by a decree of the Court of Quarter Sessions, 
April 2, 1835.3 August i, 1859, by a decree of the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, the borough of Bridgewater took advantage of 
the provisions of the Act of April 3, i85i.'* March 6, 1840, it 
was decreed by the Court that the borough elections for that 
and the following years should be held on the last of March, 
which remained the time for that purpose until the adoption of 
the State law fixing the time for borough elections for February. 

Among the men of prominence in the early days of Bridge- 
water was Joseph Hemphill, who also held many coimty oflSces.s 
He was one of the largest land-owners in this neighborhood, 
and kept a general store and tavern in Beaver. By him a part 
of the town of Bridgewater was laid out in 18 18. 

The land lying west of the mouth of the Big Beaver and 
running down to the Ohio River, known in early times as 
"Beaver Point," and later as ** Stone's Point/* was bought as 

* " Prom Pittsbuis he floated in a boat specially built for him, down to New Orleans, 
stopping at many points, and often recei\'ing enthusiastic attention." Appleton's Cyclo- 
pedia of American Biography: Art. "Burr." 

The mention of Beaver in a letter from Comfort Tyler to Blennerhassett. dated Pitts- 
burg, November 14. 1806. would seem to show that this place was in part the scene of 
ths activities of Burr's associates: Beaver at that time being often put for any place near 
the mouth of the Big Beaver. From this letter we extract the following: 

"My calctilations have at all times been to leave Beaver on the first of next month. 
The only difiBculty that I have encotmtered is, the procuring provisions necessarv for my 
settlers, some of whom are behind, and I fear they will not arrive in time; but I shall be 
off with the few that may happen to be with me, and trust to those behind to follow on." 
The Aaron Burr Conspiracy, McCaleb. p. 246. 

Tyler reached Blennerhassett Island Dec. 9, 1806, with four boats and twenty men. 

* P. L.. 163. 

* Deed Book M. No. la, p. 289. 

*0«ar. Sess. Misc. Docket No. 5, p. 125; Deed Book 40i p. 17. 

* See sketch of Joseph Hemphill's life. Chapter IX. 

77^ History of Beaver County 

early as 1803 by the Harmony Society. They built here a 
warehoose for storing goods received and shipped by river. 
This they sold before their removal from Butler County west to 
Indiana. It was used for the same purpose as late as 1850. 
On this point a number of town lots were sold by Stephen Stone, 
October iS« 1S31, and he also sold lots on the island which for- 
meriy e^dsted a short distance below the present dam and 
bridge* but which has been entirely obliterated by the floods.' 
At this point in eariy times a good deal of boat-building was 
done. In his sketch of Beaver County, James Patterson says: 

Uix^a the locks oc the cacal ectericg the Ohio was built the first 
steamboat xised K>r carrying passengers to nzn £som Beaver to Pittsburg, 
by John Dickey and others, of a size which they calculated would pass 
t]^>u)jEh these locks. It did pass through once, but was found to be too 
tight a dt. consuming too much time in the transit. She ran for a time 
below the locks, and it being found that she was too small for that trade, 
she was sold to go down the river. The steamboats Beaver, FalisUm 
and .V^v Casde were quickly built and put in successful operation, 
^i ^r^afrtg for a time at that place and also at Rochester, where large ware- 
houses were erected to accommodate the trade.' 

Stone's Point was a stopping-place for the steamboats pass- 
ing up and down the river, and a place of resort for the citizens 
of Beaver and Bridgewater, where they assembled to hear the 
news from Pittsburg and other points, or to see the eminent 
persons who not infrequently traveled up and down the Ohio 
when it was a main route of transportation from the East to 
the West. A large hotel was built at the Point by Mr. Stone, 
which was much frequented in the days of steamboating. 

Some of the packets of about the year 1S40 were the Michi- 

* The following advertiseaceiit ai>peared in the Piusbmr^ Gaaette, Txiesday morning, 
September ac. iSjx: 


"The subscriber will offer at public sale, on the premises* on the iSth of October next, 
commencing at ii o'clock, a.m., a large number of TOWN LOTS at " BEAVER POINT^'^ 
situated as follows: One range of Lots fronting on the bayou that cuts across from the Bis 
Beaver to the Ohio river; and also a range of Lots fronting on an aUev that runs paimQel 
with Beaver creek, back of Bridgewater. All the Island wul also be laid out in small lots 
and sold, which Hes immediately at the junction of the Ohio and Big Beaver creek. The 
situation of all these lots is beautiful for building, perhaps not surpassed in the Western 
country; presenting a ver>- commanding prospect, and lying so near the Ohio river and 
the basin about to be made at the mouth of Big Beaver, will make them eligible sites for 
any kind of pubHc business. It is unnecessary Tor me to caluft in this reco mm endation : 
but I most earnestly request my fellow citizens, both in this vidnitv and at a distana^, to 
attend and judge for themselves. The terms will be easy, and made known the morning 
of the sale. 

Stbpbbk Stoke. 

P. S. Anv person now wishing to purchase, can be accommodated at private sale. 

Bbavbr Poikt, August 30.'* 

' For ftirther notice of the boat-building done at this place see Chapter VIIL 


History of Beaver County 773 

gan, commanded by Captain Brice Boies; Lake Erie, No. 2, 
Captain John Gordon; Fallston, Captain John Dickey; and the 
Beaver, Captain James Murray. Two packets left daily for 
Pittsburg when the stage of water permitted; and in times of 
low water, Rowan Bros. & Hoopes, who kept a livery stable on 
Water Street, furnished transportation by hacks. 

About sixty years ago Bridgewater was a thriving business 
center. An old subscription book gives us the names of many 
prominent residents then carrying on its business, viz. : 

S. T. Trimble, Esq., William Porter, Esq., Ephraim Jones, Dr. T. J. 
Chandler, Major Josh\ia Logan, Alex. McConahy, William McCallister, 
Daniel Shafer, Clarke & Co., John Torrance, J. M. Long. W. K. Boden, 
Joseph Shane, Thomas McKee, Milton Swager, Dr. J. C. Mtiller, Isaac 
Jones, D. D. Geren, Esq., John M. Norris, Samuel B. Wilson, John R. 
Day, John Heilman, R. Tallon, Robert Gilmore, George W. Fulton, 
Samuel G. Long, William Eakin, Stewart Rowan, Talbot T. Dugan, 
WiUiam Adams, Elihu Evans, Wm. Barnes, Jacob Hinds, Martin W. 
Small, Abram Shockey, Jr., Greer Mc Williams, John W. Hoops, P. Blake, 
W. W. Buchanan, Samuel McClure, Esq., R. C. Johnston, Samuel Eng- 
fish, Samuel R. Dunlap, Col. J. W. Hemphill, Ankeny & Boake, J. M. 
Barbour, Johnston Small, John M. Sinclair. W. L, Hamilton, John Allison, 
Esq., Thomas Rowan, David Easton, Dr. S. Smith, Drs. J. H. & T. Dick- 
son, John R. Blaine & Co., Wm. S. Adams, John Miller, Samuel Stewart, 
EIHs Howe, O. H. P. Swisher, David Woodruff, Peter Mtirry, W. B. 
Marlin, John S. Dickey, Milton Garen, Rev. George Plumer, J. H. Brown, 
K. Jackson & Son, H. Sutherland, J. W. Craft, Capt. W. B. Boies, Thomas 
Russell, Lehmer, Donavan & Co., James Porter, George Miller, J. M. 

The steamboat landing was but a short distance below the 
dam. Lower Water Street was then the terminus of the Beaver 
Extension of the Erie Canal ; and it was usual to see a long line 
of canal boats, strung from the west end of the bridge up the 
Beaver, loading and tmloading freight. There were a number 
of forwarding and commission houses, prominent, those of F. J. 
& H. Clarke, McClure & Dickey, Ankeny & Boake. Dtmlap's 
Hotel was on the comer of Water and Bridge streets, and on^the 
opposite side, where the St. Cloud now stands, the Ankeny 
Hotel, afterwards kept by Chester W. Bloss, Rochester's 
postmaster at one time. All along Bridge Street, from the end 
of the bridge to the foot of the Beaver hill, were many business 
places, stores, groceries, bakeries, doctors' offices, marble, tin. 
tailor, and other shops. 

▼Ot. II. — II. 

774 History of Beaver County 

Harris's Directory for 1841, when the place had about six hun- 
dred inhabitants, gives some of the above-mentioned names, but 
additional ones also, and we transcribe it in full, as follows: 

Inn-keepers — Henry Ankeny (** Bridgewater House"); Chester W. 
Bloss ("Franklin House"); George Bames ("Bridgewater Hotel"). 
Confectioners and Bakers — ^Ankeny, Peter & Co., William Graham, 
Daniel Bames. Tailors — ^William Adams, Robert Hall, Thomas Mc- 
Cullough. Merchants — ^William Adams, William Brown, R. Mc Williams, 
C. M. Stewart. Gentlemen — William K. Boden, John Javens. Collector 
of Tolls, P. C, David Boies. Cooper— Robert Bems. 

Laborers — Matthias Beake, Lewis Creamer, Stephen Lindley. Phy- 
sicians — James Brown (botanic), J. C. Mullen, J. C. Montague, S. Smith. 
Steamboat Captains — ^W. B. Boies, Henry Job. Dentist — ^Thomas J. 
Chandler. Cabinet makers — John Calhoun, Robert Gilmore, John T. 
Hough, David Johnston, Milton L. Swager, Martin Small. Commission 
merchants — Clarke & CO., John S. Dickey, McClure & Dickey. Ministers 
of the Gospel — N. Callender (M. E.), J. A. Davis (Baptist), William 
Stevens (M. E.). Grocers — ^William Eakin, Samuel English. 

Boat Builder — George Fisher. Engineer — ^Joseph French. Stage- 
drivers — (Gilbert Frazier, David Rowan, W^am Robinson. Steamboat 
Pilots — ^John (jordon, Thomas Javens, Francis Maratta. Butchers — 
Henry (joll, John A. Rowan. Painters — Milton Garew, William T. 
Lewis. Teacher — Samuel C. (joll. 0>ach makers — John Hannen, David 
Rowan. Stone mason — ^William Homer. Potter — William L. Hamil- 
ton. Clerk of Orphan's Court — WiUiam McCallister. Barber — F. Mur- 
rell. Justices of the Peace— William Porter, S. T. Trimble. Tin and 
coppersmith — ^J. M. Norris. Fanning-mill maker — ^A. Purdy. Carpen- 
ters — ^Thomas Russell, William W. Randolph, Samuel Stewart, Boston 
Small. Wagon maker — John Stein. Collector of toll at bridge — Henry 
H. Smith. Blacksmiths — ^Archibald Stewart, David Stewart, Johnson 
Small. Lumberman — ^Andrew Stewart. Ne^^-spaper — Beaver County 

Town OflScials — Burgess, F. J. Clarke; Council, John Cochran, A. 
Stewart, John Mullen, John M. Norris. Milton Swager — ^William K. 
Boden, clerk. 

About this period Bridgewater had what was, perhaps, the 
best-drilled volunteer military company in western Pennsyl- 
vania. It was commanded variously by F. J. Clarke, W. L. 
Hamilton, Capt. John Steen, and Major Joshua Logan, the 
latter two soldiers of the War of 18 12. 

Forty years later (March 14, 1881) there was incorporated 
Military Hall, Company E, 15th Regiment. National Guard, with 
a capital stock of $1000, divided into 1000 shares of $1 each. 
This was to be quarters of the military organization called the 

History of Beaver County 775 

Quay Guards. In 1887 the company was disbanded and the 
property sold. 


The Darragh fotindry was one of the early industries of 
Sharon, established in 1836 by Mattison Darragh. Two years 
afterwards his father, Major Robert Darragh, built the foundry 
which 'was operated under the name of Robert Darragh & Sons 
until 1852. At that time the style of the firm name became 
M. & S. H. Darragh. The plant included two structures in 
Bridgewater, the foundry 60 by 90 feet, and a warehouse 60 by 
80 feet, and a machine shop and office in Fallston, 35 by 70 feet. 
For half a century this firm ran the business without a shut- 
down, lockout, or strike, meeting all their obligations promply. 
Jtily 17, 1902, they sold out to Messrs. Michler & Beck, who 
now own and operate the plant. 

What was probably the second attempt at pottery-making in 
the Beaver vaUey was made in Bridgewater, about fifty or sixty 
years ago, by the Hamilton Brothers, Lute and James. They 
obtained their clay on the hill near the house of John Dickey, 
on the west side of Brady's Rtin, near its confluence with the 
Big Beaver. They made common stoneware, the chief trade 
being in crocks and jugs. Their goods were shipped by boat 
along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. About 1857-8 they 
ceased operations and removed to Greensboro, Greene Cotmty, 

The Keytsone Bakery of Bridgewater was established forty 
years ago in Beaver by the late Frederick Walters, whose chil- 
dren have enlarged the plant until it is now the largest bakery 
in western Pennsylvania outside of Pittsburg and Allegheny. 
In 1884 the bakery was removed from Beaver to Bridge Street, 
Bridgewater, and was there conducted by the original proprie- 
tor, Frederick Walters, imtil the year 1892, when his eldest son, 
Charles A. Walters, assumed control. Under his management 
the business so increased that it was deemed best to secure a 
charter, which was done in 1901, under the name of F. Walters 
& Sons, Keystone Bakery. 

Owing to the increasing demand for their goods, the plant 
on Bridge Street was found to be too small, and, in 1902, 
their present building on Market Street was erected, being 

776 History of Beaver County 

eqmpped with aH the best-known modem machineiy and appli- 
ances for the TTiakfng of bread, cakes, dooghnuts, and pies. 
They now run ten wagons in the Beaver valley, one in East 
Liverpool, and one in Coraopolis, and will soon have one in 
New Castle and in Ellwood City ; and they now have forty-two 
men and women in their employ. 


Bridgewater has good common schools, housed in a substan- 
tial two-story brick btiilding. In addition to the common 
schools there is an institution which has been largely useful in 
the town, and which has done much for the youth of the entire 
county. This is the well-known Peirsol's Academy, which is a 
private institution, established in 1875 t>y the late owner and 
principal, Prof. Scudder H. Pcirsol." Mr. Peirsol was at one 
time county superintendent of conmion schools for Beaver 
County, and a teacher well and favorably known throughout 
the region. The buildings of the Academy are modest, but are, 
no doubt, endeared to many who have enjoyed the advantages 
of instruction which they have received there. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church. — As stated in the chapter 
on the religious history of the county, the first church of the 
Methodist Episcopal faith in Beaver Cotmty was at Sharon 
(north Bridgewater), which was probably in existence as early 
as 1820 or 1 82 1. The next church of this denomination organ- 
ized in the county was at Beaver. The third was the one at 
Bridgewater. Its date is about 1838 or 1839, in which 
latter year its present house of worship was erected. This 
house was built by Richmond Hart and Jacob Olmstead, 
under the direction of a board of trustees consisting of Archi- 
bald Stewart, Lewis Reno, Joseph Vera, Ephraim Jones, Thomas 
J. Chandler, C. M. Stewart, Benjamin Adams, and Robert Dar- 
ragh. It has been twice remodeled, first in i860, during the 
pastorate of Rev. W. F. Lauck; and again in 1884. when nearly 
$2000 were expended in repairing and beautifying it. 

In 1845 t^is church became a regular station, with Rev. 

' See sketch of Professor Peirsol in Chapter XI. 

History of Beaver County ^^^ 

A. M. Brown in charge. August 12, 1845, the first quarterly 
conference was held in this church. The class leaders at this 
time were Samuel Beatty Wilson, William Adams (the local 
preacher), Andrew Stewart, Thomas J. Chandler, Samuel T. 
Trimble, and John A. Frazier. The stewards were Lewis Reno 
and John Allison. 

Following is the list of pastors serving this church : 

A. M. Brown, i845-'46; Joseph Montgomery, i847-*48; John Ansley 
1848; M. P.Jamison, i849-'5o; J. Murray, i8si-'52; John Grant, 1853- 
•54; A. J. Rich, 1855-56; R. Hamilton, 1857; J. D. Cramer, 1858; W. F. 
Lauck, i859-'6i: J. S. Bracken. 1862-63; J- D- Knox, 1864; W. K. 
Brown, 1865; Joseph Homer, 1866; R. Morrow, i867-'68; Joseph 
HoUingshead, i869-*7i; D. L. Dempsey, 1872-74; D. A. McCready, 
1875-76; R. Hamilton, 1877-78: D. L. Dempsey, 1879-81; J. H. 
Henry. 1882-83; Nathan Brown, 1884; J. W. Mclntyre, 1885-87; 
M. J. Montgomery, 1888; William Cox, iSSg-'go; Richard Cartwright, 
i89i-'93; W. S. Cunmiings, 1894-95; G. S. Holmes, 1896; O, A. 
Btnerson, i897-*98; J. B. Uber, 1899-1900; H. P. Johnson. 1903; J. E. 
Kidney, 1903—. 

In 1866 the organization of the church in Rochester drew 
from this congregation about one half of its membership. At 
present it has on the roll 236 full members and 15 probationers, 
and maintains a flourishing Sunday-school. 

The First Presbyterian Church. — ^This church was organized 
as a result of a division in the congregation at Beaver. Rival 
candidates had been brought before the latter congregation in 
1843 and 1844, during a vacancy in the pastoral charge follow- 
ing the resignation of Rev. A. B. Quay. These were Rev. John 
M. Lowrie and Rev. Isaac M. Cook. A majority favored the 
latter and, in June, 1844, a call for his services was presented 
by conunissioners from the Beaver church to the Presbytery of 
Beaver. Presbytery declined to put the call into his hands, 
owing to the dissatisfaction of a minority in the church. In 
January, 1845, a petition was presented to the Presbytery, 
signed by many members, asking for the organization of a 
church in Bridgewater. This Presbytery granted, and at a 
meeting of the session of the church, held January 23, 1845, 
eighty-one members and four ruling elders were dismissed from 
the Beaver church to unite with the new organization. The 
elders were James Jackson, John Carothers, David Eakin, and 

jjS History of Beaver County 

Jcbn Alcorn. The drarch at Bridgewater was organixed by a 
committee of the Presbytery, Jamiary 29, 1845. 

Rev. Isaac M. Cook served the church as stated supply from 
February 3, 1845, ^u^til the 17th of December of the same year, 
when he was installed as pastor, and he continued in the charge 
until his death on the loth of January, 1854. His pastorate 
was a very successful one, as during it a total of 391 members, 
most of them on confession, were added to the roll of the church, 

Mr. Cook was followed by the Rev. James Smith, who was 
called, May 7, 1855. He remained about eighteen months, and 
Rev. David A. Cunningham assumed the pastoral charge, Octo- 
ber 9, 1857. This relation continued until January i, 1864, 
with an increase in the church membership of 351. March i, 
1864, Rev. James M. Shields was called, and began at once to 
labor in the field, but was not regularly installed until April 15th 
following. This pastorate lasted for about ten years, and was 
one of marked success, 436 additions being made to the church 
dtiring its continuance. The succeeding pastors and their dates 
of service are as follows: W. W. Ralston. February, 1876-N0- 
vember, 1882; D. T. Camahan, April 1883-October, 1886; W. J. 
McCrory, February, 1888-April, 1892; S. A. Htmter, Septem- 
ber, 1892-March, 1895; W. F. Gibson, May, 1895-June, 1900; 
E. L. McCartney, the present pastor, November, 1900-4 — 

The present membership of this church is 166, and there are 
enrolled 125 Sunday-school scholars. Its building is a sub- 
stantial brick, which has been several times remodeled. 

A Baptist church was formerly in existence in Bridgewater. 
Rev. Jacob Morris was the pastor, and a frame building was 
erected and dedicated, November 17, 1845, by Dr. Estep. The 
organization was gradually disbanded, its members going to 
other churches, many of them finding a home in the Baptist 
Church in Rochester. The building is now the property of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church of Bridgewater. 

The A. M. E. Church of Bridgewater was organized about 
1830 as a part of the Allegheny Mission. It was incorporated, 
June 14, 1886, by Andrew Tanner, Nelson Scroggins, Lewis Ash, 
Frank Smith, and Sidney Freeman. This congregation was 
located at first on the hill on Mulberry Street, but, as stated 
above, now owns a church building formerly erected by the 

History of Beaver County 779 

Baptists. The A. M. E. Church is still in a thriving condition, 
Mr. Andrew Tanner, who is a respected citizen of Rochester, 
being one of its most earnest and devout members. The board 
of trustees, in May, 1900, was composed of the following persons: 
A. W. Tanner, Lewis Ash, George Webster, Charles H. Robin- 
son, and Charles W. Cole. 

The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Conn. At the date of the 
incorporation of the church it was served by Rev. William H. 
Brown, the pastor in charge in 1904 being Rev. Richard Brown. 


The post-office at this place is called West Bridgewater, in 
order to distinguish it from another Bridgewater in this State. 
It was established, April i, 1879, the people of the town having 
previously to that time received their mail in Rochester. The 
order of service of those in charge of this office, with the dates 
of their appointments, is as follows: Miss Emma Moore, March 
5, 1879; William A. Dickey, March 29, 1889; Miss Enmia 
Moore, May 25, 1889; Louis F. Weinman, May 11, 1893; George 
M. Hemphill, May 17, 1897-93; James McConnel, 1904. 


Denny McClure at an early day kept a public house in 
Sharon ; he was succeeded by Robert Darragh, in the old frame 
building opposite the brick store. James Moore, who was the 
father-in-law of David Marquis of Beaver, kept a public house 
for some years near the fording, below the mouth of Brady's Rim. 

Bridgewater has at present one hotel, the St. Cloud, M. 
Walsh, proprietor. The Park Hotel, run by John Walsh, a 
brother of the preceding, has been closed for some years. 


The population of Bridgewater in i8«o was 1112; in 1890 
it was 1177 ; and in 1900 it had increased to 1347. 



Situation — Origin of the Village — Steamboat Building — Boundary Lines 
— Streets and Alleys — "Shanty Town" — Early Householders — 
Valuation of Lots — First Child Born in Freedom — Incorporation 
— Succession of Boat-Building Firms — Various Business Firms — 
Directory for 1841 — Post-office — Chtux:hes — Schools — ^Financial In- 
stitutions — Manufacturing Concerns of the Present — Cemetery — 
St. Clair Borough — Incorporation with Freedom — Population. 

Freedom is one of the thriving little towns of the Beaver 
Valley, a mile or so up the Ohio, above the mouth of the Big 
Beaver, and almost adjoining its neighboring borough of Roches- 
ter. It is built on a narrow flat along the Ohio, and on the 
hillsides, and, from the peculiarity of its situation, is one of the 
most picturesque towns on the river. . From its upper levels is 
afforded an almost unrivaled panoramic view of the Ohio at 
the majestic bend where its course, after having been north- 
westward all the way from Pittsburg, suddenly turns to the south- 
west. And a night view from the hills above Freedom is a 
thing long to be remembered. Looking up and down the river, 
from Rochester below to the Conway railway yards above, the 
spectator beholds a bewildering maze of tracks, with moving 
trains and an infinity of many-colored lights. It is well worth 
while to climb the hill for the pleasure of this view, and often 
while standing there has the writer recalled Mark Twain's 
phrase, descriptive of a similar scene at Heidelberg, Germany: 
** A fallen Milky Way, with that gUttering railway constellation 
pinned to the border.*' 

History is a chain of causes and consequences, and events are 
strangely linked together. Diedrich Knickerbocker begins his 


History of Beaver County 781 

History of New York with the creation of the world. We need 
not go so far back in writing the history of Freedom, but we 
must look back to Germany in the latter part of 183 1. In Oc- 
tober of that year Bernard Miiller, having assumed in the 
Fatherland the style and title of Count Maximilian de Leon, 
emigrated to America, and with about forty of his followers 
joined himself to the Harmony Society. Dissension arising 
between him and the leaders of the society, he, with one third 
of the members, withdrew, and purchased from the owners of 
Phillipsburg the lands on which that town stood. This necessi- 
tated the removal of the large boat-yards there to another loca- 
tion, and the present site of Freedom was determined on, where, 
with other advantages, the depth of the water was more favor- 
able to the latmching of the completed craft. 

Stephen Phillips and Jonathan Betz, partners at Phillips- 
burg, immediately purchased from General Abner Lacock loi 
acres of land for $2000, for the purpose of building a town and 
new boat yards. The firm was soon changed to Phillips & 
Graham, and the new enterprise was pushed to completion; 
with what despatch may be seen from the following extract, 
taken from the Beaver Argus, May, 1832: 

Rapid Work. — Messrs. Phillips & Graham piirchased a tract of land 
from Gen. Abner Lacock, on the Ohio river, on Monday of last week, 
laid out a town on Tuesday, and built fourteen houses in four succeeding 
days. At this place they intend establishing their ship-yard. 

The original village of Freedom was surveyed and plotted 
by Simon Meredith, the streets, alleys, and lots being all located 
with special reference to the only business of the village, that 
of steamboat building.* 

The boimdary lines of the first purchase made by the firm 
named above began at a post on the bank of the Ohio River, 
near where the warehouse of the Freedom Oil Refinery now 
stands. Thence they ran north and east, including the upper 
tier of lots fronting on High Street ; thence east and south along 
said line of lots to a point back of the stone house, near the 
present residence of Captain Abram McDonald; thence south 

* For part of the data in this chapter we have drawn freely from an historical paper 
recently read by Rev. N. P. Kerr at "A Reunion of the Boys and Girls of Freedom of Forty 
Yean Ago." Rev. N. P. Kerr was bom in Freedom, where, also, his boyhood was spent. 
He is now pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at Dcrry, Pa. 

782 History of Beaver County 

and west to the Ohio River, at a point near the steamboat 
landing; thence west to the place of b^;inning. 

An additional purchase of 39 acres was made, by the same 
parties from William Vicary for $2500. The lines of this pur- 
chase were as follows: 

Beginning at a post on the bank of the Ohio river, near the steam- 
boat landing and extending along the line common to the tracts of Lacock 
and Vicary, to the rear end of lots fronting on High street; thence 
east to Dutchman's Rtm; thence by the meanders of said run to the 
Ohio River; thence west to the place of beginning. 

None of the cross streets extended to the river except Betz 
Street, to the steamboat landing, and Vicary Street. Indepen- 
dence and Liberty streets terminated at the line of the boat- 
yard. Wolf Alley skirted the lower end of lots fronting on 
Main Street, and extended from Liberty to Vicary Street, where 
the railroad is now located. 

In 1832 a number of families came over from Phillipsburg 
and settled in Freedom. About one hundred and fifty people 
first located there, and the place grew rapidly. The houses re- 
ferred to in the extract from the Argus given above, were only 
rude board shanties. Hence Freedom was at first called ** Shanty 

Into these one-roomed buildings the first settlers moved. 
Some doubt exists as to the first frame building erected in the 
village, but tradition seems to settle on the shoeshop erected by 
Samuel Fumier, who also erected the first hotel, which was 
a brick. The lots were sold, as selected by purchasers, except 
that lots one and two fronting on Main and Independence streets 
were reserved for the blacksmiths, Samuel S. Coulter and Thomas 
G. Kerr, and they decided who should have the comer by cast- 
ing lots, when the comer fell to T. G. Kerr. In selecting loca- 
tions, Jonathan Betz built on the southwest comer of Main and 
Betz streets. Stephen Phillips built on the southeast comer; 
and Daniel S. Skillinger built on the northeast comer. Samuel 
Fumier purchased and improved the lots on the northeast and 
southeast comers of Main and Independence streets. John 
Graham selected and built on the southwest comer of Main and 
Liberty streets. Philip Bentel purchased and improved the 
southeast comer. James McConnel located and b\iilt on the 

History of Beaver County 783 

northeast comer, and Wm. P. Phillips btiilt on the northwest 
comer. John W. Snead erected what is known as "the stone 
tavem," on Main Street, which still stands much as it was 
when btiilt. Some idea of the valuation of lots may be had by 
the fact that in 1841 vacant lots were valued at $75 each for 
borough taxation. Cows were rated at from $4 to $14 each, 
and horses from $4 to $35 each. 

The steamboat yard, which began at the western end of the 
town and extended to Betz Street at its eastern extremity, in- 
cluded all the land from the rear end of lots fronting on Main 
Street, and from Wolf Alley to the Ohio River, and embraced 
three acres of groimd which, with its buildings — exclusive of the 
steam saw-mill — ^was valued at $638 for purposes of taxing. The 
saw-mill was valued at $960 for taxing. It would seem that 
but one man in the borough at that time was able or inclined 
to carry a gold watch, and that was Stephen Phillips, whose 
gold lever watch was valued at $100. At that date John W. 
Snead must have been, financially, one of the important per- 
sonages of the town, as his taxes in 1841 amounted to $11.33; 
while Robert Lutton, on the other hand, paid but six cents. 
In that year Phillips and Betz were taxed for fifty-two vacant 
lots, valued at $1650, or $31.73 each. The descendants of 
Jacob Kronk, Adam Graham, Samuel Fumier, John A. Brown, 
John Graham, and Charles Graham continue to occupy the lots 
originally taken by them. William Hall, eldest son of Joseph 
and Matilda Hall, was the first child bom in Freedom. Large 
families, as a rule, were reared by these early settlers, many of 
whom still survive, and are widely scattered from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific and through the South. In 1833 Freedom con- 
tained forty dwellings, forty-seven families, and about 320 
inhabitants. In 1837 there were one hundred houses, and the 
population had increased to 600. 


Freedom was incorporated, April 16, 1838.' At the June 
session of the court, 1856, Samuel Baker, burgess, and the coun- 
cil, consisting of D. S. Marquis, M.D., James McKee, James Van 
Kirk, Christian Holland, and R. H. Hall, presented to the court 
a petition to have the borough placed under the provisions 

' P. L.. 643. 

784 History of Beaver County 

of the Act of Assembly of April 3. 1S51/ and the petition was 

In the year 1832 Phillips & Betz must have dissolved their 
copartnership, as in that year Stephen Phillips and John Graham 
formed a copartnership in the bnilding of steamboats. This 
firm was succeeded by Abel Cof&a in the same buaness. and this 
by **the Freedom Boat Building Society." The firm of Charies 
Graham 4 Company, composed of das. Graham. Robert Mc- 
Caskey, and Thomas G. Kerr, next succeeded to the business; 
and this firm was followed by that of iCcCaskey 4 Kerr. This 
firm was continued for thirty-eight years, until the deadi of 
Robert McCaskey. when, by agreement, the business was con- 
tinued under the same firm name, rounding out the full forty 
years. This firm was succeeded by W. H. Brown's Sons: they 
by Spear & Company ; and the latter by Dtmbar 3t Sons, which 
ended the business in the original boat-yard. John Graham and 
George Rogers, under the firm name of Graham Sc Rogers, con- 
ducted the business of boat-building for a time above the land- 
ing. James A. Sholes & Company built and operated a steam 
saw-mill above the landing, and conducted the buaness of a plan- 
ing mill and lumber yard. John Baker & Company had a large 
shop for the manufacturing of steam-engines on the southeast 
comer of Vicar>' Street, facing the river, and had a large foundry 
on the comer of Wolf Alley and Vicary Street. Andrew Baird & 
Company succeeded to this business in these buildii^, and op- 
erated quite extensively, employing many workmen; and many 
steamboats were supplied with engines by this firm. Donovan 
& Company l>ecame the successors, and established an extensive 
stove foundry' for the manufacture of cooking and heating stoves. 
This firm also did a large business, employing many men. 

McKee & Company succeeded, and established a wagon 
manufactory. They manufactured extensively, and shipped 
their goods largely to the south and west. This firm gave em- 
ployment to a large number of men, and contributed much to 
the business prosperity of the town. Business finally closed 
there in the abandonment of the site by the present cofiin 
manufactory. (See below. Freedom Casket Company.) 

Jacob Stahl operated a distillery and grist mill near Dutch- 
man's Run, on Main Street. 

' No. 7, June Sess., Road Docket No. 3, p. 34. 

History of Beaver County 785 

Among the early merchants (1837 to 1841) were Phillips & 
McConnel, Stiles & Fisher, Phillip Bentel, John Denham, John 
W. Snead, Benjamin Brown, and Benville Brown. 

Their stores contained a varied stock of dry goods, groceries, 
hardware, queensware, boots and shoes, hats and caps, notions, 
farm products, tobacco and cigars, butter and eggs, nails, glass, 
putty, white lead and oils — ^in short, a little of everything needed 
by their customers. The prices asked for various articles were 
"a lip, a levy, and three fips, or two bits.*' 

Harris's Directory of Freedom for 1841 shows the following 
persons holding borough offices at that time, and the business 
interests of the town. 

Burgess — Henry Bryan, Council — William P. Phillips, Robert Mc- 
Caskey, Joseph Hall, Isaac Ingraham, and Jacob Stahl; with E. G. 
Dubany as clerk. Constable — Thomas Sutton. Physicians — Drs. T. F. 
Robinson, William Smith, and Thomas Dickson. Hotel-keepers — Anthony 
Windham, S. B. Linn, J. A. Williamson, at Crow's Bottom; J. Young, Swan 
Inn; John W. Snead, Freedom Hotel ; Samuel Turner. Ship Carpenters — 
William P. Phillips, Robert McCaskey, Joseph Hall, Adam Graham, C. 
Graham, John Graham, J. Betz, S. Phillips, Sr., W. Merriman, J. Shearer, 
Phillip Hoover & Sons, Daniel Skillinger & Sons, S. Phillips, Jr. , J. A. Brown, 
Daniel Graham, Simon Gritz, William Woods, Robert French, George 
Stoops, Joseph Grimes, Andrew Woods, Thomas Crooks, Robert Hall, and 
Isaac Grimes. Carpenters — John Hamilton, Isaac Ingraham, Phillip Stet- 
sell. Blacksmiths— Samuel Coulter, H. C. Grant, R. Wagoner, N. P. Kerr. 
Engine builders — E. G. Dubarry, John D. Eakin, Charles Anderson. Wagon 
makers — ^John Andrews, Jacob Schoffleberger, Israel Bentel. Farmers — 
Philip Vicary, A. Hall, Philip Grimes. ro*/or5— Richard Hall, F. Shoe- 
maker. Shoemakers — Christian Holland, Jacob and John Hill. Gun- 
smiths — ^Joseph Graham, Andrew Emery & Co. Engineer — Woolman 
Hunt. Cabinet maker — ^John C. Shoal. Millwright — C. Myers. Stone- 
masons — ^Jacob Krout, David Martin. Sea Captain — William Vicary. 
Pilot — ^James A. Sholes. 

The first justice of the peace was James McConnel who was 
succeeded by Martin Fisher, and he by Thomas G. Kerr, whose 
ten commissions as justice of the peace covered half a century, 
and he lived to almost complete his last commission, having 
been the longest in commission, perhaps, of any one in Beaver 
County. Henry Bryan also served several years in that office. 


The post-office, established with the town, has been served 
as follows, viz: 

7S6 History of Beaver County 

iSja* Stephen Philfips and James McConnri; 1836, Dr. Wm. Smith; 
1840. Dr. T. F. Robtnscxi; XS44. Henry Bryan; 1845, Friederich Schu- 
macher. Wm. P. Philfips was postmaster in 1850, John Graham in 1854, 
W. W. Kerr, in 1S58. and W. D. Fisher. 187 1: Thomas C Kerr. 1880; 
Francis M. Grim. 18S6; James L. Conner. 1890; William G. Jack, 1894; 
William D. Hamflton. 1898-1904. 


At the comer of Virtue and Betz streets, where the Evan- 
gdical Association Church now stands, was a small frame school- 
house, in which English and German schools were taught, and 
here also the first Stmday schools of the town were organized. 
In this building also the first preaching sei vices enjoyed by the 
people were established, it being occupied alternately by the 
ministers of the Presbyterian and the Methodist Episcopal 

Presbyterian Church. — ^The territory now included within 
the bounds of the Presbyterian Church of Freedom was origin- 
ally under the care of the pastors and session of the church in 
Beaver, and, prior to the year 1841, public preaching and other 
means of grace were occasionally enjoyed in the village of Free- 
dom, through the ministrations of Andrew O. Patterson and 
Anderson B. Qtiay, pastors, in succession, of the church in 
Beaver; and of Aaron Williams, formerly pastor of the church 
in Beaver Falls. 

Early in the stmimer of the year 1841, Joseph Reed, for- 
merly pastor of the church of Hilands, Ohio Presb^'terj*, com- 
menced preaching statedly in the village and neighborhood of 

In the same year, in the month of September, the congrega- 
tion of Freedom, through their commissioner, presented to the 
Presbytery of Beaver, then in session at New Brighton, a re- 
quest to be organized into a separate church. In compliance 
with this request a committee, consisting of Rev. Messrs. Robert 
Dilworth, Arthur B. Bradford, and Benjamin C. Critchlow, was 
appointed, with instructions to visit the scene of Mr. Reed's 
labors, and organize, if they should think proper, a church at 

On the loth day of November, 1841, this committee met. 
but they fotmd only one male Presbyterian church member 

History of Beaver County 787 

at Freedom, and for this and other reasons failed to organize 

During the time then intervening Mr. Reed died, and a 
licentiate, Washington Morton, was instructed to labor with 
these people. 

Another request then came from Freedom to be organized 
into a separate church, with the assurance that there had been 
an increase in male church members. 

A committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Benjamin 
C. Critchlow, Arthur B. Bradford, and Elder James Cummings, 
to visit the congregation and, if practicable, to organize the 
church. This committee met with the congregation. May 9, 
1843, ^^d, it having been ascertained that the way was then 
open for the organization of a church, the following persons pre- 
sented letters of dismission from the churches of Concord and 
Pine Creek, namely: Rosetta Hardy, Anne Wagoner, Frances 
McCaskey, Mary Beatty, Joseph Hall, Elizabeth Wagoner, 
Matilda Hall, Mary Anderson, Elizabeth Gonter, Robert 
Hall, Isabella Hall, Michael Bubler, Anne Bryan, Rhoda Phil- 
lips, Robert Wagoner, from Concord; Daniel Miller, Hannah 
Miller, James Miller, from Pine Creek — eighteen in all. 

Two persons were chosen to fill the ofl&ce of ruling elder, viz., 
Joseph Hall and Daniel Miller, who were ordained by Mr. Critch- 
low, after which the Presbyterian Church of Freedom was de- 
clared to be fully organized. 

The first building erected by this congregation as a house of 
worship was of brick, 50 by 40 feet, with 18-inch walls. It con- 
tained fifty-four pews. 

The Sabbath school was organized, February 4, 1844, with 
thirty-nine members. Rev. D. C. Reed was the first pastor, 
1847-49. Then followed John Brown, 1 851-61; D. P. Lowary, 
1863-65; James M. Smith, 1867-72; M. L. Wortman, 1872-80; 
W. G. Stewart, 1883-87; J. H. Bausman, 1887-89; R. L. 
Smith, 1889-1901 ; Percy H. Gordon, the present pastor, was 
called July 2, 1901, and installed September 26, 1901 ; beginning 
full time at Freedom, January i, 1903. The following ministers 

* Prom the diary of Rev. Robert Dilworth, D.D. — Nov. ii, 1841. "We proceeded to 
Freedom & held a meeting. Mr. Critchlow preached from Acts 3:19. We then having 
isquired how many chtirch members would wish to imite with the church in that place, & 
finding that of zo or xa members only one was a male, we judged it inexpedient to oiganixe 
m chtirch in that place at pment." 

788 History of Beaver County 

supplied the church at intervals, but were not installed as pas- 
tors: John Launitz, 1861-62; William McEanney, 1865-66; 
R. B. Porter, 1881-82; D. L. Dickey, 1882-83. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. 
Joshua Monroe in 1836, in the pubUc schoolhouse, and con- 
tinued to hold its religious services in that building until the 
completion of the basement story of their present church build- 
ing. The site of their church building and grounds was donated 
by Phillips & Graham, and the church btiilding was erected 
under the supervision and during the pastorate of Rev. Peter 
M. McGowan. It was dedicated in 1842. 

The actual cost of the building cannot now be accurately given, 
as much of the work done was donated, and the chief outlay was for 
materials used. Even this was reduced to a minimtun. Dtuing a 
sudden rise in the Ohio River several of the men connected with 
this congregation went out in skiffs and caught a sufficient ntmiber 
of pine logs that were adrift in the river, to furnish the material 
with which to build their church. They secured permission to 
use the saw-mill, and after working all day at their trades, sev- 
eral of the men would go to the mill, and by the light of tallow 
candles would run the mill until midnight, sawing out the lum- 
ber for their church. Then, while the building was being erected, 
men unused to carpentry would work until midnight, dressing 
out flooring by hand, laying floors and dressing lumber for inside 
finishing, and the making of the pews. Thus by sacrifice and 
devotion to the cause in which they were greatly interested, the 
work was at length completed. 

The first board of trustees consisted of Martin Fisher, Sam- 
uel Fumier, Thomas G. Kerr, James McConnel, Daniel Graham, 
and Thomas Lutton. 

Prominent among the names of those who were instrumental 
in the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Free- 
dom, we find the names of Jonathan Betz, Samuel Fumier, 
Martin Fisher, James McConnel, Samuel S. Coulter, Daniel S. 
Skillinger, Thomas G. Kerr, Thomas Crooks, Thomas Lut- 
ton, Robert French, Thomas Reno, Woolman Hunt, Jacob Kronk, 
John W. Snead, Charles Graham, Daniel Graham, Simon Grim, 
Hugh S. Robinson, Stephen Phillips, William Merriman, John 
Folio, James Stoops, Gideon Kinnear, William White, Joseph 

History of Beaver County 789 

Craig, R. H. McCaskey, Enoch Fowler, James Beabout, and in each 
case the wives of these men bore an active and conspicuous part. 

From this church there have gone forth as ministers of the 
gospel: N. P. Kerr, Henry Tibbals, L. U. Snead, John R. Wolf. 
John Fresh, and perhaps others. 

Early preachers in this church were Gideon Kinnear, Joshua 
Monroe, William F. Lauck, J. W. Baker, and others. Later min- 
isters have been John McCarthy, E. B. Webster, E. M. Wood, 
Thomas Storer, John Conner, D. L. Dempsey, 1880; Josiah 
Mansell, 1881-82; J. J. Hill, 1883; D. L. Dempsey, 1884; E. B. 
Griflfin, 1885-86; W. L. McGrew, 1887-88; E. M. Wood, 1889; 
M. G. Potter, 1890-91; J. D. W. Hazelton, 1892-94; Frank 
Prosser, 1895-97; A. H. Davies, 1898-1900; J. K. Howe, 1901-. 

The Evangelical Association. — This church was about sixty 
years ago a mission station in the Harmony circuit, and may 
be said to have then had its birth. Its present building was 
erected about 1890, during the pastorate of G. Gahr. Since the 
organization of the Erie Conference the following ministers have 
served the congregation: L. Scheuerman, Th. Suhr, G. Gotz 
(twice), C. Walz, H. Wiegand, G. Ott, C. F. Hartung, G. Gahr, 
J. G. Ziegler, Fr. Handke, S. C. Gotz, J. G. Walz, J. A. Hetche, 
Th. Gahr, J. Finkbeiner, J. Hoffman, C. HoUiger, and again 
J. Hoffman. 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Freedom, Pa., 
was organized as the First German congregation of Freedom and 
vicinity in the year 1848 by Rev. E. F. Winter of Zelienople, 
Pa. The services were held in the old schoolhouse in the bor- 
ough of Freedom up to December i, 1851, when the present 
chiirch edifice was dedicated. On March 26, 1853, a constitu- 
tion was adopted and signed by thirty-nine male and thirty-seven 
female members. Among the original signers were the following, 
who are at this writing still active members of this church ; Elias 
Mengel, John Mengel, John Ruckert, Fredrick Kommann, and 
Conrad Schleiter, Sr. In the course of time the constitution has 
undergone various changes, the most important of these being 
the introduction of the English language, which was previously 
debarred from the business as well as the religious meetings. 
German is retained in the chief service ; while the Stmday-school, 
the evening services, Mission League, etc., are now conducted in 

VOL. XI. — la. 

790 History of Beaver County 

English. The following pastors have served this church: Rev. 
E. P. Winter, 1848-58; H. C. Kaehler, 1858-61; Casper Scheel, 
1861-64; K. Walz, 1864-67; C. A. Frank, 1867-70; P. Bom, 
1870-76; F. C. E. Lemcke, 1876-1902. The present pastor is 
Rev. Paul Kixmmer of Leetsdale, Pa. The Rev. M. R. Smith 
of Baden, Pa., holds alternate Sunday evening services. Mr. 
Edward Schleiter is the superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
The church council is composed of Rev. P. Kummer, president, 
Mr. Elmer Mengel, secretary; J. A. Mengel, treasurer; trustees: 
EUas Mengel, John Mengel, John Ruckert, Edward Schleiter, 
Michael Zahn, Jacob Metzger. The membership at present is 
sixty, and while the growth is slow it is healthy. Most of the 
members are among the substantial and best-known citizens of 
Freedom and vicinity. 

Trinity Lutheran Church, in what was formerly St. Clair, 
now Freedom, was organized October 24, 1869, with the follow- 
ing charter members: Conrad Brandt, John Minke, Peter Klein, 
John Hagen, Conrad Schleiter, Henry Minke, Chas. Bischoff- 
berger, Jacob Brandt, Chas. L. Mohr, Geo. H. Mohr, and John 
C. Brandt. 

Services were held at the residence of Conrad Brandt in St. 
Clair borough, by Rev. C. A. Frank, who was the first minister 
of the congregation. 

A lot was purchased from Thos. F. Robinson for the sum of 
$250, January 8, 1870, and the erection of the church build- 
ing thereon was completed at a cost of $1860.37. The church 
was dedicated, July 24, 1870. At this time there remained a 
debt against the church building of $640, which was paid a few 
years later. Rev. Jacob Wilhelm ofl&ciated as pastor from 1872 
to 1874, Mr. Frank having been called to Pittsbiirg. Mr. Wil- 
helm was succeeded by Rev. Otto Von Zech. who served until 
January, 1875, being succeeded by Rev. G. J. Mueller, who 
served faithfully until called to a Western congregation in the 
year 1879. During the vacancy the congregation was served by 
the Rev. F. Wambsgans of Allegheny City, until 1880, when it 
was again supplied with a resident pastor in the person of Rev. 
P. Pohl, who remained until 1882. From this date until 1888, 
the congregation secured the services of Rev. F. Wambsgans of 
Allegheny City, who officiated as pastor both in Allegheny City 

History of Beaver County 791 

and Freedom. In 1888 the pastor was called to Indianapolis, 
and was succeeded by Revs. S. M. Soergel and A. W. Myer of 
Pittsburg; and from this time English and German services were 
conducted alternately, Mr. Myer conducting the English, and 
Mr. Soergel the German services. Mr. Soergel served until 1894, 
when he was called to a congregation in the East, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Mr. Wishmeyer of Allegheny City. The follow- 
ing year, 1895, ^^^ congregation celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the dedication of the church btiilding. About 
this time the English pastor, Mr. Myer, was called to take charge 
of one of the Lutheran colleges in the West, and he was succeeded 
by Rev. Mr. Hemmeter, who served with Mr. Wishmeyer imtil 
1897, when Rev. John Schiller of Baltimore was called as pastor, 
to conduct both German and English services, and served until 
1903, when he was called to a congregation in New York City. 
The vacancy at present is being filled temporarily by Rev. 
Henry Seiker of Pittsburg. 

The Trinity Lutheran Church (English). — ^The opening and 
extension of the Conway railroad yards drew a large ntunber 
of members from the Crow's Run congregation to Vicary (now 
a part of Freedom). These members asked for services with 
the idea of the establishment of a congregation as soon as cir- 
cumstances would permit. Permission having been obtained 
from the school board for the use of the schoolhouse there, 
service was held in Vicary on February 15, 1891. The attend- 
ance was so encouraging and the desire to organize a congrega- 
tion so hearty, that after a full explanation of the trials which 
would naturally result to a weak and struggling organization, 
all were willing to begin the work. On the 8th of November, 

1 89 1, the congregation was organized with eleven members. 
The offer to donate a building lot by Mr. and Mrs. James Harvey 
was thankfully accepted; and on the fifth day of September, 

1892, ground was broken for the erection of a church building. 
On the 2d day of October, 1892, the comer-stone was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies. On March 26, 1893, the first service 
was held in the church. August 20, 1893, the church was 
dedicated, the Rev. S. A. K. Francis of Trinity Church, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., preaching the sermon. The first and present pas- 
tor is the Rev. R. Morris Smith. 

792 History of Beaver Coantr 


The r^ccTDGC scbcols of Freedos ar» cxocijccl There has 
rencrith* leca erected a large patisc scbccc btsfLi-Frg '■itich is 
among the best in the coTxnty. 


The F ree do m Xational Bar.k. — ^A xneetfnr tf^s held in Free- 
dosi. Pa.. January 19, 1S72. at the office cf P'rfjfp Bectel. for 

the OTTCose of forming a company for carrrin^ on a general 
baiiking business. 

A company was formed, composed of the fsll-cwing stock- 
holders: Philip Bentel. Charles H. Bentel. Jno. F. Bectel. J. G. 
Bentel. D. E. Lowrr. Abram McDonald. J. F. Mxiener, Jno. B. 
Oieney. W. E. Cotter, W. C. Goll, Tobias Hetchie, Simon Grim, 
aad Jno. Minke. 

The bank was to be known as P. Bentel & Company, and the 
business was to be under the super\-ision and management of 
Philip Bentel as president, and C. H. Bentel, cashier. 

The capital stock of the bank was $40,000. 

The bank was opened for business on the first day of Feb- 
ra&r}*. 1872, and continued under the management of the same 
jvirties until about 1877 or 1878, when the rest of the stock- 
holders were bought out by Philip Bentel. 

The business was carried on by Philip and Charles H. Bentel 
jtji before, until the death of Philip Bentel. June 30, 1883. 
OhiU'les H. Bentel then became sole owner and so continued 
x:n:il July 2. 1900, when the bank was merged into a Xational 
Sank known as the Freedom Xational Bank, with a capital of 
$50,000. and the following officers: Jos. W. Craig, president; 
A J. Minke, vice-president; Chas. H. Bentel, cashier: H. F. 
linnenbrink, teller; and Jos. W. Craig, Dr. J. R. Lockhart. 
0. H. Bentel. A. Blatt, A. McDonald, A. J. Minke, D. J. Snead. 
Us. A. Harvey, and J. J. McElhany, directors. At the call of 
Xovember, 1903. this bank had a deposit of $248,610. 

The Freedom Savings & Trust Company was chartered June 
15. TO03, and opened for business in its permanent quarters, 
October 19, 1903. The capitalization is $125,000, and practic- 
ally all of the stock is owned by residents of the vicinity. 

History of Beaver County 793 

The directors are E. J. Schleiter, H. J. Bock, S. Morgan, R. D. 
Thompson, W. T. Mohler, John Mc Andrews, J. B. Hetche, 
J. R. McKee, and M. J. Beal of Freedom; H. W. Reeves of 
Beaver Falls; Edwin S. Weyand of Beaver; James C. Chaplin 
of Pittsburg, M. L. Strock of Baden, and Charles R. Eckert of 
Monaca. Mr. Schleiter is president ; Mr. Chaplin, vice-president; 
Robert C. Campbell, secretary and assistant-treasurer. 


The Freedom Oil Works Company, organized, 1879, by Drs. 
Stephen A. Craig and H. S. McConnel, built a refinery at 
Remington, now Conway. This property was sold to the Penn- 
sylvania Company in 1883, and a refinery built at its present 
location by S. A. Craig, H. S. McConnel. and A. J. Minke. 
Messrs. Craig & McConnel retiring during the next three years, 
the business was continued by A. J. Minke. 

In 1889 the Freedom Oil Works Company was incorporated 
under the laws of Pennsylvania. Its ofl&cers are: Jos. W. Craig, 
president; A. J. Minke, vice-president; W. H. Baker, secretary 
and treasurer. 

The company has distributing stations and offices at the 
following places in Pennsylvania: Beaver Falls, Braddock, Car- 
negie, Connellsville, DuBois. Greensburg, Johnstown, McKees- 
port, Mt. Pleasant, New Castle, New Kensington, Pine Grove, 
Pittsburg, Punxsutawney, Scottdale, Sharon, Uniontown; in 
Ohio at Canton, East Liverpool, Massillon, Newark, Salem, 
Springfield, Steubenville, Warren, Wellsville, Yoimgstown; and 
at Wheeling, W. Va. 

The Freedom Casket Company. — April i, 1889, the Craig 
Maniifacturing Company was organized by J. A. Harvey, D. C. 
Harvey, S. A. Craig, M.D., and F. S. Craig as a partnership. 
The firm manufactured cloth caskets, robes and linings, and 
jobbed a ftill line of goods adapted to the undertaking trade. 
On the death of Dr. S. A. Craig, his interest was purchased by 
the firm, January i, 1894; and, June 15, 1895, ^- L. Wilson 
purchased the interest of F. S. Craig, who was compelled to 
retire from business on account of ill-health. The business of 
the Craig Manufacturing Company increased rapidly, and finding 
their surroundings too contracted for the needs of the firm they 

794 History of Beaver County 

determined to enlarge the plant. On the 28th of June, 1901, 
they were incorporated as The Freedom Casket Company, with 
a capital stock of $75,000, $60,000 of which was paid in. The 
increased capital was used in the erection of new buildings, which 
were begun in the fall of 1901. They erected two brick build- 
ings, one of three stories and one of two stories with a basement, 
having now a floor space of about 35,000 square feet. The firm 
has three salesmen covering the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Maryland, and West Virginia, and its sales amount to about 
$60,000 annually. The officers of the company are: J. A. 
Harvey, president; D. C. Harvey, vice-president; and F. L. 
Wilson, secretary-treasurer. The plant of this company is one 
of the completest in the State. 

Artificial Ice Plant. — ^This was built in 1898, by John C. 
McWilliams. The site of the plant is on Eighth Street, extending 
back to Dutchman's Rim. The ice is made from condensed 
water, the system used being that which employs cold calcium 
brine. When started the daily output was about six tons, and 
is now eight tons. Mr. McWilliams has delivery wagons run- 
ning in Rochester, Freedom, and Baden. 


The Oak Grove Cemetery of Freedom was incorporated the 
14th day of March, 1863, with the following trustees: Robert 
McCaskey, P. Bentel, Wm. Wagner, A. McDonald, J. I. Park, 
and Isaac Black. After the charter was procured and a board 
of trustees organized by electing Robt. McCaskey, president; 
Isaac Black, secretary; and Philip Bentel, treasurer, it was 
agreed to purchase a piece of ground from Dr. T. F. Robinson. 
The purchase was made October 19, 1863, the plot consisting of 
four acres of ground, for which they paid $403. In 1874 nearly 
all the lots in the cemetery being sold, the trustees bought 
three acres for which they paid $300 an acre. In February, 
1890, they bought three acres more at the same price. The 
present trustees are D. E. Lowry, A. McDonald, C. H. Bentel, 
W. G. Jack, Jas. Manor, and F. G. Duerr, who have been re- 
elected to the office each year, for over twenty years. 


This borough has no longer a corporate existence, having 

History of Beaver County 


been merged in 1896 into Freedom borough, from which 
it was only separated by a small run, and with which it was 
for all practical purposes one town. Its post-office had al- 
ways been Freedom, and its social and business interests were 
always identical with those of Freedom. The village of St. 
Clair had been laid out in 1837 by Captain William Vicary, and 
was often called "Vicary Extension,** or ''Vicary.'* It was in- 
corporated as a borough by a decree of the court, March 25, 
1867.* The first election was held, April 20, 1867, with Jonathan 
Paul as judge, and James Reed and James Harkins, inspectors. 
Its population by the census of 1890 was 411 ; that of Freedom 
by the same census was 704. The united boroughs are shown 
by the census of 1900 to have a population of 1783. The tmion 
of the two boroughs was by a charter of incorporation issued by 
the Governor of Pennsylvania, May 4, 1896, under the Act of 
June 6, 1893.=* 

* No. 9> March Sess.. 1867: Road Docket No. 3, p. 370. 

• P. L., 338. 


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History of Beaver County 797 

been a Polish nobleman named Helvedi,^ who was exiled from 
his native land and, emigrating to America, came to this place 
and engaged in breeding Merino sheep, being the original im- 
porter of this valuable breed into this section. 

The origin of the town dates back to about 1822, when Phil- 
lips & Graham established on its site their extensive boat yards. 
It was first named for Stephen Phillips of this firm, and was long 
known as PhiUipsburg. In 1832 Phillips & Graham sold the 
entire tract of land on which the town was located to the se- 
ceders from the Harmony Society at Economy, and removed 
their boat yards to what is now Freedom, about one mile above 
and on the opposite side of the river. 

The secession from the Harmony Society took place as a 
result of the differences which arose in that society between the 
founder, George Rapp, and an adventurer from Germany named 
Count de Leon.' De Leon and his adherents, numbering some 
two hundred and fifty persons, removed to PhiUipsburg, which 
they had purchased with the money obtained in a compromise 
with the leaders of the Harmony Society. Here they estab- 
lished a colony under the name of the New Philadelphia So- 
ciety, erecting a church, a hotel, and other buildings, some of 
which are still standing. The count was made president of the 
new society, to be aided by twelve trustees. 

Financial and other difficulties arose in the society in the 
lapse of about seventeen months, and a dissolution was decided 
upon. The following notice was published : 


The undersigned, members of the New Philadelphia Society at Phil- 
lipsbtirg, in the coimty of Beaver and commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
have been authorized by said society to give public notice of the dissolu- 
tion of their partnership. The public will therefore take notice that the 

^ The tract of land on which Monaca now stands, consisting of 330 acres, and described 
as opposite the mouth of Big Beaver Creek, was flrrantcd by the Commonwealth of Penn- 
gylvania by patent bearing date September s, 17S7. to Ephraim Blaine (grandfather of 
James G. Blaine). In the patent this tract is called "Appetite." (See copy of this patent 
duly recorded in the proper office in Beaver Ounty, Deed book No. 128. p. 261.) 

On the ist of August, 181 3, this tract of land was bought by Francis Helvedi, and was 
sold by James Lyon, sheriff of Beaver County, as his property to George Rapp by deed 
dated August 31, i8ai. In the deed last named the property is described as "containing 
300 acres, then in Moon township, on which is erected two log houses, one kitchen, one 
large sheep house shingle roofed and one cabin roofed stable, and about 84 acres cleared 
thereon, 16 acres of which are in meadow." 

■ See Chapter XXVIII for a fuller accoimt of this secession. 

798 History of Beaver County 

partnership heretofore existing in Phillip sb urg aforesaid, and transacting 
business tinder the title of the New Pkiladelpkia SocUty, has this day 
been dissolved by nrntnal consent. All persons having daims against 
said partnership are hereby requested to present the same for settlement; 
and those indebted to said company are required to make payment to 
Abner Lacock, Stephen Phillips and Adam Schnle, who are fully author- 
ized to settle and adjust the accounts of said partnership. 

Given under our hands this loth day of August. A.D., 1833. 

Maximilian de Leon, 

Samuel G. Goentgen. 

John A. Zickwolf. 

Jacob Wagner. 

John Schaefer. 

Anthony Knapper. 

The following month, the count and his family, with a num- 
ber of followers, sailed down the Ohio River on a flat-boat and 
settled at Leo Grand de Cour, twelve miles north of Natchi- 
toches, Louisiana; and there, in October, 1834, the count died 



_ flKUEtS£il§E, 

and was buried. The descendants of his company remained in 
that State, in the parish of Claiborne, where some still survive 
The members of the society who remained in Phillipsburg car- 
ried on for some time a co-operative business, but this was soon 
dissolved, and each individual composing the company set up in 

History of Beaver County 799 

Kfe for himself in harmony with the general practice of the 
people about them. Some of the most highly respected, influ- 
ential, and useftil families of Monaca, such as the Wagners,' 
Schaefers, Trompeters, Stroheckers, and Franks are from this 

A remarkable instance of religious fanaticism is given in an 
occurrence which took place here in the spring of 1846, when a 
man from Ohio, named Keil, proclaimed himself as the Christ, 
and announced that he woiild be crucified on a certain day. 
This man was in no way connected with Count de Leon, though 

* Jacob Wagner was born May 3, 1801, at Uebtingen, Wurtemberg, Germany. His 
IMwents were Johann Georg and Anna Maria (Huber) Wagner. His third birthday was 
passed on the ocean en route with his parents to America. Ptishing their way inland his 
parents booght a farm on Yellow Creek in Butler County, Pennsylvania, upon which they 
aiade their home. In the course of a few years, however, this land was sold, and the pro- 
ceeds, with all other of their earthly ix>sse8sions, ttuiied into the treasury of the Harmony 
Society, then coming into prominence tmder the leadership of George Rapp, which society 
they joined. 

Pcdlowing the fortunes of the organization young Wagner grew to manhood, receiving 
a &dr German education, but forbidden \mder penalty of inctirring the displeasure of Rapp 
to leani the English language. Despite this obstacle, however, he persisted secretly in thd 
fltttdy of English tmtil he had a good knowledge of it. much to his advantage in later days. 
Wagner became one of the leading members among the younger people of the Harmony 
Society, and was intrusted with many commissions of importance in its affairs. His 
penetrating mind probed the depths of the constitution of the commtmal system under 
which be Hved and rejected its errors. His influence with the older leaders was impaired 
by this independence of thought, but was constantly augmented among the yotmger and 
more progressive minds in the commtmity. 

When in 1839, the secession from the Harmony Society of a large number of members 
«ider IfaadmHian, Count de Leon, took place. Wagner was one of the leading spirits in the 
moiFement, and when the commtmistic system was abolished in the newly founded town 
ho was esteemed the best qualified among its citizens for transacting business with the 
owtwff world. Accordingly he was selected by the company owning and operating the 
lioolen mill (see cut opposite) as its agent and i>resident, in which capacity he traveled all 
owtr v ie st e m Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, buying wool and selling the products of the 
fMtory. He filled many offices of trust besides in church, school, and civil affairs, and 
ia all respects earned and kept the confidence and affection of his fellow citizens, and in 
his home life he was equally devoted and happy. On the ad of November, 1834 he was 
vnited in marriage to Helen Christine Heydt. Six children were bom to them, PhilHpena 
(Mn. C Erbeck), Mary, Johanna, Israel, Melinda (Mrs. Rev. D. L. Roth) and Jonathan, who 
fiod in infancy. Jacob Wagner died April 9, 1884, aged 8 a years, 11 months. His widow 
survived him five years, dying March 13, 1889, at almost the same age — 8 a years. The sur- 
vrfon at this date (1904) are Mary, Israel and Mrs. Roth. 

Among the families, first in point of time and in influence, in Monaca. are the Schaefers. 
Jacob Schaefer, their progenitor, was bom February ai, 1 801, at Knittlimer [Knittlingen?] 
W&rtembexg, Germany. His widowed mother emigrated with him in 1806 to Pennsylvania, 
and became a full member of the Harmony Society, in which Jacob grew up. and in which 
he became finally one of the most useful and influential members and officers. He learned 
the trades of carpentry, dyeing, and machinery. 

Jacob Schaefer took an active part in the secession from the Harmony Society in 1833, 
and was chosen one of the twelve trustees of the New Philadelphia Society into which the 
seceders were afterwards organized. On the dissolution of the latter society he^was made 
one of the committee to adjust its affairs. The property which fell to his share he culti- 
vated for a number of years thereafter and he died at Phillipsburg February 34, 1887 

8oo History of Beaver County 

the poptilar tradition has always represented him as one of the 
followers of that celebrity. The crucifixion was actually ar- 
ranged for in all its details, the cross being made and the hole 
for it dug on the hillside just above the present P. & L. E. Rail- 
way trestle, to the west of the town, on the farm of George 
Frank, now of the estate of Dr. W. G. Taylor's heirs. It was on 
a warm Sunday morning, the town was crowded with people, 
and the excitement was intense. But the false Christ disap- 
pointed the multitude, and, with some of his deluded disciples, 
who had been seceders from the Harmony Society, fled to Oregon, 
where he died. 

Several large buildings which had been erected by the New 
Philadelphia Society were, in 1848, sold to Dr. Edward Acker 
for a sanatoritim, known as Water Cure, which flourished for a 
time under his management, and was afterwards carried on by 
Dr. Baeltz. Later these buildings were used for a hotel and 
pleasure resort kept by a man named Cimiotti, and in 1865 they 
were bought by Rev. William G. Taylor, D.D., for housing the 
Soldiers' Orphans School, which he was then about establishing 
at Phillipsburg. 

This school was the first of the kind under State appoint- 
ment in the western part of Pennsylvania, and was organized 
by Dr. Taylor tmder appointment from Governor Andrew G. 
Curtin. It was put in operation in March, 1866, and continued 
successfully until 1876, new buildings being added and large 
purchases of ground being made at various periods; but in 
August of the latter year the main building was accidentally 
destroyed by fire, and it was not thought advisable to rebuild. 
The scholars were transferred to other institutions, and the 
school ended its career. 


We have said that the name New Philadelphia in part and 
for a time displaced the original name of this place, Phillips- 
burg, but seven years after the dissolution of the society the 
town was incorporated into a borough under the latter and 
primitive name.' A petition praying for this incorporation was 
presented at the September term of court in 1839 * by Jacob 

* On a map of the Ohio in Lloyd's Steamboat Directory and Disasters, 1S56, this point 
is named Jacobsburg. 

* Quarter Sessions Docket No. 3, No. 17, Sept. Sess., 1839, p. i6a. 

History of Beaver County 80 1 

Schaefer, Adam Schtile, and others, a plan of the town accom- 
panying the petition. The petition was approved by the grand 
jury, Major Robert Darragh, foreman; and the decree was 
made by the court, March 6, 1840.* The following first Mon- 
day of April the first borough election was held in the tavern of 
William Stimim. January 26, 1880, by virtue of a decree of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions, the borough of Phillipsburg was made 
subject to the provisions of the Act of April 3, 1851, relating to 
boroughs.* September 20, 1892, the corporate name of the 
borough was changed to Monaca.3 This was done partly to 
obviate the confusion arising from the fact that there is another 
town in the State having the name of Philipsburg. 

Harris's Directory gives the names of citizens of this place 
in 1 84 1, with their occupations, as follows : 

Merchants — ^Anthony Knapper, Israel Bentel. Carpenters — ^John 
Bell, Henry Stink, John Trompeter, Casper Koehler, George Voght, 
David Lais (Lay), Henry Young. Farmers — ^J. Strohecker, Francis 
Bonet, Jacob Barker, Jacob Grain, C. Frank, George Frank. Daniel 
Voght, Frederick Speyerer. Blacksmiths — Bernard Zeigler, George Zeigler, 
David Wagner, Jacob Veiginger, Simon Wagner. Shoemakers — George 
Scbnaiiffer, Adam Keller, George Lais (Lay), Tersius Kramer. Hotel- 
keepers — George N. Fisher, "76 Hotel," Peter Stupp. Millwrights — 
Michael Forstner, George Forstner. Weavers — George Reiff, Jacob Duer. 
Physician — Edward Acker. Coopers — ^Jacob Sanders, M. Faut, Andrew 
Faut. Laborers — ^Jacob Miner, Jacob Voght. Blue Dyers — ^Jacob Schaefer, 
Charles Schmalhausen. Bricklayers — Rheinhold Frank, Augiist Schmidt, 
Christian Authenriet. Tailors — Reinmtind Gann, Francis Zeigler. Wool 
Grader — ^Jacob Wagner. Miller — A. Schule. Wheelwright — ^John Bauer. 
Brickmaker — ^Jacob Koenig. Wool Carder — Frederick Speyerer. Sur- 
veyor — Charles Kramer. Tinner — Christian Smith. Sawyer — W. Horman. 
Ferryman — ^John Rainbow [Rambo?]. Butcher — ^John Schamburgher. 
Barbers — Alexander Gempill, Joseph Kreg, Conrad Gann. Minister — Rev. 
Ferdinand Winter. Burgess, justice of the peace and manager of the semi- 
nary — L. F. Le GouUon. Council — Israel Bentel, Christian Authenriet, 
Jacob Schaefer. 

It will be seen from this list of names that the population of 
the place was at this time predominantly German. This was 
due to the fact that the people were largely the remainder of 
the New Philadelphia Society, the original members of which 
had been emigrants to this country from the "Fatherland." 

* Quarter Sessions, Docket No. 3, No. 17, Septcinber Sessions, 1839, p. 162. 
' Ouarter Sessions, Misc. Docket No. i, p. 63. 

* O^iartcr Sessions. Misc. Docket No. 2, No. 13, June Sessions, 189a, i)p. 24-as 

3o2 History of Beaver County 

The later accessioiis to the popolalkm of the town were also, 
matniy the ^atTM* in nationahtv. 


Until the coming of the Pittsborg & Lake Erie Railroad, 
Monaca was a small and sleepy village of some four hundred 
inhabitants. The construction of this road gave an impetus to 
business, good shipping facilities beix^ created by it, and soon 
manufacturing establishments began to seek locations in the 
town, bringing an increase of population. 

The Phoenix Glass G>mpany of Monaca, Pa., was organized 
in August, 1880, tmder the laws of the State of Pennsylvania; 
the principal stockholders beii^ Andrew Howard and W. I. 
Miller. The capital stock was $30,000, which was increased in 
1887 to $250,000; and the company was reorganized in 1891, 
under the Laws of the State of West Virginia, with an author- 
ized capital of $700,000. They started as a chimney factory, and 
in 1884 commenced the manufacture of colored effects in table- 
ware, globes, etc., being pioneers in this industry in this cotmtry. 

Their entire output is now devoted to glass for lighting 
devices for electricity, gas, acetylene, and oil, employing about 
1 100 hands, with an average monthly pay roll of $40,000. An- 
drew Howard has been president of the company since its organ- 
ization « ; A. H. Patterson, of New York City, is vice-president 
and manager of sales department; and E. P. Ebberts, of Pitts- 
burg, is secretary and treastirer, having been elected to that 
position at the time of the resignation of W. L Miller, November 
I, 1888. Some of the beautiful lamps manufactured by this 
company have sold in New York at prices as high as four or five 
hundred dollars, and the firm has employed artists from Japan 
and all parts of Europe in its decorating department. 


The Monaca National Bank was organized May 2, 1901, 
chartered July i, 1901, and opened for business the ist of Au- 
gust following. Its capital is $25,000, and it is officered as 
follows: George Lay, president; James R. Gormley, M.D., vice- 
president; Robert L. Hood, cashier. The officers, with M. W. 

^ Mr. Howard died Febniary a?, 1904, and was succeeded in the presidency by his son, 
Thomas H. Howard. 

History of Beaver County 803 

Carey, H. C. Glasser, Henry J. Eckert, and Charles Houston, are 
the directors. 

The Citizens' National Bank of Monaca, Pa. — ^This institu- 
tion was chartered June 25, 1901. and started business, Jvdy i, 
1901, with a capital of $50,000. The officers at the time of 
organization were: John T. Taylor, president; John J. Allen, 
vice-president; Thomas C. Fry, cashier; directors: John T. 
Taylor, James H. Welch, Henry C. Fry, Edward Kaye, Christian 
Will, John J. Allen, Frederick Bechtel, Jere C. Martin, and 
Albert M. Jolly. 

The present officers are: John T. Taylor, president; John J. 
Allen, vice-president; Mont. D. Youtes, cashier; Miss Frances 
L. Youtes, assistant; directors: John T. Taylor, James H. 
Welch, Edward Kaye, Christian Will, John J. Allen, Frederick 
Bechtel, Jere C. Martin, Washington L. Shrum, Charles M. 
Wagner. The present capital is $50,000; the surplus, $9000; 
and deposits, $100,000. 


St. Peter's United Evangelical Protestant Church of Phillips- 
bui^. — During the stay of Cotmt de Leon and his followers at 
Phillipsburg, preaching was a part of the religious life of the 
society, the services being in charge of the count himself. Dr. 
Samuel G. Goentgen also preached occasionally. After the 
final dissolution of the society a minister from Pittsburg, a Mr. 
Daubert, came at intervals to preach for the people during the 
years 1834 and 1835. He was followed by Rev. E. F. Winter, 
under whose pastoral care the congregation became more thor- 
oughly organized, and finally assumed the name given above. 
Mr. Winter remained in the field for a period of twenty-five 
years, or from 1834 to April, 1859. He was a man of more than 
ordinary talents, possessing in addition to his scholarly and 
ministerial attainments considerable taste in music and the arts 
of drawing and painting. He served in connection with Phil- 
lipsburg two other congregations, one at Zelienople, where in all 
he preached forty years, and one in the country, known as 
Btirry's Church. He also supplied at Freedom, Bridgewater, 
Union ville, and Breitensteins. Mr. Winter died at Zelienople in 
May, 1884, and is buried at that place. 

ic4L History oc Beaver County 

A 3jssv. Mr. Zhnmemaxi ncuIaiPecL and was pastor tmtil 1861. 
&x :ioj: :±c :imrdi was aoppiied by rwo pastors^ Rev. J. C. 
n&£ilf£ •T H i'i^ Marcii, ^"*^ Rev Carl ff^t^rhTnarr who <*arrM» m thc 
iiH jmi scajed three mctzths. fmci li^j to 1864 the pastorates 
were these ot J. P Hexxrr. G. PfihL and C. SchoL Carl Jackd 
Quttuwed. 1865-66: Prof. E. F. ^^ccse. 18C7; J. O. Zwicker. 1868; 
C F. StyiTTnarh :86ij-7g; P Bora, 1570-76. Rev. Mr. Dethlefs 
was here for a short mne. Rev. F. C. E. L^mcke was the last 
pastor, ae i viii g^tn 1^77 aatilrgci- Mr Lemcke was a Lntheran, 
A Taemrer of the PrttsbnTj^ Synod ct the General CotmcxL The 
«rvtces ot the church are conducted in the German langn^e. 
r&e house of worship was btsilt cv the Xcw Philadelphia Society 
ux rSj2 and remodeled in 1S88. and :s a neat and substantial 
ccame structure. Its tower contained two bells, which were the 
nrst church bells in use in the Beaver Valley. One of them be- 
caime cracked, and the other was sent, together with the first 
communion service of the church, to Rajahnnxndry, India, to 
3Css Agnes I. Schade. a highlv in^ential, talented, and indus- 
trious missionar>' of the Lutheran Chunch who went out from 
this congregation. The pipe-organ in this church, still in use, 
IS the first in the vallev. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Redeemer. — ^This 
church was an outgrowth of a union Sundav-school. which, 
gradually assuming a Lutheran type, was organized into a Luth- 
eran congregation by the Rev. W. A. Passavant. Jr. The pre- 
liminary* steps were taken. May 7. 1SS2. at which time three 
trustees, viz., N. H. Trom peter. Robert Merr y man , and E. R. 
Frank were elected. A constitution prepared for its churches 
by the Pitts?/jrg Synod of the General Council Lutherans, was 
adopted. July r. 1887. and the congregation was chartered, De- 
cember H. iHHrj, the following persons signing the charter: W. A. 
Passavant. S. H. Trompeter. James Miller. E. B. Steifel. Arthur 
Brady, and William C. Vollhardt. This congregation worships 
in a substantial brick building, which was erected in 1888 under 
the supervision of Mr. Passavant at a cost of S7000. Mr. Passa- 
vant supplied the church from its inception, and, receiving a 
call to assume the regular pastorate, October 24, 1886, accepted 
and served until November i, 1890. He was followed by Rev. 
F. W. Kohler, who took charge, November 6. 1890, and served 

History of Beaver County 805 

for four years. Then followed two years of supplies, and, De- 
cember I, 1896, Rev. C. L. HoUoway became pastor. He re- 
signed in 1902 on account of ill-health, and was succeeded by the 
present pastor, Rev. R. G. Rosenbaum. There are 86 active 
members on the roll of this church, and an enrollment of 138 
scholars in the Sunday-school. 

The Presbyterian Church. — Presbyterian services in Phillips- 
burg had their beginning in occasional preaching by Rev. W. G. 
Taylor, D.D., in the chapel of the Orphans* School. Neighbor- 
ing pastors gave assistance from time to time ; and Rev. Aaron 
M. Buchanan, who was supplying North Branch Church, preached 
at Phillipsburg and urged some action looking towards regular 
services there. In November, 1884, Sunday evening services 
were begtm in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and later, 
through the assistance of Dr. Taylor, a hall on Fourth Street 
was secured. 

Eventually the people were able to undertake the work of 
building, and in November, 1886, their present house of worship 
was dedicated. It is a large frame building of two stories, 40 x 
60 feet. 

The church was regulariy organized by a committee of 
the Presbytery of Pittsburg, April 16, 1885, with an enrollment 
of twenty-three members. W. J. Porter, J. D. Anderson, and 
B. F. Potter were chosen ruUng elders. 

The first pastor was H. F. Earseman, who was ordained and 
installed, June 30, 1885. He remained until December 31, 
1886, when by mutual agreement the relation was dissolved. 
Matthew Rutherford was then called, and on June 14, 1887, he 
was ordained and installed. This pastorate continued until 
1890; then Rev. J. J. Srodes followed and remained until 1897. 
Rev. J. T. Hackett was installed the same year, and remained 
until the present pastor, Rev. S. A. Bowers was installed, July 
26, 1904. The number of contributing members at present is 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — About the year 1828. 
William Elliot, a Methodist, came from the State of Ohio and 
purchased a farm three miles south of the Ohio River, in Moon 
township. Services were often held in Mr. Elliot's (better known 
as Squire Elliott) house by the Revs. Richard Armstrong, 

VOL. II. — 13. 

8o6 History- of Beaver County 

strong, Joshua Monroe, and others. In 1841 Philip Cooper, also 
from Ohio, bought a farm in the same township five miles south 
of Phiilipsburg, near New Sheffield. He was also a Methodist, 
and his home became a stopping-place for the preachers of those 
days. The Cooper family were highly esteemed in the commtm 
ity, and were faithftil supporters of the church. The late Dr. 
John Cooper, an able and honored physician of Allegheny City, 
was of this family. 

The Rev. Cornelius Jackson and others frequently preached 
at Cooper's and other places in the township; and Rev. R. 
Hawkins, then pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Bridgewater, preached in an unoccupied log house on the farm 
of Mr. John Johnson. This appointment, however, only lasted 
a short time. In 1844 Rev. Joshua Monroe of Beaver preached 
at the house of William Elliot a few times, the regular appoint- 
ment being at that time in a schoolhouse near the Presbyterian 
Church. This appointment also was of short duration. No 
regularly organized society of the Methodist Episcopal Chtirch 
was effected in this neighborhood until the year 1858, when the 
Rev. John Murray of Bridgewater began preaching during the 
summer months at what was called the Davis schoolhouse. On 
October ist of that year a two-days meeting was held, and a 
class was formed as the result of the efforts of Dr. Murray, who 
left the work in charge of the Rev. Latchall McGuire, then pas- 
tor at Shousetown. At the annual conference in the spring of 
1859, Mr. McGuire was returned to the charge with the Rev. 
T. N. Boyle as his assistant. The next summer a camp-meeting 
was held on the farm of Carbon Prophater, under the direction 
of the above-mentioned ministers and Rev. Dr. C. A. Holmes, 
presiding elder of the district. In the fall of that year a frame 
church building, 35 x 45 feet, and costing about $1000, was 
erected on the grounds of the camp-meeting, Carbon Prophater 
donating one acre for its site. This building was dedicated by 
Dr. C. A. Holmes in December following, 1859, and was called 
McGuire's Chapel. The accessions received at the camp-meet- 
ing and at the dedication enlarged the membership to about 
one hundred. The chapel remained on the Shousetown circtiit 
until 1864, with Rev. J. V. Yarnall as preacher in charge, and 
Dr. William Cox, presiding elder. By them a building commit- 
tee was appointed contemplating the erection of a church in 

History of Beaver County 807 

Phillipsbtirg, three miles north of the chapel. The following are 
among the first members at McGuire's Chapel: Daniel Carey, 
Adaline Carey, Philip Cooper, Columbus Cooper, Elizabeth 
Cooper, Margaret ElHot, Joseph Craig, Jacob Glasser, Elizabeth 
Glasser, Carbon Prophater and wife, Caroline Hamilton, and 
members of the Landis and Huselton families. Pastors in 
charge have been: Latchall McGuire, 1859; John Wright and 

L. Keigle, assistant, i860; J. J. Jackson and Farrall, 1861; 

J. J. Jackson and N. P. Kerr, 1862; M. M. Eaton, 1863; J. V. 
Yamall and James Jones, 1864. In the spring of 1865, on the 
organization of a society in Phillipsburg, McGuire*s Chapel was 
attached to it as one charge, and the same ministers served both 

In 1865, as just stated, a Methodist church was organized in 
Phillipsburg, some of the charter members being M. W. Carey, 
J. W. Carey, Daniel Carey, Adaline Carey, Samuel Bickerstaflf, 
Hannah Bickerstaff, Christian Merryman, and Sarah Baker. 
The society erected the following year a neat frame house of 
worship, 35 X 45 feet, at a cost of about $2500. It was dedi- 
cated. May 6, 1866, by Rev. J. J. Mcllyar, assisted by Rev. Dr. 
J. Homer. J. V. Yamall was the first pastor in this charge, and 
there have followed him Thomas Patterson, 1866; N. P. Kerr, 

1867; J. B. Wallace, 1869-70; Baker, 187 1; John Hud- 

dleson, 1872-73; J. L. Stiffey, 1874; D. N. Stafford, 1875; 
Joseph Wright, 1877-78; A. J. Rich, 1879-80; J. L. Stiffey, 
1881; J. H. Hull (supply), 1882; David Day (supply), 1883; 
W. F. Lauck, 1884; J. L. Deans, 1885; D. L. Dempsey, 1886- 
89; A. H. Davies, 1890-92; W. E. E. Barcus, 1893; George E. 
Cable, 1894-96; J. M. Pascoe, 1897-98; J. H. Laverty, 1899-04; 
and the present pastor, F. D. Essenwein, 1904. 


The public schools of Monaca have from the first been good. 
In 1904 there were eight rooms in a substantial brick building, 
with three rooms in other places ; and eleven teachers, the prin- 
cipal being Prof. D. C. Locke. There is also a high school, with 
a three-years course, well equipped in every respect. 

An institution of great importance to the Lutheran Church 
in America, viz., Thiel College, had its beginning in this place. 

8o8 History of Beaver County 

The following sketch of this institution was prepared for this 
work by the Rev. D. Luther Roth, D.D., of Pittsburg, Pa.: 

Thiel Collbgb in Phillipsbukg. For more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury before it took definite shape, the idea of a Christian college for the 
education of the youth ci the Lutheran Church in western Pennsylvania 
had been cherished by godly men. During all those years it was made 
the subject of earnest prayer that God would raise iq> some one who would 
provide the means for the establishing of such an institution. And at 
length those prayers were answered. Mr. A. Louis Thiel, a member of 
the Second German EvangeHcal Lutheran Church of Pittsbtng, called 
upon his pastor, the Rev. G. A. Wenz^, D.D., and informed him that he 
wished to consult him as to the most useful way of appropriating the 
tenth part of his income for years past, amounting to the sum of four 
thousand dollars. 

Although having prayed earnestly for just such an opening the 
worthy Doctor was now alarmed at the responsibility thrust upon him. 
He took counsel with his brethem and for fifteen months the whole 
matter was held in abeyance, the money, in the meantime, being put on 
interest, everything awaiting the indications of Di\'ine Providence. 
Various places were visited and at length, in the spring of 1866, a prop- 
erty, formerly the Water Cure Hotel of Cimiotti, in PhiUipsbtng (now 
Monaca), Beaver County, Pa., was purchased for $4,500; the interest 
and original donation paying for the whole. Later an adjoining house and 
lot were bought for $1,000. In the autumn of the same year the main 
edifice, formerly a hotel and ballroom, was set aside with religious service, 
to the sacred purpose of Christian education and, without the knowledge 
of the benevolent donor, received the title of ** Thiel HalL" 

The instructions in the school had been already b^^un a few weeks 
earlier imder the direction of Prof. Giese, of Milwaukee, with five pupils. 
Who they were does not appear precisely, but the probabilities are that 
they were these: Kossuth L. Acker, Clara Bott, Mary Bryan, Caroline 
Berkemeier, Gottlieb Berkemeier. 

This humble beginning, insignificant as it was in the eyes of men, was 
a work of faith and love and was accompanied with the Wsible blessing 
of God. New students flocked in and at the close of the first year another 
instructor was needed, who was foimd in the Rev. W. Kopp, of Paxton, 

Then the Rev. Mr. Giese accepted a call to New York and the Rev. 
H. E. Jacobs, D.D., L.L.D., assisted by Prof. J. F. Feitshans. of Pennsyl- 
vania College, Gettysburg, carried on the work with many evidences of 
Divine favor. Both of these men were called to professorships in other 
institutions, and then, a collegiate charter having been obtained from the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania, the entire institution was transferred to 
the corporation thus erected and Thiel College was opened Sept. ist., 1870. 

The first President was the Rev. H. W. Roth, D.D., called from the 
pastorate of Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, Birmingham, Pa., 
assisted by the Rev. W. F. Ulery and the Rev. David McKee. The 

History of Beaver County 809 

first matrictilated student in the newly erected college was the writer of 
this sketch, the Rev. D. Luther Roth, now pastor of the congregation 
from which his elder brother, the Rev. H. W. Roth, D.D., was called as 
first President of the College. 

Concerning the moving of the institution to Greenville, Pa., nothing 
need be said in the present outline. On the ist of September, 187 1, 
the formal opening of the College was held in the Academy building in 
Greenville and henceforth the existence of Thiel College in Phillipsburg 
became a memory, a thing of the past. 

Monaca's City Hall, finished in 1896, is located on Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue. It is btiilt of brick and stone, and cost about 
$4000. On the first floor is a lockup, polling place, and hose 
and cart room. On the second floor is a council chamber. 


The post-office of this place was est»-blished in 1856, and was 
called Water Cure, after the Sanatorium located here, the name 
of Phillipsburg not being used, in order, as we have said, to avoid 
confusion with another town of that name in the State. Follow- 
ing is a list of the postmasters, with the dates of their appoint- 
ments: Clement Baeltz, December 6, 1856; Anthony Knapper, 
February 16, 1858; George Bechtel, May 16, 1877; Michael J. 
Bucheit, January 3, 1881; George Bechtel, May 26, 1888; 
Michael J. Bucheit, June 20, 1889. 

July 20, 1892, the name of this post-office was changed to 
that of the borough, Monaca. Michael J. Bucheit's appointment 
was renewed, July 20, 1892. The succeeding postmasters have 
been John M. Kirk, appointed February 14, 1893; Agnes B. 
Mullen, February 16, 1897; and John H. Glasser, the present 
incumbent of the office, who received his first appointment De- 
cember 20, 1897. 

The population of the town was shown by the United States 
Census of 1890 to be 1494, and by that of 1900 it was 2008, the 
rapid growth of the place being indicated by the increase of 514 
in a single decade. 



•i5i*i:<«* 3Sr.rva^— OjiUti^*: JiiU Burcmg^} — -Eu;rrBk Bam^fti — -J^2i- 
'i'-ap.y*. 2ScrvDi|Jb — P«tV^b'A Hvaifixu Barwi|d>— Car^JBr Sarong* 


DjkSLLiscrov is l</CAted in Dariiiigtori toimfifa::j . m ibe ex- 
treme aortfavestem <j^/rr)n^ <A the coustr. It is srts^sed oq ihe 
Little Beaver Creek anxd f/u the Pitt&bnrg. ILEhoan Jc Ozkago 
RaiIroa/1, and lies in a l^eatitiful asd fertile vaUer, vbose sofl is 
tilled by as sturdy a ye^/rxianrv' as any in the ocmntr or ihe State. 

These intelligent and thrifty farmer folk, as weB as saany of 
the inhabitants of the vjJJaj/c, are the descendants of the raen who 
pressed onward V> the then wilds of the frontier as soon as settle- 
n;ient was possiblii. A few families, three or four perhaps, came 
shortly after Wayne's treaty of peace with the Indians was 
signed, or s^y^n afUrr August, 1795. In the autimm of 1795 a 
num^xrr of pionecir^ from Westmoreland County came out and 
located farms, and the following spring brought their families 
and settlc<l on them. Among the earliest settlers here were the 
Dilworths, the MoMinns, the Martins, Sprotts, Boyds, Imbries, 
and the McClymonds, Hughes, Scroggs, Semple, Reed, GilUland, 
Newell, Plurner, and Powers families. There were doubtless 
others whose names we have not heard. 

The trjwn of Darlington was laid out, May 13, 1804, by 
Abner Lacock, on land owned by Thomas Sprott, William Mar- 
tin, and George Greer. The plan embraced four blocks square, 


History of Beaver County 8ii 

sixteen blocks in all with eight lots to the block. The streets 
from west to east were numbered from First to Fifth. From 
north to south were Morris, Market, and Plumb streets. Market 
and Third streets are each 55 feet wide, the others 50 feet.' 

Darlington was originally called Greersburg, after George 
Greer, who, as said before, owned part of the land upon which 
the town was laid out. It was incorporated under the latter 
name, March 28, 1820.' The change of name from Greersburg 
to Darlington was made on account of the confusion that was 
occasioned by the resemblance of the name Greersburg to 
Greensburg when written in the address of letters, mail matter 
being frequently missent. The change of name to Darlington 
was made by Act of Assembly, April 6, 1830.3 By a decree of 
the Court of Quarter Sessions, issued September 5, 1893, the 
borough of Darlington was made subject to the provisions of the 
Act of Assembly of April 3, 1851, relating to boroughs.* 

Like many another village, Darhngton has been left behind 
in the march of progress. The advent of the railway robbed it 
of the importance which it once had as a relay station for the 
stages that ran through it on the route between Pittsburg and 
the northwestern section of the State and on to Cleveland. It 
was then a depot of supply, and had a number of large general 
stores. Among its early business men were David Gilliland, 
Stewart Boyd, and Joseph Quidley, general store-keepers; David 
Prow, miller; Jacob Strieby, clock-maker; John McClymonds, 
tailor; and Stephen Todd, shoemaker, and the postmaster of the 

* In Warner's History of Btavtr County, it is stated that no plot of the original plot of 
the town of Greersburg is in existence. 

Since this history was published, the original copy has been discovered and is now 
(1904) in the possession of George Greer, of Darlington township, a grandson of George 
Greer for whom Greersburg was named. 

The plot was recently discovered by Mrs. Greer, among a number of old papers once 
the property of Mr. Greer's grandfather. It is in a good state of preservation, the writing 
being legible, and is signed by Gen. Abner Lacock, who laid out the town. The following 
is Gen. Lacock's description of the plot, written on the margin thereof: 

" Market and Third streets arc 55 feet wide. Other streets are 50 feet wide. The alleys 
are 12 feet wide. The lots are 66 feet front and 1^0 back. The lots in the above that are 
designated by the letter M, belong to William Martin. Those marked "S" to Thomas 
&m>tt and those marked *'G" to George Greer and those marked "G & S" belong to 
Career & Sprott in partnership. The above is a draft or plan of the town of Greersburg, as 
laid out by me, agreeably to the directions of the proprietor s, Thos. Sprott, Wm. Martin 
and George Greer. 

" May 13, 1804. 
" Recorded Dec. 20, 1804. " A. Lacock." 

• P. L„ 185. 

• P. L.. 308, 316. 

* Quarter Sessions Misc. Docket. No. 3, p. laS, No. 14. Jimc Sessions. 

8i2 History of Beaver County 

village. There were several ta\'enis. One was kept by George 
Giieer, for whom the town was named, and one by Mattison Hart. 
In the following advertisement of one of these, we see how 
close to the frontier the vUiage lay at the opening of the last 
century, when daily the emigrants to the Ohio settlements were 
to be seen passing through it: 

The subscriber respectfully informs the public that he has commenced 
tavern keeping in Greersbuig, opposite to the academy, at the "Sign of 
the Bear," where he hopes, by keeping good entertainment for man and 
beast, to merit and receive a share of the public patronage. 

Pamihes emigrating to the new settlements thro' this place may 
rely on good accommodations for themselves and horses. Hay by the 
hundred or quarter. Oats by the bushel, at a low rate. 

RiCHAJLD M. Heth. 

Greersbuig. Beaver Coimty. Pa.. May 22. 1806." 

In 1820 a militia company was organized in Greersburg. 
Reference to the extracts from Dr. Dilworth's Journal (Appen- 
dix No. X) will show some amusing accotmts of the drilling of 
this company in the streets of the village. On receiving their 
arms and white leather accoutrements they fotmd that no swords 
bad been sent for the captain and the lieutenants. The village 
blacksmith. Philip Crowl, Sr., father of the genial gentleman of 
the same name formerly clerk of the Orphans' Court of the 
county, was applied to, and by the first muster he had ready 
three fine swords, forged out of English blister steel. 

One of the most noteworthy of the old citizens of Greersburg 
was Dr. Bernard Dustin, of whom some particulars are given in 
the chapter on the medical history of the count)'. 

The Dustin mansion, of which a view is given on the opposite 
page, was built by him. It is certainly quaint and tmconven- 
tional enough, and on account of its extreme height for a dwell- 
ing-house, was dubbed by the people as the old ** shot-tower." 
It was also sometimes called the old '* silk-mill/* as tradition 
makes the old physician to have been influenced by the craze for 
the cultivation of the ntorus mtilticanlis, or Chinese mulberry, 
and the production of silkworms and silk, which aroused so 
much interest in Beaver County in 1836. The old structure was 

* Inquiry at the office r>f the Recorder of Deeds at Beaver discloses the fact that Richard 
IC. Hdh owned the northern parts of lots, 41 and 42 in GreersburR. They are not exacUy 
**opix>«ite the academy." Imt they are on the opposite side of the street about too feet south 
of the academy lots and are now (1904) owned and occupied by W. K. Bebcmt. No other 
memory of Heth survive*. 

Residence of Hernard Dustan, M.D. 

F reeled aliout 1820. 

Popularly knr)wn as *' Ihe Shot 'lower," Darlington. 

History of Beaver County 813 

last used by Mr. George Youtes as a wagon factory, and on 
April 28, 1898, it suddenly collapsed. Mr. Youtes narrowly 
escaped death by the fall of the building, as he had been sitting 
on the front door-step and had only arisen and walked away a 
moment before the collapse occurred. 


One of the solid reasons for honoring the early Presbyterian 
ministers of western Pennsylvania, is that they so generally 
perceived the importance of education, and so often sought to 
give the youth in their parishes the advantage of it. In this 
they had in view the general elevation of society, but a second 
and compelHng motive was the desire to raise up a class of edu- 
cated men to meet the demand for a competent supply of minis- 
ters of the gospel. Says Doddridge in his Notes : * * From the outset 
they prudently resolved to create a ministry in the country, 
and accordingly established little grammar schools at their own 
houses, or in their immediate neighborhoods." Three years after 
his settlement as pastor of Ten-Mile (Washington County) , the 
Rev. Thaddeus Dodd erected a building on his own farm, and 
opened in it a classical and mathematical school in 1782, and 
this was just three years before his congregation erected a 
house of worship. In 1785 the Rev. Joseph Smith opened in 
his "study" at Buffalo (Washington County), a similar school, 
and Dr. McMillan's famous **Log Cabin College" at Chartiers 
was perhaps established at a date eariier than either of these. 

A man like-minded with these, taught and profoundly in- 
fluenced indeed by the one last named, Dr. John McMillan, 
was the Rev. Thomas E. Hughes. No sooner had he been 
settled in his charge at Greersburg than he began to plan for 
establishing a school similar to those in Washington County. 
He built a log cabin on his own lot, and began in it the work 
that lay near his heart ; and at a meeting of the Presbytery of 
Erie, held at Mt. Pleasant Church, April 13, 1802, he brought up 
the project of establishing an academy and laid his plans before 
it. Through his influence the following minute was adopted: 

Presbytery proceeded to take into consideration the necessity of a 
seminary of learning being instituted within their bounds, for the educa- 
tion of youth. 

Resolved, To give their aid to erect an academy at Greersburg, and to 
solicit the aid of their respective charges. 

.'»■ T'.'*.?***' •»••- c—-— — ^%** "■.-? 

* V- 

""'..••■■•- '. ■ ■.;.'/■ >»• V .'-nrr. Vi-jii 5^- jimiss 

V.*"- ' •.'. < "'■ .^-■v»-" '^i.»VV/».r' Senrue. *- **»Trgrr - 

', * .. .•-'//• ■.-• '.V",.»: *..':.t*-T:T ":nn lies- jr^rjc:^ 

V.t=:%.'. < ' '. ''.y-'' !/•'*' '.'■ •;"•-</. cT.*: ZTs*ic,\ "^TJl ^£ZiVi 

.":*. ".::.' ■ *'■ '• ■'.-■ '* V /' •'. * /.'.■'•:.": .r. *?.'':r 'liv : ~:r±: :: The 

i '/.'i'.'i' '/J 'i.- ..'. I'!' .'.•., 'Ml'- '])V.t\ t. r.'i'! ■♦.ion roncemir.g C. L. 
V :.,:t.r;'Jjn>'lj.ij/i »lj« ii'.fi 'J I:i7/v<r; ;ijj'I polit.irian of Ohio, is dis- 
t:-. .r!v -.M') I*/ l.r f,M,!li*r, flu- \<ij J L Vallandingham. to 
-..; i-rrofj' 'iij Vv'.ilif I loi AMI'!, thr- 'li' linj'uished Pittsburg at- 
•/..rji' v .iii'l '.« ' M t.if V '.I iIj' I'mtril Si;it#'. Tn.-asurv'^. is also said 
Vt li.ivi- l.iiii .1 imliiii ;ii < iMf I .l.ijij', hnt one who is an old 
n: i'l« III •'! Ill' I'lv M .iii'l ;i ( ;iiff III mvr tijjat or. assures US that it 

• I' I . ■,. • -r 111. A. \ M...t 

" \i../.'. .: .1. /.. ....Ill ih. .i„ih.ft(: .1 .■ri-.ii.i, I Ii.ii ihisuiiifft SIX huTniri'il dollars 

In. .iii'J II,. I.. ■■ !■> i-i.wi(. ■! I., il.i i».i t.i-, .iliiii -.ii.!. (or iJm- um: of tho s;iiii institu- 

ti.'ii I" I- I "I ■ •■' •■' '!'■ "■ •■' II'!- I" Ml Itii -all-, i-l thr mlots of atiil ivsorvod 

l.ili.l ...I- ■ !■ <■ -.. .1. 

Hi^ory of Beaver County 


was Chauncey Forward and a brother, not Walter, who attended 
the academy there. The same gentleman casts doubt on a still 
more cherished tradition of this school. It has always been 
believed that the well-known educator and maker of school 
readers, Rev. William H. McGuffey, D.D., LL.D., got his aca- 
demical training at Greersburg. The story of his entrance to 
the academy is so interesting that it ought to be true if it is 
not. It is said that one evening, as Rev. Mr. Hughes was riding 
through the country, he heard, while passing a cottage, the 
voice of a woman in prayer, pleading that God would open up 
some way for the training of her little boys for His service. Learn- 
ing from the family with whom 
he spent the night, the circum- 
stances and worthiness of the 
mother referred to, Mr. Hughes, 
it is said, made arrangements for 
one of them to enter the academy, 
and this boy became the writer, 
Dr. McGuffey, who has since 
blessed two generations of school 
boys with his series of School 
Readers, those "wells of English 

The gentleman referred to 
above believes that the name 
of a minister who early labored 
in the neighborhood of Greers- 
burg, a Mr. McGuffey, has been 
confused in the popular recol- 
lection with that of the more eminent man. Concerning the 
story just related, he points out the fact that William Holmes 
McGuffey, the educator, was bom in Washington County and 

'.William Holmes McGuffey was bom in Washington Coianty, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber 24, 1800. He was gradxiated from Washington College, Pennsylvania, in 1826. Re- 
moving to Ohio, he was appointed Professor of Ancient Langtiages in Miami University, at 
Oxford, near Cincinnati, in iBag. It was while at Miami Univendty that he prepared the 
series of school reading-books, known as McGuffey's Eclectic Readers. In this work he 
was assisted by a yotmger brother, Hon. A. H. McGtiffey, who prepared the Spelling-Book 
and the Fifth Reader. 

Dr. McGuffey resigned his professorship in Miami University in 1 836, and removing to 
Cincinnati, assumed the presidency of the Cincinnati College. In 1839 he was elected 
President of Ohio University, and in 1845 was chosen to the Chair of Moral Philosophy in 
the University of Virginia. This position he occupied until his death. May 4. 1873. 


8i6 History of BeaTcr County 

graduated frotn Wasimigtoa CoOege, and the improbabilitv that 
Mr. Hxa^bes shoold ha^re been brought into contact with the 
fsamLy of the bov McGtxffcv so far away from G f e ers bttrg, or. 
having been, should have taken him soch a distanre from home 
to educate him when there were schools nearer at hand This 
is, however, only negative evidence, and we have respected the 
tradition enough to have sought diligently for a portrait of Dr. 
McGti£Eey, and having obtained it through the courtesy of the 
American Book Company, publish it herewith.^ 

It 'is undisputed, we believe, that John W. Geary, who be- 
came Governor of Pennsylvania and a distznguxshed oficer in 
the Mexican and Civil wars, was a student in this academy, 
and there is a long roll of ministerial worthies who received their 
academical education there, either in whole or in part. The 
names of sotne of the latter have been preserved in the records 
or in the memories of the people, and are as follows: 

Joshua Beer, Robert Semple, John Munson. John Core, Wil- 
fiam Reed, Joseph Harper, Robert Dilworth, John H. Cunning- 
ham, Albert Dilworth, and four sons of Rev. Thomas E. Ht^hes. 
In addition to these are named John Bruce, Jonathan Phmaer, 
Thomas Barr, Edward Johnston, William Matthews, Thomas 
Clark, Joseph Stevenson, and Theodore Crowl. Of those who 
have been students in the new academy, at least three are 
preaching, viz., Joseph Marlatt, Leroy Humes, and Mitchell 

An old register of the years 1816, 181 7, and 1818 gives the 
following names of students in attendance: 

Robert Dilworth, John Hughes. Watson Hughes. John SterreL Joseph 
Harper. Abram Bryson. Joseph Reed, Daniel McClain, E. Bleachley, 
James Floy. John Hunter, Thomas Anderson, Hugh Martin, Robert 

' We have subnrutted the views qtioted above to the Rer. Henry X. Potter, pastor o£ 
lit. Pleasant Preivbytenan Church, DarHmgtoa. and give the iolkming ex^act frotn his reply: 

"In retsard to old Greertbonr Academy — I have been one of the tnxstees for aboot 
thirty year» and have the minutes of the board. I have also spent much time looking up its 
history. I -^rould say in respect to Dr. McGuffev. that I do not think there is asy doubt 
Gonceminif the truth of the matter. I think I got it from Dr. S. J. Eaton's Htsic^ ef 
Erie FresSyUry. I let] positive I received it from a reliable source, and have never heard 
it disputed before. In refpard to John Brown having attended Gteersburg Academy. I 
heard of it shortly after coming here. Rev. Thoouw E. Hughes's two sons a55rm that he 
boarded in their father's family while he attended the Academy. The youni?est scm. Rev. 
James R, Hughes, told me about it when he was here in 1897 assisting me at a commtxnson 
season. An older brother. Joseph, told my oldest brother the same thing some years ago. 
So I think it is based upon good solid fotmdation. I cannot see how it can be doubted 
with such statements a» the Hughes men make. 

In regard to Walter Forward all I know is that it is a matter of tradition — I dan*t think 
there is any documentary evidence on the subject. I am sure. ho^'e\'er, that Clement L. 
Vallandingham did not attend here. 

Rev. Thomas E. Hughes. 

History of Beaver County 817 

McKaig, George Calhoon, James Campbell, James Clark, John Cunning- 
liam, Thomas Espy, Morgan Fulks, William Harra, Isaac Peppard, 
Samuel Reed, Samuel Sprott, Robert Felson, Enoch Heaton, James Hay, 
and Charles Murry. 


Rev. Thomas E. Hughes or some one appointed under him from 1799 
to 1806, the year in which the academy was chartered. 

Daniel Hayden, first under charter, 1806; James Rowland, 181 2; 
William Reed, 181 6; Robert Dilworth, 181 9 ; Samuel Sprott, 1829; 
Rev. George Scott, D.D., 1837; Mr. Hutchman, 1841; Rev. Mr. Riddle, 
1843; James S. Scott, 1847; James H. Stewart, William Silliman, 1848; 
Samuel B. Wilson, 1849; Rev. Samuel Patterson, 1854; Mr. Sellers, 1855; 
Joseph B. Kiddoo, 1856; Anderson and Reed, 1865; J. S. Dice, 1871 ; Mr. 
Smith, 1872; Rev. Samuel Alexander, 1873; Mr. Wolfe, 1876; Rufus 
Darr. 1877. 

In new brick academy. — F. N. Notestein, 1883; W. L. Breckenridge, 
1884, spring; Mr. Atkinson, 1884, auttrnwi; J. A. Coolidge, 1885; F. A. 
Judd. 1886; R. B. A. McBride, 1890; D. A. Greene, 1891; C. B. McCarter, 
1893; C. A. Simonton, 1894; Mr. Wallace, 1899; J. S. Best, 1900; 
W. E. Cozens, 1901.^ 


The exact date of the organization of this church, as in the 
case of several of the very oldest churches in the county, cannot 
be determined. The Presbytery at that early period either did 
not make the organization of churches a matter of record, or 
else, which is probably the more likely supposition, there was 
no formal Presbyterial action in the matter at all, the churches 
coming into existence by a sort of natural selection, the people 
of like faith and form of worship associating themselves for 
worship, and finally electing officers and asking Presbytery for 
supplies. In the early minutes of Redstone frequent mention 

* This list was furnished by the kindness of Rev. Henry N. Potter, of Darlington. For 
the first fifty years it is taken from the minutes of the trustees of the academy, but for the 
rest is drawn from memory, and some names may be omitted. It is very nearly accurate, 
however. Of those therein named we give what biographical data have come to us as follows : 

James Rowland became a minister in the Presbyterian Church. William Reed was 
Pastor of the New Salem Presbyterian Church for forty years. Robert Dilworth entered 
the Presbyterian ministry, and was for thirty years pastor of Little Beaver Church: see 
extracts from his journal. Appendix No. X. Joseph B. Kiddoo went to the Civil War and 
u-as promoted for merit to the rank of Major-General of Volimteers. At the close of the 
war he was made Lieutenant -Colonel in the Regular Army. He died in New York City of 
his wounds. Samuel B. Wilson became one of the most eminent attorneys at the Beaver 
bar. W. L. Breckenridge and R. B. A. McBride arc ministers, the former in the Presby- 
terian and the latter in the United Presbyterian Church. F. A. Judd was clerk of the 
commisdoners for six years, and prothonotary of Beaver County from 1897 to 190^. 

8i8 History of Beaver County 

is made of ** supplications for supplies" as coming from the 
remoter parts, and King's Creek (afterwards Cross Roads) and 
Mill Creek in the present limits of Beaver County are named 
thus. This was from 1 781 to 1793, and after the erection of 
the Presbytery of Ohio (in 1793) the like mention is made of 
Mcintosh (now Beaver), Forks of Beaver, Mt. Pleasant, New 
Salem, etc., on the north side of the Ohio.^ In 1796 Revs. John 
McMillan and Thomas Marquis were appointed to visit the 
region on this side, and the possibility of their having organized 
these Christian people into churches is to be considered. 

The first mention of Mount Pleasant in the records of the 
Presbytery of Ohio, in whose bounds it was at that time, is 
October 24, 1797. This is in connection with a request for 
supplies. We may date the history of the church, as its mem- 
bers do, from about that time. Its name was taken from 
Mount Pleasant Church in Westmoreland County, whence some 
of its members had come to this cotmty. 

Two supplies were given this church by Presbytery at its 
meeting, October 24, 1797, Rev. Mr. McDonald on the first 
Sabbath of November, 1797, and Rev. Mr. Patterson one Sab- 
bath at his discretion. At the spring meeting of Presbytery 
Rev. Samuel Ralston was appointed to preach at Mount Pleasant 
Church on the second Sabbath of August, 1798. In March, 
1799, the church of Mount Pleasant was supplied by Rev. Smiley 
Hughes. April 18, 1799, Mr. Thomas E. Hughes, a licentiate, 
accepted calls from the united congregations of Mount Pleasant 
and New Salem, and supplied the pulpit from the spring meet- 
ing of Presbytery. August 27, 1799, the Presbytery of Ohio 
met at Mount Pleasant Church. 

Present: Revs. John McMillan, Joseph Patterson, John 
Brice, Thomas Marquis, Boyd Mercer, Samuel Ralston, and Wil- 
liam Woods ; elders — Henry Graham, John Vance, and Thomas 
Pryor. Mr. Hughes preached his ordination sermon from 2 Cor. 
viii. 9. The next day, Wednesday, August 28th, he was ordained 
and installed over the two churches. Rev. Samuel Ralston 
preached the sermon on 2 Cor. iv. 2, and Rev. Joseph Patterson 
gave the charge. On the following Sabbath the sacrament was 

* Minutss of Presbytery of Redstone, Cincinnati, Elm Street Printing Co., 1878, pp. 150- 
sa; Hist, of the Pres. of Washington, Philadelphia, 1889, p. ii. It is always to be remem- 
bered that, as we have frequently mentioned, there were few inhabitants north of the Ohio 
until after Wayne's treaty in K795. 


Rev. Arthur B. Bradford. 

History of Beaver County 819 

administered in this church, the first time it had ever been done 
in this region. The ministry of Mr. Hughes continued prosper- 
ously, and in January, 1808, he gave up New Salem in order to 
devote his whole time to the work at Mount Pleasant. 

The first statistical report made to the Presbytery was in 
1804, and shows a commtmicant membership of 68. In 1824 
there were 328 members; in 1847, j^st before the division men- 
tioned below, 209 ; in 1870, when Mr. Potter became pastor, 106 ; 
and in 1903, 225. This church has been noted in every period 
of its history for great revival ingatherings. 

Rev. Thomas E. Hughes served the church of Mount Pleasant 
for over thirty-one years, his relation with it being dissolved, 
January 10, 183 1. After leaving this church he preached a few 
years in Wellsville, Ohio, but for two years before his death was 
laid aside from the ministry by sickness. He died there. May 2, 

1838, in his seventieth year. Mr. Hughes was a man of fine 
character, and did an abiding work for good in the community 
where he labored so long. His connection with the educational 
interests of the county are noted in the accompanying sketch of 
Greersburg Academy, which he was mainly instrumental in 

After the resignation of Mr. Hughes there was a vacancy for 
several years, and then came the following pastorates: William 
D. Smith, 1835-36; William J. Gibson, supply from June to 
December, 1838; Arthur B. Bradford, stated supply, January 9, 

1839, to October 2d of that year, then pastor until June 23, 
1847. At that time Mr. Bradford withdrew from the Presby- 
terian body, together with a large number of his people, they 
considering the attitude of the General Assembly toward Amer- 
ican slavery as sinftil. He became a minister in the Free Pres- 
byterian Church, but later demitted the ministry, and under the 
administration of Mr. Lincoln was sent to Amoy as United 
States Consul, where he served for one year. He was a man of 
large views and great abilities and full of "the enthusiasm of 
himianity." His last years were spent at his beautiful country 
home near Darlington, called "Button wood,*' where he died, 
January 18, 1899. Notice of his work in the anti-slavery move- 
ment will be found in Rev. Paul Weyand's paper, in the Centen- 
nial section of this volume. Rev. Robert Slemmons Morton 
followed Mr. Bradford, 1848-51; Rev. J. W. Johnston came 

820 History of Beaver County 

next, 1853-57, living the rest of his life in the bounds of the 
congregation, — he died there and is buried in Mount Pleasant 
cemetery. Rev. A. W. Boyd was stated supply from i86o to 
1865; and then Rev. Albert Dilworth, a son of the church, 
filled the pulpit as pastor-elect, from 1865 to 1870. The present 
pastor is Rev. Henry N. Potter. He was called, October 24, 
1870, began preaching regularly to the congregation, December 
18, 1870, and was installed, February 2, 1871. 

A long list of faithful elders have served this church. The 
first on record were Robert Clark, William Pltimer, Robert 
Bovard, and Daniel Kirkpatrick. WilUam Plumer* was the 
father of William Swan Pltimer, D.D., LL.D., an eminent theo- 
logian and professor in the Western Theological Seminary, and 

* A brother of this William Pltuner was the first white child bom in Pennsylvania 
west of the Allegheny mountains tmder British dominion. This we learn from the fol- 
in« letter published in the Newburyport (Mass.) Herald: 

** Jonathan Phimer a descendant of Francis and Ruth Plumer, was bom in Newbury, 
April X3, 17 34* Jtme 6, 1744. he married Mehitable HerrinuoL He continued to reside in 
Newbury until after the death of his wife, which occurred about X749 or 1750. Her death 
was such an affliction that he decided to seek relief in a change of scene, and he eventually 
settled and married his iiecond wife at or near Old Town, Maryland, not many miles from 
Port Cumberland. In 1755 he acted as a oomnoissary in Braddock's expedition a^[ainst 
Port Du Quesne. The defeat of this army compelled Jonathan Pltmier and his wife to 
take refuge in Fort Cumberland, where their eldest child. William [later of Greersbuxg, as 
noted above] was bom in 1755- This William was the father of the late Rev. Wilham 
Swan Plumer, D.D. In 1758 Jonathan Plumer, tradition says, was in the army under 
General Forbes when it took possession of Fort Dn Quesne, and changed its name to Pitts- 
buTRh. Soon after this, Colonel George Croghan obtained a grant from the Indiaxis of 
fifteen hundred acres of land on the southeast side of the Alleghany river, extending from 
Two-mile nm up to the Narrows. Jonathan Plumer became interested in this grant, and in 
the summer of 1761, ' by permission of Colonel Henry Bouquet, he built a cabm and made 
many valuable improvements thereon.' It was in that cabin, on the fifth of December. 
1762, George Plumer was bom — 'the first white child bom west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains under British dominion/ He was named after Colonel George Croghan. Soon after 
the Revolutionary War, George Plimier married Margstret, the youngest daughter of Colonel 
Alexander Lowrey, a prominent, wealthy and influential Indian trader residing in Donegal, 
Lancaster coxmty, Pennsylvania. George Plumer represented Westmoreland county in 
the Pennsylvania legislature in 1812, 1813, i8i4.i8i5and 1817: he was elected to the 17th 
congress and re-elected to the i8th and 19th congress. He was long a ruling elder in the 
Presbyterian church. He died on his farm in Westmoreland coimty. Pa., June 8, 184^. 
leaving a large family of children and grandchildren of the most reputable character. His 
memory is perpetuated in Pittsburgh by an important street on the grotmd where he was 
bom, now thickly covered with manufactories and other buildings. 

"Alleghany (Pittsburgh) May 20, 1885. Isaac Craig.** 

The History of Westmoreland County says: 

" Much concurrent testimony might be quoted to show that * British dominion * was 
dated by settlers and soldiers from the closing of the preliminary treaty, and as Jonathan 
Plumer's son George was bom December 3 following, they said of him that 'he was the 
first white male child bom* to the westward of the Alleghanies 'under British dominion." 

We have quoted both of the above selections from the Maganne of Western History for 
July, 1885. pp. 297-98. In the Diary of David McClure (p. 53) is the following notice of 
Jonathan Plumer: 

"13. [Sept., 1772] Lord's Day, preached by invitation of Major Edminston in the 
Fort [Fort Pittl & in the afternoon, in the village. The inhabitants of this place are very 
dissipated. . . . We found, however, a happy few who live in the fear of God, A main- 
tain their integrity, particularly a Mr. Jonathan Plumer & his family. He was originally 
from Newbury port. In his fstmily, which is numerous & laborious, the life of religion is 
duly maintained. The dissipated respect him for his goodness & benovolence; but by 
way of reproach, give him the name of Solomon. He was the first man who found us on 
our arrival, & treated us with every possible mark of attention ft kindness, in his power." 

Rev. Williams. Tlumer, D.D., LL.O. 




History of Beaver County 821 

^was the grandfather of W. S. Pltimer Bryan, D.D., of Chicago, 111. 
The first additions to the eldership were George Dilworth, Joshua 
Beer, and Caldwell Semple. Mr. Beer subsequently entered 
the ministry. The next consisted of William Semple, John 
Martin, John Beer, Joseph Dilworth, and Thomas Dunlap. 
These were followed by Stephen Todd, Thomas Bradshaw, Rob- 
ert Leonard, and Samuel Fields. And then at different times 
were added in the order given: Richard Lewis, James Smart, 
Andrew Boyd, John Rayl, Benoni Wilkinson, Andrew Cole, 
Samuel Wells, William Barclay, David Boyd, Richard Porter, 
Shipman Newkirk, David Ferguson, Samuel Ross, William Mc- 
Lane, and Josephus McMillan. March, 1870, Alex. H. Anderson 
and Samuel Henry; July 25, 1875, ^^^ F- Mansfield, Ethan T. 
Brittain, and James F. McQuaide; June 17, 1888, Alex. F. Reid 
and John M. Creighton; and, June 19, 1898, Charles A. Simon- 
ton and Francis S. Chatley. 

According to Dr. Dilworth, the first place of worship for this 
congregation was a lot of ground a little over a mile east of 
the village. This is now used as a cemetery. In a grove on 
that lot Mr. Hughes was ordained. In the same grove the first 
communion season enjoyed by this people was observed. 
The congregation worshiped in the grove for several years. 
The village was then growing, and a number of the people 
judged it advisable to have their house of worship in the town. 
A considerable portion of the congregation would not agree to 
this location. 

After some time they tried to obtain a lot of ground adjoin- 
ing the village, on the slope of the hill a few rods east of 
the present church, and the congregation worshiped there 
for some two seasons. But, failing to obtain that lot, they 
finally secured the piece of ground half a mile east of the town, 
on what is now known as the John McCowin property. Mr. 
John Martin donated four or five acres of land to the church. 
The location was a compromise between the two parties. The 
next time they built they came into town, but not without a 
little opposition. The building they erected on this new site 
was a frame one. This church was remodeled in the year 1842 or 
1843, ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^se almost, if not altogether, for half a century. 
The present structure was erected during the summer of 1861. 
It was dedicated in April, 1862. The sermon was preached by 

▼OL. II.— 14. 

822 History of Bearer County 

Rev. Dr. Robert DQworth. A few years ago it underwent ex- 
tensive repairs, and was to some extent remodded. 

Mention should be made of the fact that, in 1895, during the 
pastorate of Mr. Potter, this congregation erected a neat chapel 
building at New Galilee, at a cost, including the lot, building and 
its furnishings, of about $3100. 

On the 33d of June, 1898, Mount Pleasant Church celebrated 
its Centennial Anniversary with great rejoicings. 

The United Presbyterian Church. — ^This church was organ- 
ized about 1800, and was fomaeriy known as Brush Run Church. 
Its first pastor was James Duncan, a man of remarkable talents 
and career. He was a native of wes te r n Ptansylvania, was edu- 
cated at Canonsburg Academy, and studied theology with Dr. 
John Anderson of Service, Beaver County. He was suspended 
from the ministry for heresy, reinstated, and again suspended; 
joined the Presbyterian Church, and spent the remainder of his 
Hfe in preaching from cabin to cabin in the new settlements of 
Kentucky and Indiana, dying on one of these mission totirs. 
He was pastor of Brush Rtm Church from 1800 to April 11, 
1804. David Imbrie, the next pastor, served this church, with 
Big Beaver and Little Beaver (now Bethel), from the day of 
his ordination, September 3, 1806, until his death, which was 
due to a stroke of apoplexy to which he succumbed just before 
morning service at Little Beaver Church, Sabbath, Jime 13, 
1842. Rev. Benjamin F. Sawyer was pastor from 1844 until 
i860. He was followed after a vacancy of two years by Rev. 
Hugh Sturgeon, who was installed in June, 1862, and remained 
in the charge until December 26, 1891, when he resigned. The 
church was without a pastor until Jime 26, 1893, when Rev. 
J. F. Ray was installed. Mr. Ray resigned, December 2, 1894. 
The next pastorate was that of Rev. J. G. Houston, from De- 
cember 24, 1896, to November 18, 1900. The present pastor, 
Rev. R. A. Kingan, was installed June 10, 1901. 


Meridian Lodge, No. 411, F. and A. M., was instituted the 
27th of December, 1867. It met first in an upper room in the 
old Dustin building, then partly used, as we have stated, by 

Rev. Robert Dilworth, H.D. 

History of Beaver County 823 

Mr. George Youtes as a wagon factory. Later the meetings 
were held in Duff's hall. 

Darlington has also a flourishing G. A. R. Post, viz., Daniel 
Leasure Post, No. 402, which was organized, December 20, 
1883, under the name of Darlington Post. December i8, 1886, 
the present name was adopted. It was through the efforts of 
this post, seconded by the cordial sympathy and financial assist- 
ance of the citizens in general, that the Soldiers' Monument 
which stands in the public square of Darlington was erected. 
The total expense of this work was over $1 200. The dedicatory 
exercises were held, September i, 1887, which consisted of an 
oration by Colonel Ashworth of Pittsburg, the presentation of a 
silk flag by the ladies of Darlington, and a lecture by Colonel 
Chil. Hazzard of Monongahela City, Pa. A view of this monu- 
ment is shown on the opposite page. 


The post-office at Darlington was established in 1831. The 
postmasters, with the dates of their appointments, have been as 

Stephen Todd, Feb. 12, 1831; Samuel R. Dtinlap, Dec. 28, 1831; 
William Dunlap, Feb. 18, 1837; John McClymonds, Dec. 15, 1840; 
Samuel R. Dunlap, June 14, 1845; John McClymonds, May 15, 1849; 
John R. Frazier, July 23, 1861; Alex. McCrawford, Nov. 4, 1863; Biiss 
Mary J. McMinn, Dec. 28, 1866; Jonathan Marsh, Sept. 27, 1893; Tina 
Grace McCown, Sept. 17, 1897; Thompson Wamock, Dec. 10, 1901. 

The population of Darlington by the census of 1900 was 270. 


Harris's Directory of 1837 says of this place: 

HooKSTOWN. — Is 3J miles from Georgetown on the Ohio river, 
XI from Beaver and 28 miles west of Pittsburgh. An industrious, 
flourishing village and driving an excellent business. Postmaster — 
Joseph McFerrin, Esq. Merchants — McFerrin & Lawrence, Samuel 
Witherspoon, Samuel McLaughlin, James Trimble. Grist and Saw mill — 
R. & D. Wright. Also 2 tanneries; 2 smith shops; i wagon maker; 
2 tailors; 2 hatters, &c. 

Hookstown is an inland village, situated about two miles 
west of the center of Greene township. The place was named 

824 History of Beaver County 

from Matthias Hook and his brother Benjamin, who very eariy 
patented lands here. Matthias Hook died April 27, 1836, at 
eighty-nine years of age. We have seen the original papers of a 
contract between Matthias Hook and a negro boy, Evans, in 
which the former tmdertakes to bear the expenses of a suit 
against one who had unlawfully carried Evans out of the State 
and sold him into slavery : Evans on his part agreeing to work 
for Hook the space of a year, with sufficient meat, drink, lodging, 
and clothing furnished him. The contract is dated December 
13* f797» signed ** Matthias Hook, Evens, EEis X mark," and 
witnessed by Martha and Sarah Hook. This was done at 
Hook's settlement, on the land where the vilk^ now stands, 
and the transaction shows him to have been here some years 
prior to the date of the contract. Hook came to this comity 
from Maryland, as did also his neighbors, John Paite and Thomas 


Hookstown was incorporated into a borough by a special 
Act of the Legislature, April 18, 1843,' ^^^ Act being signed 
by Governor David Porter. March 19, 1852, this borough be- 
came subject to the provisions of the Act of April 3, 1851, relat- 
ing to boroughs.* 


In educational matters the community in this place has 
always taken a progressive attitude. Private and public schools 
have received here earnest support. When the public free- 
school system was established by Pennsylvania, in 1834, Hon. 
Milton Lawrence, M.D., of this vill^e, was one of the school in- 
spectors for Greene township appointed by the court. In 1844 
a select school was opened in Hookstown by Rev. J. P. Moore, 
and five years later a similar school was in charge of S. H. 
Jeffrey and G. S. Strain. Many other teachers have done good 
service in the community. 

By reference to the chapter of this work on the medical his- 
tory of the county (Chapter X.), it will be seen to what a re- 
markable extent Hookstown has been connected with that 
history. No other town in the region, perhaps, has had so 

* p. L.. 392. * Ouar. Sess. Docket No. 4. p. 143. 

History of Beaver County 825 

many physicians who were either bom or educated in it, or resided 
there during some part of their professional career. Of these, 
the most eminent was Hon. Milton Lawrence, M. D., whose life is 
sketched in the chapter of this work just referred to. In that 
chapter will also be found some account of the epidemic of 
typhus fever which ravaged the village and the surrounding 
country in 1845, and which is known in local history as the 
"Hookstown fever." 


The United Presbyterian Church of Hookstown. — ^This 
church, in the Presbytery of Frankfort, was organized in 1846. 
Its first regular pastor was the Rev. Thomas Calahan (Asso. 
Ref.). He was a native of Washington County, Pa., and came 
to the churches of Hanover and Hookstown, June 20, 1849, 
remaining until April 11, 1854. He was followed by Rev. 
Marcus Ormond, who served the church of Hookstown from 
1859 to 1867, excepting one year when he was chaplain of 
the 140th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. Alex- 
ander Imbrie Young was pastor from June, 1869, until May, 
1872; James Porter Davis from September, 1872, until August, 
1874; Samuel C. Reid (bom in Beaver County), from 1879 until 
1882; William McKirahan, 1884 until 1890; G. A. Roseberg, 
1892 until 1900; and H. L. Hood, 1901-02; 1903 vacant. 

This church was incorporated by a decree of the court, Hon. 
J. J. Wickham presiding, June 8, 1892, the names of the incor- 
porators being Samuel Nelson, Robert Leeper, R. M. Swaney, 
John Nelson, William Campbell, Joseph Mercer, Winslow Hood, 
Robert M. Bryan, John G. Adams. Hugh C. Leeper, Robert J. 
Leeper, and T. B. Lawrence. 

The present membership of the church is 148. 

The Presbyterian Church of Hookstown is an offshoot of the 
old Mill Creek congregation. It was organized in 1854 by mem- 
bers of that congregation living in the village and its immediate 
vicinity, who found it inconvenient to go to the old church. 
This church has had an honored history, its membership embrac- 
ing some of the most substantial and worthy families in the 
county. The roll of its original members is as follows : 

David Kerr, Mary Kerr, John S. McCoy, Nancy McCoy, James 8. 
Walker, Margaret Walker, Milton Lawrence, Sarah Lawrence, Joseph 

^'^n History of Beaver County 

"•'.r-rr -J.;, i^r:. M:r\rTaii ::^iraii E. McFerran, Mary McFerran. John 
l«:*" _-:-;.. 'lirt.:;** _' Mcij.nsii, ?*'ancy Stewart. Eliza McGahan. Marv 
j.a* "»: :■.. Mir> ?at':crs*.r^ .=Ll=2ra '.Vitherspoon. Jane Wither?p:>c?n, 

:.. Vh-.itiiili. Mirg^---. "iVhiithill. William Thompson. Rrth 

. >. .. placlici L. Kerr *^'::l:am Ridgley. Thomas J. Laughlin. Marr 
! ' .'iui McHxiy. MargiiTf. Moody. Joseph Moody, Benoni Reed. 

■■•>.: . iiii. r.joiuy fjLi::. T:li:am Miller. Milo Thompson. Thomas 
1. A •.;■•.'. A. :<. McC-^--. -lilcb 'i\'hmis. Rachel Whims, John Galbreaih. 
\f,: J r -Ir-rtJi-.L;. ^.»ral: 3".:i».k:noTe. Jane Miller, Nancy Chapman, Nancy 
.... ::. 1 h.j:i..A* .'^ihoo:!. ?4ar>- A. Calhoon. S. W. Miller and others. 

".\. : -.i-^'^^AW^jzi -vursmped at first in a frame building, 
'V.L.: ...out the time of the organization of the church and 
• >! ;::;fc^ S2500. In : S85 this building was destroyed by fire. 
"•If 'llowing year the present building was erected with an 
. ui\i> 'I .ibuut S3000. The church has been served by the 
::;1l>\vip.j/ :.a>turs: R. S. Morton, 1854-63; W. M. White, 1866- 
-^- 'ic^ige Shatfer. 1873-74; D. L. Dickey, 1876-81; R. S. 
Morion. S.S., 1S82-85; the pulpit was vacant from 1885 until 
'^i;o, James H. Hunter, 1891-93; vacant in 1894; J. R. Hosick, 
tSy3 1^04- 

riic Mill Creek Valley Agricultural Association, Ltd.,' holds 
:t^ .Liinu:il fairs at Hookstown. These fairs are largely attended 
h\ t he \.iti:tens of the whole county. 


The Hookstown post-office was established about 1818, and 
\\\K' of those who have held appointments in it is as follows; 

1 .. pli NK'lVrran. March 20, 1818; Ezekiel Carothers, Aug. 24, 1839; 
^.4!!■.lul VkLaiiijhlin, Jan. 3, 1842; Joseph Bryan, Jan. 30, 1846; Edward 
«. Kill. M:iy !>, ii>4g; Miss Jane Crail, April 7, 1852; Samuel McFerran, 
Ik.. JO, IS53, Jainc'S Bryan, Feb. 22, 1856; Thomas D. Moore, July 23, 
I so I, Miss Jcnnio Mercer, June 27, 1882; William H. Fuller, July 30, 
1SS5 loliii n. Ji)hnson, Sept. 11. 1885; Robert M. Bryan, Feb. 10. 1886; 
lajius A. Paturson. Aug. 13, 1889; Robert M. Bryan, March 2. 1893; 
Fiaiik S. Wi^h, Juno 9, 1897. 

P.y the United States Census for 1900 the population of 
HiKik^lowu was 259. 

It nuiy interest some of our readers to know that Hooks- 
town was in early days sometimes called Nineveh, as will be 
seen from the following matter of record : 

* Si'c hi&tory oi Mill Creek Valley Ag. Assoc, in Chapter VIII. 

History of Beaver County 827 

9tb Febniary, 1828, Came into court Thomas Hemy, Esq., High 
Sheriff of the Coimty of Beaver, and acknowledged a deed to John Carrol 
[this name is later in the same entry written Carson] for a certain lot of 
grotmd in the town of Nineveh or Hookstown, now Greene township in 
the Cotmty of Beaver, numbered in the plan of said town No. 4 on the 
west side of said opposite James Preston's. ' 


An early hotel in Hookstown was kept by the Widow 
Carothers, at the point where the Pittsburg and Washington 
roads cross each other. Another was kept by John Patterson 
for some years in the building now occupied by Owen Wilson as a 
harness shop. John Wright Thompson McKibben, and Jackson 
and Basil Swearingen also kept a hotel in the same house. In 
1857 David Gibb and John Van Reed erected a still-house on 
the side of the old grist mill on Mill Creek, one mile below Hooks- 
town. This mill was run by water-power, and was known as 
Laughlin's old mill. In the early sixties it was burned down, 
together with the distillery. The owners soon afterwards re- 
built the distillery near Hookstown, and operated it successfully 
until the passage of the Revenue Act during the Civil War. 
This distillery, with one operated by a Mr. Culmer in the same 
neighborhood and others in the township, then shortly went out 
of business. It is to the credit of the people of this community 
that, when the opportunity was afforded them to vote upon 
the subject, they voted almost solidly to abolish the manufacture 
and sale of intoxicating liquors. 


This village lies in the southern part of Hanover township, 
near the Washington County line, midway of that line. It is 
about twenty-six miles from Beaver and thirteen from George- 
town. The village of Frankfort Springs is situated in the region 
where the earliest settlements in Beaver County territory were 
made, being on the edge of the tract of 1000 acres of land pur- 
chased in 1772 by Levi Dungan, the first settler. Nathan 
Dungan owned an adjoining tract of 351 acres, which was pat- 
ented to him, April 25, 1788. In 1781, Levi Dungan was a 
collector in what was then Smith (afterwards Hanover) town- 
ship, Washington Cotmty. He kept a tavern in the township 

' Appearance Docket No. 5, p. 447. 

itt rrjt -.:r,riP3nrz -^ .<*vrf» .-r-"'*^ rr&f icerrnes r "iie Z'lmzHzis 

7*TV-rsi:ft; r -Jit* -r»rr'.- :;>T«ir- r -- ^.iTv^r.r '---n: ■■■cnr if ti;4itt 
ITe .-,tiv -.erp 'r:r;rp- vHat .ua r he ::ari* n ^Earrrs .s 

r* .-i^i'.-.-r -.iin:-.' - -. '.-.-■:- i^::r:j- .l.i*re. : miri r~:n .'•LLaLmmyT. 
ia mxusi -.-.m ■:i»si,'.-.-r :.r..-: :::rrr-sr! n;:.-t r-.rr. rmrsEtzi-sT:. .'ear 'oa 

»r>:»: — 1»-- .* ■»-. •;'^. ••'»:- pii::n= 

' i zamn^iL^r '. r..-; r. --i- .\" . ; •-. v ,f -r-.t, mt.' — aiiE±£ ' -jnernii- Tnxxxnei 
rhnmcv.n --.^r-r .fr^<itr.6«*i , im»-c .fi-i— :;»-n. .-'ifsxczaAs — Vti. Banks. 
J'lmra ':At::c^ '^^ -^r:; .•*^t'-»fr*«f — ri*-:- Ir_ X'3i*.vps. ieceder: 

J'^unea .ir.tsui ."^ /* >-.*sr.»-.*r;in trtfc-.- r tie --ajr Zwns^ 

rioUU — ^rriSJiiiTjr^ .-i.'J-M y<ty^^ .V-.r.aiir; ^ '-nnKmrr JincmL TtJrmgs: 

Dspr I rii^U/r'y..-u \ 


^r*:?!^ ;y. /..-:.- ■. -»■ -; ;, ■'^:i^^•:r* ^r. "1 r.e^'r.'r. t^i-itz ? eerie used 

ton, -t;./: ^j.. '.'A ',*r-^.- .■;rrv;r.'I;r.7 t-o-s-n: V- irjik "he -carers or 
to <STij'// ^^'■ ■■// .t-'-t of '-.r;^ :/;i'.r; The r.uniber :: the visitors 
so ixK.f'^av'/I ^^:fc^ .V^</:r.n:-. //i:ri a.MGnimoiire them all. 
and y^rtit'A JMr»j/;in ''/? Frar#kfort then btiilt the three-storv brick 

History of Beaver County 829 

house still standing there, and for several years his house was 
full for two or three months during the season. Dungan often 
had as high as two hundred guests at his house at one time. 
J. Moore Bigger still further developed the springs, but their 
day is past, as more fashionable resorts have drawn the patron- 
age away from them. The analysis of the water from these 
springs shows it to contain iron, sulphur, magnesia, and alum. 


The United Presbvterian Church of Frankfort had in all 
probability no formal organization, but it is believed that a 
congregation was in existence here as early as 1790. The 
church was formerly known as King's Creek. Until the union 
of the Associate and Associate Reformed bodies into the 
United Presbyterian Church in 1858, it belonged to the synod 
of the first-named church, and is now in the Frankfort Presby- 
tery of the United Presbyterian Church. The congregation has 
had three houses of worship. The first, a log building, was 
located two miles north of the village in Hanover township, on 
the farm now of Andrew Stevenson's heirs, where the ancient 
graveyard connected therewith is still to be seen. This was 
replaced by a brick building located in the village of Frankfort 
Springs, which was burned down in 1876. The third and present 
structure is of brick, a commodious building, costing about $7000. 
King's Creek Church is an offshoot from this congregation. 

This church is remarkable in having had but five pastors in 
over a century's existence, the combined pastorates of the first 
two extending over a period of neariy eighty-five years. The 
first pastor of the church w^as Rev. John Anderson, D.D., who 
was installed in the autumn of 1792, and remained until his 
death, April 6, 1830. He was at the same time installed pastor 
of Service Church; and April 21, 1794, he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Theology for the Associate Theological Seminary 
(Eudolpha Hall) at Service. His history is given in connection 
with that of that church and school (see Chapter XXVI.). 

The second pastor was Rev. William Meek McElwee, D.D., 
who labored in this field from March, 1833, until July, 1878. 
Mr. McElwee was bom, April i, 1802, in York County, S. C. 
He was graduated from the College of South Carolina in 1820, 
studied theology for a year with Rev. J. Mushat, and finished his 



Rev. William M. McElwec. 

History of Beaver County 831 

1885 until 1887, when John C. Pickens was called. He served from 1888 
until 1890, there were supplies in 189 1 and 1892, and in 1893 William E. 
Allen took charge as pastor and served ttntil 1897, and there were supplies 
from 1897 until 1901. The present pastor is Rev. John T. Scott. 


In the region in which Frankfort Springs is situated a high 
value has always been set on education, and the common schools 
are excellent. 

Frankfort Academy, a school famous in its day, was con- 
ducted by the Rev. James Sloan, D.D., who taught the classical 
branches; and Hon. Thomas Nicholson, the first covmty superin- 
tendent of schools of Beaver County, who taught the other 
branches. It was started in 1841 and closed in 1848. Its cur- 
riculum was such as to fit the students to enter the junior class 
at Jefferson College. Among the number of its students who 
afterwards became prominent in the affairs of the county and 
State may be named Richard P. Roberts, Esq., Colonel of the 
140th P. V. I., who was killed at Gettysburg; James K. Leeper, 
deceased; Rev. George Shaffer, deceased; David Craig, Esq., 
deceased; Thomas Bigger; Thomas Carothers; John J. Caroth- 
ers; William M. Farrar, deceased; William Guy; M. L. Miller, 
late postmaster at Steubenville, Ohio; John H. Wallace, editor, 
of New York City, and many others. 

Some years later the academy was revived, and March 20, 
1 87 1, a charter was secured, among the incorporators being such 
men as Rev. A. O. Rockwell, Rev. William Meek McElwee, D.D., 
John J. Carothers, Samuel Bigger, John Stephenson, James 
Morrison, John McCullough, H. B. McCreary, Thomas Nicholson, 
J. L. Purdy, Thomas Bigger, Henry J. Lance, and S. H. Leeper, 
the first seven named being the first board of trustees. A 
flourishing school is still in existence here. 


Frankfort Springs was incorporated into a borough by a 
special Act of Assembly, approved March 19, 1844.' December 

* Section i. of the Act reads: "Be it enacted" etc., "That the town of Frankfort 
Sorinj^s, in the county of Beaver, and territory included within the following boundaries, 
to wit. Beginning at a stake on the county line near Robert beeper's bam; thence north 
one htmdred andforty-four perches to a stake on land of William Frazier; thence east one 
hundred and eighty-two perches to a stake on land of John Carothers: thence south one 
hundred and forty-four perches to the Washington County line ; thence west on the county 
line to the place of beginning; is hereby erected into a borough, which shall be called and 
styled the borough of FranWort Springs." (P. L., 142.) 

^52 Hissorj oc Sofre- Coaidy 

T. :i70. :hLa :oromp: :erarr:f- szzn&rt to lie proi'isiar]^ oc lat 
Act OL .^isexniiiv jc JLzrL. i :*fi. reLatiiig to borongiiE.' 

?'.*s7-im:z — P0PrLATi05: 

Fran ic: on Spr:z;p s*-*?:-^^'!^''-*. discontmued Noveniber n. 
:90a. T-'SLi .ne :r *±e -Lifts; '5.:«5 of this region, haring rieen 
established iniier -.jiift z^zre ',f FrasiHort within a feir mamihs 
after :he -ir^tir:,!! -: 3*av*rr Cotmt}-. The names of the pDs:- 
masters ind ia^es 'A rhfr^ appointments are as follows: 

Johr. M'-'Jlciliii. JiIt : I'tc^. Arthttr Sanderean, Jan, i, i^ri: 
Thornrta IVotTtll, Oc- :. ;*ci. Samuel Worrell, Oct. i. 1S07: Hesay 
Coxnby. Jan. : it if*. jk=:*5 Lhrngaa, Oct. 21. 1828: Andrew K-noT. 
Jan. 2 J. r^vi- 

Jan«iar>' :: :*4-. '-'^t namt: of Frankfort Springs was given to the 
omce. -in-i *.•:•: v.^tr-iai>:iWT> following have been: William H. Fraxer. 
Dec. 15. : ^4 ' ''V-IIiar-*: R. Foster, July 15, 1845; James McCutcheoEU 
Nov. 17. 1*50. H*igh P. Miller. Oct. 10, 1857; James McCutchcson, July 
23. 1861. I>a*fcC Svrphens, Nov, 2. 1885; William M. Frarer, April 27, 
1S89: Isaac St*rphen5. Au;; i. 1893; William C. Morgan, Nov. 17. 1893; 
William M. Frazer. Sept. i>». 1897. 

The population of the borough by the United States Census 
for 1900 was 128. 


This borough lies in the extreme northwestern comer of 
Greene township, on a l>eautiful plateau overlooking the Ohio 
River. Within sight of the village are parts of Ohio and West 
Virginia. Georgetown is the second oldest town in the county; 
its citizens sometimes claiming for it the distinction of being the 
first. I3ut this distinction, we think, rightly belongs to the 
county -seat itself. Beaver was laid out, under the Act of Sep- 
tember 28. 1 79 1, by Daniel Leet, his survey being made in 
November, 1 792 (though it was not confirmed by the Legislature 
until March 6, 1793), while Georgetown was not laid out tmtil 
January 13,1 793. This was done by Benoni Dawson. The Daw- 
sons were the most numerous of any family in this settlement, 
and there are few of those living in the place to-day who are not 
directly or indirectly connected with them. Benoni Dawson 
came to Pennsylvania from Montgomery County, Md., about 
1780. He died May 16, 1806, aged sixty-four. Rebecca (Mack- 

* Ouar. Scss. Misc. Docket No. x, p. 13. 

History of Beaver County 833 

all) Dawson, his wife, died October 6, 1816, at seventy-five 
years of age. They are both, with scores of their descendants, 
btiried in the old cemetery on the hill back of the village.' 

In July, 1807, a traveler named F. Cuming came down the 
Ohio River in a boat, and in his journal, from which we have 
several times made extracts, he writes with such a human in- 
terest of his experiences and of what he saw along his route that 
we feel like giving to our readers the opportunity of seeing his 
account of that part of the trip which touched this region. It 
reads as follows: 

A ferry two miles below Beaver [at what is now Vanport ?] is a 
handsome situation beyond which the banks are high on both sides, and 
the river does not exceed one hundred and fifty yards wide. 

About half past seven, it began to rain with heavy thunder and sharp 
lightning. We huddled into the stem imder the awning, and I sculled 
with one oar to keep the boat in the channel, in hopes of getting to 
Georgetown; but the storm increasing, we judged it more prudent to 
stop at nine o'clock, where we saw a light on the left bank. We were 
received very hospitably in their small log house by Mr. and Mrs. Potts.' 
Our landlady gave us bread and milk, which, after changing our wet 
clothes, we supped on sumptuously. We then made some milk punch, 
which our landlord partook of with us with great goUt, entertaining us 
with some good songs, and long stories about his travels. Time thtis 
passed away, while the storm pelted without, and it was not imtil eleven 
o'clock that we stretched ourselves on the floor, with our feet to the fire, 
and enjoyed a good nap, resisting the kind importimities of the Potts to 
take their own bed, their other one being filled with their five children. 
And here I must remark that throughout this whole country, wherever 
you see a cabin, you see a swarm of children. 

At six o'clock on Sunday morning, the 19th July, we left Potts, after 
having recompenscjd them for their hospitality. This was ten miles 
below Beaver, and two and a half above Georgetown. There are three 
small islands in that distance, called First, Second and Grape island. 3 

I landed at Georgetown on the left, which contains about thirty 
houses in a fine situation, on a narrow plain extending from the high 
river bank, to the hills which siuroimd it like an amphitheater. Though 
it is a post town, and a considerable thoroughfare of travellers, it is 
nevertheless on the decline, there being only about twenty-five houses 

' It is probably to Benoni Dawson, the first of that name, that the followinj; in Major 
Denny's joximal refers: " Nov. i6th, 1789. The river continued to rise. With hard work 
we made Dawson's, opposite the mouth of Little Beaver, about eight o'clock at night." 
P. 135. 

• There are yet people of the name of Potts living in this neighborhood, who are probably 
descendants of this hospitable family. 

* These islands are called to-day, counting from the uppermost to the one lowest down 
the river, Montgomery, Phillisee. and Georgetown islands, respectively. 

Sj4 History of Beaver County 

tsfasbited. A Slower oomiiig on I took shdter in tbe hoose oi a veqr 
cannaunicatLve elderly man, whose wife was jroung and Tery handsome, 
tfapugh an half blood Ttidian 

Litde Beaver creek, nearly opposite Georgetown, is a handsome little 
Bver. about thirty yards wide; half a mile below which, we saw the divi- 
Mft line between Piennsyhrania and Virginia.' 

Elevea years later another traveler down the Ohio refers as 
{q&ows to Georgetown: 

July. iSi8. — On Board the Commodore McDomougk, of fifty tons, 
ticMting down the smooth surface of the Ohio, we pass Beaver, and touch 
afe Georgetown, consisting of about a dozen log houses, one-fourth of which 
we tavemSv designated by a creaking sign in front, and probably a bar- 
ciA of whisky, for the entertainment of travellers. The '* calculations*' 
o£ the landlord are entertaining, though sometimes tedious to his guest, 
whp is more desirous of satisfying his own appetite than the other's 
Ctinosity, who calculates his guest is travelling. — calculates he is a 
awrchant, or a mechanic, or seeking work, — calculates he is going to the 
territory, and calculates till all his powers of arithmetic are exhausted.* 

In the autumn of 1803 the Moravian missionary. George 
Henry Loskiel, journeyed from Bethlehem, Pa., to Goshen, 
(^o, and he wrote a metrical narrative of his journey, from 
which we make the following extracts referring to this region ^r 

The road to Georgetown from Fort Pitt 
Is good enough ; though we find it 
No little toil to climb its steeps 
As up and down its way it keeps. 

And oft its hills are very high, 
And steep enough to make one sigh. 
For constantly to use the brakes 
A traveler's time and patience takes. 

Eight miles was what we made to-day, 
Then hoped ourselves to rest to lay; 
But found a qviilting frolic there. 
Whose racket filled the very air. 

At dawn we left the noisy place, 
Thankful for our meed of grace; 
And spent from mom to night the day 
In toiling o'er our hilly way. 

• Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country, Cuming, p. 83. 

• Remarks made during a Tour through the United States of America in the Years 1817-IQ, 
in a Series of Letters to Friends in England, by William Tell Harris, London, i8ai. 

• Extempore on a Wagon, by George Henry LoskieU Episeopus Fratrum, translated 
with Notes by J. Max Hark, Lancaster, Pa. Samuel H. Zahm ft Co., 1887. 

History of Beaver County 835 

Before a smoke-filled house we sat 
And thankfiil our cold dinner ate; 
Around us stared a wondering crew 
Of children, who enjoyed it too. 

Our quarters for the night we find 
At miller Donkin's, good and kind. 
Our hostess claims acquaintance near 
With Goshen's pastor, Mortimer. 

He writes to her, and she to him, 
And she professes high esteem 
For ministers, and tells us what 
In such is needed, and what not. 

Next day we safe to Georgetown came. 
Where Beaver * is our dear host's name. 
Who with his wife treats us so well 
That I can scarce in words it tell. 

But not for our sakes alone, 
As if to honor us, ' t was done; 
But for dear Heckewelder's sake, 
As Beaver soon it plain doth make. 

Hence we in deep humility 
Accept the Christian charity, 
As though by Heckewelder done, 
Who heart and soul of us is one. 

We feel indeed here quite at home, 
As in and out we go and come; 
We also the occasion take 
Some needed purchases to make. 

I visit the Ohio oft, 
Whose name is to the ear as soft 
As it is charming to the eye. 
And beauteous, I can testify. 

There with my Saviour oft I spake, 
Which I a daily practice make; 
For ah! His love's sweet graciotisness 
No htmian tongue can e'er express. 


St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Church. — ^As mentioned in 
our chapter on the religious history of the region, this is the 

' This was probably John Beaver (sometimes Bever) of the Ohio Paper Comi)ao7, who 
lived in GeoiKetown; see vol. i., p. 291. For note on Heckewelder, see vol. i., p. 433. 

836 History of Beaver County 

oldest church of this faith in Beaver County, and one of 
the first west of the Alleghenies. It was organized about the 
year 1800, and admitted into union with the Convention of the 
Diocese of Pennsylvania in 1814. Its first pastor was the Rev. 
Francis Reno.* August 11 and 12, 1828, Bishop Onderdonk 
visited Georgetown and confirmed nine persons ; and on April 
29th of the following year he confirmed twenty-nine. Among 
the early members of this congregation were Benoni Dawson, 
his wife Rebecca and his son Benoni, Michael Chrisler, John 
Chrisler, Thomas Foster, Adam Hayes, Jane McMillen, David 
McMillen, James Dawson and wife, Mrs. Jane Dawson, Major 
Hugh McCullough and wife, John Hecker and wife, John Beaver 
(surveyor), and Mrs. Mary Dawson. 

The parish has been served by the following clergymen: 
Revs. Francis Reno, J. P. Taylor, Francis H. Laird, Samuel 
West Selden, William Adderly, William Harrison, James Good- 
win, Henry McKay, William Ballard, William A. Fuller, Samuel 
H. Hilliard, John London, John A. Farrar, T. Jefferson Danner, 
J. L. Taylor, and Edwin Weary. 

The log building in which the first services of this church 
were held was replaced in 1833 by the present brick structure, 
which was erected at a cost of $3000. The present membership 
of this church is about forty. 

^ Rev. Francis Reno's name is in the list of taxables in Sewickley township, Beaver 
Coianty, for the year x8oa. and in that of the borough of Beaver for the same year. 

John and Susaxmah (Thorn) Reno, the parents of Francis Reno, prior to 1765 lived in 
eastern Virginia. In that year they emigrated from that colony and came to the Chartiers 
valley in what is now Washington Coimty, Pa. Francis Reno was bom in Virginia, February 

7, 1758. He passed his boyhood with his parents in their new home, and received his 
education in Dr. John McMillan's famous "Log-cabin College" at Canonsburg, Pa. Oct. 

8, 1793, he was ordained to the ministry in Christ Church, Philadelphia, by Bishop William 
White, and later was sent out under the care of the '* Bishop White Prayer Book Sodetv" 
to the new settlements in the West. 

He was married June 15, 1 784^ to Lydia Savers. With his wife and six children and all 
their household goods he left Washington County and. with horse and ox-cart, journeyed 
through the forest, along the blazed way, till they reached the place at what is now 
Rochester, Pa., where they were to build their new home. The log hotise which he there 
erected stood on a spot near the spring on the hillside below the buildings of the Passavant 
Memorial Hospital. He began to preach in the log cabins of the people, in bams and 
groves, and he served by regular appointment, during his active years, at Sewickley, George- 
town, Ohioville, and Rochester. Mr. Reno soon became the owner of a large tract of 
land and passed the greater part of his life in a dwelling-house on the upland on Deer 
Lane, now known as the " Stile's property." He died on the 12th day of August, 1836, at 
Rochester. Pa. 

He raised a large family, of which John was the eldest. Charles Savers was the next 
son. He became a merchant in Pittsburg, afterwards lived in Rochester, and was a justice 
of the peace for many years. He was the father of Socrates A. Reno. Other children were 
BHza, Lewis, Nancy, William, Thomas Tnom, Francis, Susannah, and Jesse. 

History of Beaver County 837 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — No reliable record of the 
beginnings of Methodism at this place has been preserved. 
Among the earliest preachers whose names we have are Wesley 
Smith, Israel Dallas, W. P. Blackburn, and Garrett Jones. To 
the first named of these is usually ascribed the credit of organiz- 
ing the church, the date being probably 1830. Preaching ser- 
vices are said to have been first held in the house of Thomas 
Poe, on the comer of Front and Market streets. The ministers 
serving this congregation from 1857 are as follows: 

J. C. High, 1857-58; J. L. Stiffey, father of R. D. Stiffey, Esq., of 
Beaver, 1859-61; M. M. Eaton, 1862; A. E. Ward, 1863-65; M. S. 
Kendig. 1866-68; A. Htiston, 1869-70; Joseph Gledhill, 1871-73; T. 
F. Pershing, 1874-75; J. N. Pershing, 1876; W. Darby, 1877; J. Dillon, 
1878-79; J. E. Wright, 1880-81; J. L. Deems, i88a; A. J. Rich, 1883- 
85; A. L. Kendall, 1886; A. S. Hunter. 1887; H. J. Giles, 1888-90; 
W. H. Kirkland, 1891-93; E. H. Greenlee, 1894-96; A. J. Cook, 1897; 
J. W. K. Hodge, 1898-99; H. M. Camahan, 1900-01; H. A. Baum, 190a-. 

This congregation has had three houses of worship, the first 
being a frame building located on the property of Samuel Smith. 
The second was also a frame building now used as a dwelling, 
and the third and present structure, a frame building about 40 x 
60 feet, was built in 1877 at a cost of $3000. This building was 
dedicated November 25, 1877. Among the early members of 
the congregation were E. Crail, Samuel Todd, John Thompson, 
Samuel McGrath, and Thomas Poe. The present membership 
is a little over a hundred. 

From the earliest times Georgetown has been the home of 
steamboat-men, and among its residents still are captains, pilots, 
mates, clerks, engineers, firemen, and stewards ; in fact, a steamer 
could be completely manned from the citizens of this place. 

Harris's Business Directory for 1837 contains the following 
notice of Georgetown: 

Georgetown. — A small village, pleasantly situated on elevated 
ground, on the south bank of the Ohio river, 40 miles below Pittsburgh. 

Post Master — Zebulon Kinsey, Esq. Merchants — S. & M. Prudens. 
Justice of the Peace — Thomas Foster. 


The village of Georgetown was incorporated into a borough 
by an Act of Assembly, April 15, 1850.* November 30, 1855, 

> p. L.. 458. 

VOL. II.— 15. 

838 Histor)^ of Beaver County 

this borough became subject to the provisions of the Act of 
April 3, 1851.' 

The first commissioners of election were Samuel Smith, 
James Todd, and Adam Poe. 

The famous Indian fighters, Andrew and Adam Poe, were 
identified with the early history- of this region, and have de- 
scendants yet Uving in the vicinity of Georgetown. Mrs. Nancy 
(Poe) Ebert, a direct descendant of Andrew Poe, is the oldest 
resident of the borough. 


Thomas Foster, named above as acting in 1837 as a justice 
of the peace, was the first postmaster of Georgetown, his com- 
mission bearing date, April i, 1802. His successors in the office 
have been John Christmas,* appointed October i, 1807 ; Thomas 
Foster, reappointed September 10, 182 1; Zebulon Kinsey, June 
2, 1835 ; Hugh McCullough, Selah Prudens, Thomas Fr\% Charles 
Calhoon, George W. Calhoon; Samuel C. Trimble, June 3, 1870; 
Henry J. Kinsey, April 4, 1881; Lydia P. Kinsey, March 5, 
1883. November 30, 1900, this office was discontinued, rural 
free delivery having been extended to this point. 

By the United States Census for 1900 the population of 
Georgetown was shown to be 271. 


The first hotel in Georgetown was kept by Thomas Foster 
in the building now owned and occupied by the Trimble sisters. 

* Road Docket No. 3. No. 6, Sept. Sess.. 1855. 

• Rev. Joseph S. Christmas was bom in GeorKCtoN^-n April 10. 1803. His lather, John 
Christmas, named above, was a jttstice of the peace and a leading citizen of that place. 
Joseph was the eighth of thirteen children. From his earliest years he displayed an ex- 
traordinary versatility and ardor of mind and a restless spirit of inquiry. Before he was 
eight years of age he had a room to himself, where he practised dra^-ing maps and painting. 
for which he had both a talent and a passion. In like manner he pursued poetry: he 
moalyzed it. studed its history, principles, and relations and then prractised it. His principal 
poem. The Artist, in two cantos, published when he was at the age of axteen. is sufi^ent 
evidence of his rare powers. 

Mr. Christmas was graduated from Washington College, in the class of iSig. with the 
first honors, and from Princeton Theological Seminary in the class of 1824. He was 
ordained by the Presbytery of New York and vt^ls immediately called to the pastorate of 
the American Presb>'terian Church in Montreal, Canada, where he labored faithfully for 
four years, when his delicate health giving way under the se\'erity of the climate, he was 
comi>eIled to resign. He died March 14. 1830, in his 27th year. He was the author of a 
number of books. A memoir of his life was published by Dr. Lord. See Enc. of Religious 
Knowledge, etc., Fesscnden & Co.. Brattleboro, Vt.. 1838. 

History of Beaver County 839 

This hostelry is thought to have been in existence as early as 
1802. At the May sessions, 1805, of the court of Beaver County, 
Thomas Foster was one of those commissioned to keep a tavern. 
William Camagy was commissioned at the same sessions. Other 
early inn-keepers here were Nicholas Krehl and Philip Ducomb, 
commissioned at the August sessions of the court, 1804; James 
Preston, commissioned March, 1808; and Joseph Smith, August, 
1809. At a later period John Cameron kept a hotel in George- 
town, known as the Red Lion, which was a favorite resort of 
the rivermen. Another early hotel was kept by David Pinker- 
ton, an Irishman who was noted for his great physical strength. 
It is a tradition that he once shouldered a barrel of whisky at 
the river bank and carried it up the hill to his hotel. He was 
succeeded in the business by Nath. Potts, an old river pilot. 
Nothing is left to mark the site of this once famous house, but 
it is known to have stood on the bluff above the steamboat 
landing, near where Captain Thomas Calhoon's residence is now. 
The next hotel in Georgetown of which we find mention was that 
of D. S. Hamilton. It was located in the lower end of the town, 
known as California. George D. Laughlin succeeded Hamilton, 
and maintained the place for a few years; and John D. Mackall 
held the last license in the borough in 1862-63. In 1866, as 
previously stated, a special Act of Assembly was passed forever 
prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in Greene township. 


This little borough is situated in the extreme southwestern 
comer of Ohio township, just at the point where the Little 
Beaver empties into the Ohio River, and close to the Ohio State 
line. The borough limits to the eastward run up to the village 
of Smith's Ferry, and Georgetown, on the south side of the 
river, is diagonally opposite to it. 

Glasgow was plotted by the surveyor, Sanford C. Hill, Octo- 
ber 22, 1836, on land of George Dawson, who owned here about 
four hundred acres. The lots, except those on the diamond, 
are 50 by 100 feet, the streets 60 feet, and the alleys 20 feet wide. 

The first house erected after the town was laid out was Job 
Harvey's; then one was built by John Bunton for a store, and 
the third was that of John McFall. 

840 Hotory- of Bezrar Coantj 

The village of Qa^p^v was nzccrpcrssEtf into a bcKoc^h. 
October 12. £;?54. in anawe r zor & p csL T iaa ti gresected at the Xarch 
sesaons previous , gji i nir.vrd b j &e %5 ' iLT>-^ r r:> > v&aae fiimian 
was David Whice. The iiL*^ D er s ct zht pesfThjn veie as follows: 
John Caixghe7. C. T!iciti:^sc3ti. Joseph licCaiz.. Sasmnrf M. Stevea- 
son* James WtEson, Gecrge Wilsoc, Jasae llsrmw. Jafen A. Hays, 
James P. McGrew. Zadok S rrridi , John F. IETjct. J. Toms, Jesse 
McGrew. John 3f cGrcw, George Pocr. Xcfega iFrrcgh, John Ewing, 
Samuel Ewing. Thismas Kirkendall, Alfred lIcFalL Jo&n XcFall, 
Zeddock Domier, W. Smith, John Estep. Tbe decree of the 
coisrt reads as follows: 

The aaoe and ttjit rA the ssdd Boroogh sha]I be '^Tbe Boroogh g€ 
Glaigow " 9Bd tK* bcmndaries ihall be as set forth aaad ccxECacoed in tlie 
petition and a cc o mpa nybig draft. The anmxal ckctus shall be held at 
the boose of Alfred McFall in said borongb 00 ibe third Sosoxday of 
March in each year, commencing in 1855. betw«esi the bears of 2 & 6 
o*dock P.M. The first election shall be held at tbe sa£d hoose of Alfred 
McFaQ 00 the third Satmday of November. 1S54. becwen the same 
hours, and the coort appoint Jesse McGrew. judge, and Jobs A Hays and 
Uriah Smith inspectors of said election, and John Caogbey. Esq.. to give 
notice of the same in the manner provided by law for giving notice of 
constables elections. 

The Cleric will enter the foregoing as a further part of the decree and 
order of the Court. [Signed:] Daxiel Agxew. P. J.* 

The laying out of Glasgow was prompted by the hopes of 
future importance to be given to this section by the construction 
of the Sandy and Beaver Canal, whose southern terminus was 
at Glasgow. That canal was built, but was abandoned owing 
to lack of water at the summit. Good shipping facilities and 
means of transit are. however, afforded to the town by the 
river and the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railroad. 

Harris's Pittsburg Business Directory for 1837 mentions 
George Dawson and John Bunton as merchants at Glasgow in 
that year. 


There are in Glasgow two churches, the Presbyterian and 
the Methodist Episcopal. 

^ Road Docket No. 2, p. 455- 

History of Beaver County 841 

The Presbyterian Church of Glasgow. — In June, 1849, a 
petition was presented to the Presbytery of New Lisbon, asking 
for the organization of a church at this place. It is probable 
that the organization was effected the same year. Among the 
early members of this congregation were: 

George Dawson and family, James Thompson and wife, Evan Frazier, 
David Reed, Matilda Reed, James Logan, Massy Logan, Nancy Marquis, 
Samuel Stevenson, Nancy Ann Stevenson, Maria C. Reed, James H. 
Reed, Daniel Cloud, Agnes Cloud, Mary Cloud, and Eliza Marqtiis. 

The first elders, elected January 4, 1850, were George Daw- 
son, James Thompson, Daniel Cloud, and James Logan. 

The church has been served by the following ministers: 
William Reed, 1849; William Gaston, 1861-66; R. T. McMahan; 
R. 8. Morton ; James Swan. The Assembly's Minutes shows the 
condition of the church from 1879 as follows: Pulpit vacant in 
1880; stated supplies from i88i to 1894; vacant, 1895-1902. 

In 1849 ^ house of worship was erected on ground donated 
by George Dawson, a small and unpretentious building, costing 
about $800. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — ^This church was organized 
in 1867 by Rev. G. A. Lomand, with twelve members, among 
whom were Dr. Grafton, Job Harvey, John McFall, and Alfred 
McFall. The appointment has been mainly connected with 
Georgetown, and served by the same pastors. As a charge it has 
been generally known as ** Smith's Ferry.** The list of pastors 
has been as follows: 

G. A. Lomand, A. J. Reynolds, R. Hopkins, F. D. Fast, G. B. Wallis, 
D, M. Stafford, J. L. Stiffey, E. M. Wood, L. H. Eaton, G. W. Righter, A. 
L. Kendall, William Johnson, 1886; J. L. Stiffey, 1887; H. J. Giles, 
1888-90; W. H. Kirkland, 1891-93; E. H. Greenlee, 1894-96; A. J. 
Cook, 1897; J. W. K. Hodge, 1898-99; J. C. Castle, 1900; H. A. Baum, 
1901-03; G. E. Brennenan, 1904. 

For a few years services were held in a schoolhouse, and in 
1874, a neat frame building was erected at a cost of $1500. This 
was replaced ten years later by another costing $3500, and in 
1880, a manse was built at a cost of $1600. 


Glasgow Lodge, No. 485, A. Y. M., was instituted February 
2, 1871; Line Island Lodge, No. 742, L O. O. F., instituted 

842 History of Beaver County 

December 2, 1870; Col. Richard P. Roberts Post, No. 244, 
G. A. R., organized May 19, 1882. 


Glasgow has no post-office of its own ; all mail being received 
at Smith's Ferry. By the United States Census for 1900 the 
population of the place was 172. 


This borough is on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad, about seven miles northwest from Beaver Falls. 
Surrounded by a rich agricultural population, it has also all the 
facilities, in an abundance of coal and timber and good trans- 
portation, of becoming a center of manufacturing. It is also 
the eastern terminus of the Pittsburg, Lisbon & Western R. R. 


New Galilee was incorporated into a borough by a decree of 
the court made January 15, 1868, the application for the rights 
of incorporation having been made at the previous Jime sessions 
and approved by the grand jury. The signers of the application 
were P. L. Grim, Robert Porter, J. B. Johnston, John Acheson, 
W. Thompson, W. D. Eakin, John Graebing, R. E. Hudson, 
Dr. R. J. Brittain, and twenty- two others. The first election was 
held the third Friday of March following, at which John S. 
Hudson was judge and W. D. Eakin and John Acheson were 
inspectors.* The town was surveyed and plotted June 13 and 14, 
1876, by county surveyor James Harper. The streets are run 
at right angles to each other, Washington and Centennial avenues 
running north and south, and Jackson, Jefferson, Monroe, and 
Madison from east to west. 


The post-office here was established in 1856, and has been 
served by the following persons: 

William Eakin, Feb. 11, 1856; James K. Weir, Oct. 20, i860; John 
S. Hudson, Dec. 2, 1862; John B. Johnston, May 12, 1865; William J. 
Johnston, Jan. 16, 1880; James Hudson, Nov. 22, 1880; John Graebing, 

* No. 7. Jtine Sessions, Road Docket No. 3, p. 3S0. 

History of Beaver County 843 

June 8. 1886; George W. Pyle, Oct. 22, 1886; Alexander F. Reid, April 
13, 1889; George W. Pyle, July 12, 1893; Joseph A. Kelso, June 14, 1897; 
Andrew J. Miller, June 15, 1898. 

By the United States Census for 1900 the population of the 
borough was 327. 


Rocky Spring United Presbyterian Church of New Galilee. — 
This church was organized about 1827 by the Presbytery of 
Monongahela in connection with the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian body. 

The people first met for worship about a mile and a half west 
of what is now the village of Homewood, having no building but 
the usual **tent," or shed, for the minister. Soon a frame 
building was erected a mile farther west, in which services were 
held until the spring of 1868. In the meantime a new church 
had been built in New Galilee, to which the congregation removed 
the same year. This new structure was erected at a cost of 
about $8000. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. Moses Kerr. 
Mr. Kerr was bom, educated, and ordained to the ministry in 
Ireland, and he held a pastoral charge there for a short time in 
the Burgher Presbytery of Antrim. He came to this country 
in 18 1 8 and was pastor of Union Congregation, near Pittsburg, 
1819-27. He was pastor of Rocky Spring and Beaver Falls 
from September 5, 1828, until his death, October 11, 1830. Rev. 
T. L. Spear served this church in connection with that of New 
Brighton until 1843. There was then a vacancy until 1849, 
with supplies furnished by Presbytery. May, 1849, the Rev. 
Samuel Patterson became pastor. Mr. Patterson remained until 
his death, which occurred May 21, 1895. The pulpit was then 
vacant until 1898, and on the 24th of February that year the 
Rev. D. T. McCalmont was installed pastor and is still in charge. 

Little Beaver congregation of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. — We have spoken of this church in the chapter on the 
religious history of the county. It was organized in 18 14, its 
building being located about one mile from New Galilee. Some 
of its first members were the Youngs, the Cooks, the McAnlises, 
and the McGeorges. The name of Rev. Matthew Williams is 
mentioned in connection with the organization of the church and 

844 History of Beaver Cocmtjr 

its first services. In September, iSc^. Rev. Robert Gibsoa 
was installed as pastor and resigned on accocmt of iH-bsalth at 
the end of eleven years' service. He was snccectieii bj ^he 
Rev. George Scott, who was installed in ApriL t3jc. Mr. Scotr 
left this branch of the Reformed Presbvxerians- the Synod, and 
united with the other, the General Synod, which leaves uhe 
matter of voting and holding o&ce to the individual conscience. 
The congregation of which he became pastor, the only one of 
that branch in Beaver County, worships in a chnrch not far from. 
Darlington. Mr. Scott left Little Beaver congregation in 1534, 
and was followed by Rev, J. Blackwood the same year. Mr. 
Blackwood remained for six years, and then there was a vacancy 
of five years. In November, 1845, Rev. Joseph W. Morton was 
installed pastor. He remained a little over a year and a half, 
and was succeeded by Rev, Samuel Sterrett. who took charge in 
June, 1S48, and remained until May, id6o. In ApriL 1S64, 
Rev. Nathan M. Johnson became pastor and remained in charge 
for twenty-two years. Under his administration a new church 
building was erected in 1S72 in the town of New Galilee. Rev. 
James R. Wylie, the present pastor, was installed in May. i3S8. 
A few years ago a comfortable parsonage was erected on the 
church lot. 


The Beaver Clay Manufacturing Company's works are located 
at New Galilee. This company was incorporated in Pennsyl- 
vania, March 17, 1902, with a capital of $35,000. which has been 
since almost doubled. The officers are Frederick Davidson, 
president; F. N. Beegle, vice-president; B. B. Todd. secretar\- 
and treasurer, and J. H. Cooper, manager. On the pay-roll of 
this concern are about sixty men. The company has a very fine 
clay and are making an excellent line of face building brick. Their 
capacity is 40 to 50 thousand per day, and they find a ready sale 
in Boston, New York, Cleveland, and Pittsbui^ for all they make. 


This borough is situated on the Ohio River, and is a station 
on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, about five 
miles above Rochester. 

The village was surveyed May 17, 1838, by William McCal- 

History of Beaver County 845 

lister, and the plot recorded April 20, 1839, by Christian Burck- 
hardt, the proprietor, showing a division into 104 lots. 


Baden was incorporated by an Act of Assembly, approved 
April I, 1868. Section i of this Act provided: 

That the village of Baden, in the township of Economy, in the county 
of Beaver, and the farm lands immediately adjoining thereto, included 
within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning on the Ohio river at 
the northern line of Harmony township; thence northeast by said 
township line to the eastern boundary line of the first or river tracts; 
thence along the eastern line of said tracts to Une of lands of D. Ehrman; 
thence by said Erhman line southwest to the Ohio river, and thence up 
said river to the place of beginning, be and the same are hereby incorpor- 
ated into a borough, to be styled the borough of Baden.^ 

A supplement to this Act was approved, February 29, 1872, 
which annexed to the borough 

All that certain tract of land adjoining the borough of Baden, in the 
county of Beaver, known as the Ehrman tract . . . including any 
portion of said lands which may have been sold since the passage of the 
said Act. [i. e., the Act of i868].» 


The educational and religious needs of the people of Baden 
are well supplied by a good public school and by two churches. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — This society was organ- 
ized in 1858 or 1859, the charter name being "Storer Chapel." 
The appointment was connected with the Freedom charge until 
1892, when it was severed from Freedom. Since that date its 
pastors have been: 1892-95, Rev. G. W. Johnson; 1896-97, 
Rev. G. L. C. Westlake; 1898, Rev. H. A. Baum; 1899, Rev. 
S. E. Keith; 1900-03, Rev. F. D. Essenwein; and the present 
pastor is H. H. Westwood. The house of worship of this con- 
gregation, a one-story frame building, was erected at the time 
of the organization at a cost of about $1000. 

Christ Lutheran Church of Baden was organized by Rev. 
W. A. Passavant, D.D., about the year 1858. In 1861 the build- 
ing, which is still occupied by the congregation, was erected by 

» p. L.. 54*. • P. L., 187. 

846 History of Beaver County 

Herring & Forsythe, at a cost of about $1500. The church has 
also a beautiful parsonage. Dr. Passavant was virtually the pas- 
tor of the Baden church for a period of twenty-seven years. Rev. 
R. Morris Smith, the present pastor, was installed July 7, 1887. 
Some of the original members of the congregation were the 
Deardorffs, John Kennedy and wife, William Miller, John McKee 
and family, and Mrs. Barbara Neely, her son and his wife and 
two daughters. 

There are also united with the Lutheran Church at Baden, as 
one parish, the congregations of Rehoboth at Brown's, the 
House of Mercy at Park Quarries, and Trinity at Freedom — all 
served by Rev. R. Morris Smith. 


The post-office at Baden was established in April, 1852. It 
has been served by the following postmasters: David Anderson, 
appointed April i, 1852; John Nichols, July 29, 1861; Charles 
Brown, February 25, 1863; John Y. Marks, February 17, 1864; 
Isaac Grim, October 5, 1870; Leonard I. Berry, December 9, 
1870; (in September, 1892, Mr. Berry was killed by the fall of a 
bank near the post-office, and until the appointment of his suc- 
cessor. Dr. G. Y. Boal, his first bondsman, was acting post- 
master); George S. Blazier, October 7, 1892; Henry A. Bryan, 
December 22, 1896; George S. Blazier, November 5, 1900; 
Matthias L. Strock, September 11, 1901. 

By the United States Census of 1900 the population of Baden 
was 427. 


This little borough is beautifully situated on the hill north 
of Beaver Falls, and combines in its location fine residence sites 
with abundant room for its growing manufacturing enterprises, 
while the influence of Geneva College, of the Reformed Presby- 
terian or Covenanter Church, which has its seat here, gives it an 
atmosphere of culture and refinement. There is also a good 
public-school building, with five or six rooms, with an excellent 
corps of teachers; and two churches of the Reformed Presby- 
terian denomination minister to the religious needs of the com- 
munity. The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad skirts 
the town on the west, and the Pittsburg & Lake Erie on the 





History of Beaver County 847 

east, with Geneva station on the former road and College station 
within the borough limits on the latter. In the valley below 
on the east is the Beaver Creek, and just on the edge of the 
town are the beautiful grounds of the Beaver Valley Traction 
Company, known as Morado Park. The new grounds of the 
Beaver County Agricultural Association in White township are 
also contiguous to the borough on the west. 


At the December Sessions of the Beaver County courts in 

1891, a petition of certain citizens, ** freeholders in the town of 
College Hill in the township of White," was presented asking 
for the incorporation of the town, which petition being laid before 
the grand jury, was approved by them. There was a contest in 
the matter, and remonstrances were presented and exceptions 
were filed and argued at the April Sessions of 1892. May 2, 

1892, the judgment of the grand jury was confirmed, and by a 
decree of the court the portion of White township described 
therein was incorporated under the corporate style and title of 
the "Borough of College Hill." ^ 


The two churches of this borough, Geneva Congregation and 
College Hill Congregation, are mentioned in the chapter of this 
work giving the religious history of the county. 


Geneva College is a denominational school, under the control 
of the Reformed Presbyterians or Covenanters. It was founded 
at Northwood, Ohio, April 20, 1848, when the Rev. J. B. John- 
ston was placed in charge. There it did good work in its proper 
sphere as an educational institution, and also made its influence 
felt in the great reform movements of the day, especially in the 
anti-slavery cause. By an act of the Synod in 1880 the college 
was removed to Beaver Falls, Pa. (College Hill borough), where 
a plot of ground of ten acres was donated to it by the Harmony 
Society, and the main college building, of stone, was erected at 
a cost of about $40,000. Since that time three buildings have 
been added, the ladies' dormitory hall, of brick; the new science 

' Qmbt. Seas. Misc. Docket No. x. p. 377* 

848 History of Beaver County 

hall, of brick; and the gymnasium, a frame building. Jime 18, 
1883, the institution was regularly incorporated under the laws 
of Pennsylvania. All the advantages of this institution are open 
to both sexes, and its courses of study in the college proper, are 
two — the classical and the scientific. The departments of music 
and oratory are thoroughly organized and diplomas granted ; and 
in 1900 a department of art was added. Geneva has a corps of 
fifteen teachers, and is making great progress. The attendance 
numbers about two hundred. The college has a good library 
and musetun, and an endowment of $133,000, which is being in- 
creased year by year. 

Following is the list of the presidents from the beginning: 
John Black Johnston, D.D., 1848-50; William Finney George, 
A.M., 1850-52; James Renwick Willson Sloane, D.D., 1852-56; 
John Calvin Knox Milligan, D.D., 1856-58; interval when the 
school was closed for six years; revived by David Strang, A.M., 
1864-65; Nathan Robinson Johnston, D.D., 1865-67; Samuel 
John Crowe, A.M., 1867-71; WilUam Milroy, A.M., 1871-72; 
Henry H. George, D.D., 187 2-90 ; William Pollock Johnston, A.M. , 
D.D., LL.D., 1890 to date, 1904. 


Champion Saw & Gas Engine Company, formerly Champion 
Saw Works, was incorporated in 1897, with a capital of $40,000. 
Officers: James Scott, president; G. S. Hunter, vice-president; 
and W. Pearce, secretary and treasurer. 

Pittsburg Seamless Tube Company. — This concern is located 
on College Hill, occupying since 1901 the premises on which the 
Atlantic Tube Company erected and for a time operated a plant. 

The Enameled Iron Company was chartered, August 23, 
1901, with a capital stock of $25,000. The directors were Wm. 
M. Gillespie, Marian N. Hurd, and Chester Comstock. This plant 
was in operation for about eighteen months. The premises which 
it occupied were originally built by F. G. Rohrkaste and used as 
a distillery. Subsequently they were occupied by the Steel Sign 
Company, and still later by the Champion Saw Works. 

Ingram-Richardson Manufacturing Company was incorpo- 
rated in 1901, with a capital of $25,000. The officers are Louis 
Ingram, president; Ernest Richardson, secretary; and E. L. 


History of Beaver County 849 

Hutchinson, treasurer. This firm are manufacturers of enam- 
eled iron and steel signs of every description. 

The Standard Scale & Supply Company removed their 
works from Bellefonte, Pa., to this place. This company was 
organized in 1892 and incorporated about the first of April, 1904. 
The officers are Frank B. Gill, president; W. H. Black, secre- 
tary and J. C. Reed, treasurer. They purchased here two large 
pieces of land, one a tract of ten acres, on which they have 
erected an immense plant which is the most perfectly eqtiipped 
of its kind in this country. It is operated throughout by dec- 
tricity and gives employment to about 200 men, manufacturing 
everjrthing in its line from coimter scales to railroad scales. 

The Armstrong Cork Company of Pittsburg has its insula- 
tion department on College Hill, a large plant for the manufac- 
ture of cork board for lining breweries, ice plants, and cold 
storage houses. They have 115 employees and are running day 
and night. 


College Hill has no post-office of its own, but is served by 
free delivery from Beaver Falls. By the United States Census 
of 1900 the population of this borough was 890. 


This place lies on the east bank of the Big Beaver Creek, 
opposite Beaver Falls, with which it is connected by what is 
popularly known as Fetterman bridge. It is practically a 
suburb of the latter place, although enjoying a separate borough 


Feeling the need of such an independent existence, a major- 
ity of the freeholders of the town signed a petition, which was 
presented at the December Sessions of the Beaver County 
courts, 1 89 1, praying that "the town of Eastvale in the town- 
ships of Pulaski and North Sewickley** be incorporated into a 
borough. This petition was approved by the grand jury at the 
March term, 1892. July i, 1892, the judgment of the grand 
jury was confirmed by the court, and a decree was issued incor- 
porating the portions of Pulaski and North Sewickley townships 

850 History of Beaver County 

described in the decree into a borough, under the corporate 
style and title of the ** Borough of Eastvale." ' 

The poptdation of this borough in 1900, according to the 
United States Census, was 256. A post-office was established in 
Eastvale, October 5, 1897, with John Hill as postmaster, but it 
was discontinued, March 30, 1901, and the town is served by 
rural free delivery from Beaver Falls. 

Douglas-Whisler Brick Company. — ^This concern, whose offices 
were formerly in Beaver Falls, operates a large brick works in East- 
vale. (See notice of this firm in Chapter on BeaverFalls borough.) 

There are no other manufacturing establishments in the place, 
but the Beaver Valley Water Company has a large pumping sta- 
tion here. 


The village of Aliquippa took its name from an Indian queen 
who at one time lived on or not far from its site. In 1753 she 
was living at the mouth of the Youghiogeny River, and was 
visited there by Washington in that year. He says in his 
Journal: **I went up about three miles to the mouth of the 
Youghiogany, to visit Queen Aliquippa, who had expressed great 
concern that we passed her in going to the fort. I made her a 
present of a watch-coat * and a bottle of rum, which latter was 
thought much the better present of the two.'* Chartiers Creek, 
which empties into the Ohio some miles above this place, was 
known in early days as Aliquippa's Creek. 


Until a comparatively recent period there was here not much 
besides the railway station on the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad, 
but by 1893 the population had increased sufficiently to justify 
the citizens in their ambition to become a borough corporation. 
Accordingly, at the September Sessions of the court in that year 
a petition, signed by fifty-three freeholders of the village, was 
presented to the court asking for the incorporation of the town. 
This petition was approved by the grand jury and, January 22, 
1894, a decree of the court confirmed their judgment and erected 

* Quar. Sess. Misc. Docket No. i, p. 374. 

• A " watch coat " was a kind of waterproof overcoat or cloak — see the Pennsylvania 
Maganne (Philadelphia) for December, 177 5. for ctirious directions for a "cheap method 
of making a Watch Coat for soldiers, chiefly here in America." 

History of Beaver County 851 

the village of Aliquippa in the township of Hopewell into a bor- 
ough to be known tinder the corporate style and title of **The 
Borough of Aliquippa." ^ 


The post-office at this place was established, October 12, 
1892, and the first postmaster, Joseph Stubert, assumed charge 
at that date. He was succeeded in the office by John W. Hall, 
Jtme II, 1897; Maggie Brown, December 11, 1900; and Maggie 
Babb, May 14, 1902. 

By the United States Census for 1900 the population of Ali- 
quippa borough was 620. There is here a good common school, 
with a neat building erected about three years ago. 

The leading hotel of the town is the Hotel Columbia, pro- 
prietor, John Wiegle. AUquippa Park is a beautiful picnic 
grounds, just on the edge of the borough, with a station on 
the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad. 


The Vulcan Crucible Steel Company. — This concern was in- 
corporated, August 29, 1 90 1, with a capital of $500,000. The 
officers are as follows: John Caldwell, president; R. Burgher, 
vice-president; S. G. Stafford, secretary; and W. A. Campbell, 
treasurer. The size of the plant is one lo-inch open hearth 
furnace; one 30-pot crucible melting floor, five steam hammers, 
10- and 12-inch rolling mills. Its approximate output finished 
product per day is 35 tons, and it employs 150 hands. 

The J. C. Russell Shovel Company. — ^This company was in- 
corporated, October 15, 1891, and has a capital stock of $50,000, 
all paid in. Its officers are J. L. Cooper, president; W. A. 
Gartshore, vice-president; Eugene H. King, secretary-; and J. J. 
McKee, treasurer. 



At the March Sessions of the Beaver County courts in 1899, 
a petition signed by twenty-seven citizens of the village of Pat- 
terson Heights, in the township of Patterson, was presented 

* Quar. Sessions Misc. Docket No. 2, p. 135. 

852 History of Beaver Coanty 

asking for the incorporatkm of the viIL^ into a boro ugh . The 
usual proceedings required in such cases by the Act of the As- 
sembly were followed; and. June 19, 1899, the c o urt decreed 
the incorporation of said village into a borough under the cor- 
porate style and title of the ** Borough of Patterson Heists/* ' 
This small borough is situated on the hill to the west of 
Beaver Falls, with which it is connected by the electric railway 
operated by the Patterson Heights Street Railway Company. 
It is a beautiful and healthful location, and a residence quarter 
of the most charming character, enjoying freedom from the fogs 
of the lower levels, and scenery that is delightful, remote finom 
the noise and grime of the manufacturing sections of the valley, 
and yet within easy reach of all. The mail service of the place 
is by free delivery from Beaver Falls. The population of the 
borough by the United States Census of 1900 was shown to be 
373, A good public school is maintained, with a neat and com* 
modious building erected a year or two ago. 



This is the most recently incorporated borough in Beaver 
County. At the June Sessions of the court, 1902, a peti- 
tion, signed by forty citizens of the village of Conway in the 
township of Economy, was presented, asking for a borough 
incorporation. June 3, 1902, the court decreed that said vil- 
l^e should be incorporated into a borough to be called the 
"Borough of Conway," **the boundaries thereof changed so as 
to exclude lands used exclusively for farming purposes and not 
properly belonging to said village." ' 

At Conway are the great freight yards of the Pennsylvania 
Company's lines. Cars from all divisions of the various roads 
belonging to that company are brought together here, and then 
drilled into their appropriate trains to be sent out to the vari- 
ous points of destination. The company owns here many acres 
of valuable property, and the trackage is enormous. 

Conway (formerly Agnew) is the post-office at this place. It 
was established, March 30, 188 1, and the office has been in charge 
successively of Charles Cheney, appointed March 30, 1881 ; John 
Marr, July 23, 1900; and Mary E. Atkinson, November 22, 1902. 

'Ouar. Scsa. Misc. Docket No. 3, p. no. • Id., p. 418. 


Sources of History — Previous County Connections of Territory of Beaver 
County — Townships of Parent Counties Covering that Territory — 
Original Townships of Beaver County — Relative Position of Various 
Townships — Changes Made in Formation of New Townships — 
Little Beaver, Big Beaver, North Sewickley, New Sewickley — 
Shenango Township — Borough Township — Ohio Township — New- 
Modeling of South Side Territory forming new Townships of Greene, 
Moon, and Hopewell — Brighton and Chippewa Townships — Economy 
Township — Raccoon Township — Slippery Rock Township — Roch- 
ester Township — Patterson Township — ^Wayne, Perry, and Marion 
Townships — Darlington Township — Independence — Franklin — Har- 
mony — Industry — Pulaski — White — Daugherty — Changes made by 
erection of Lawrence County. 

The task of writing the history of the townships originally 
embraced within the limits of Beaver County, and of those now 
existing therein, presents considerable difficulty, owing chiefly 
to the incompleteness of the data obtainable in the county records 
and elsewhere. But we claim for the presentation of that his- 
tory, as given in this chapter, such accuracy as could be secured 
by a minute examination of all the original papers bearing on 
the subject which are preserved in the court records of Alle- 
gheny and Beaver counties, covering a period of one hundred 
years; and we have tried to refrain from making any state- 
ment concerning essential matters which could not be supported 
by documentary evidence. 

The territory now within the bounds of Beaver County has, 
in the course of the development of the counties of Pennsyl- 
vania, belonged to several of the most important of those 
divisions of the Commonwealth. Nominally it was a part of 

VOL. II.— 16 - 


35* History of Beaver County 

Ctrmberiaiid Cotmtv. erected in 1750, but there were at that time 
no permanent settlers within it. Xext came Bedford County, 
erected in ijji, and at the first Court of General Quarter Ses- 
aons of the Peace, held at Bedford, for Bedford Count\% April 16, 
1771. the court pttxreeded to divide the county into townships, 
all that part K'ing south of the Ohio and west of the Monoi^a- 
hela being included in Pitt township on the north and Spring 
HtH township on the south. The first of these townships, 
namely. Pitt, covered a portion of what is now Beaver County. 
Its Irmits were defined as follows: 

Pitt. — Beginning at the mouth of the Kiskemrnetas and running 
vlown the Allegheny river to its jiuiction with the Monongahela, then 
vlown the Ohio to the western limits of the Pro\-tnce. thence with the 
wxestem boundary to the line of Spring Hill. etc. 

This took in what is at present embraced in the south side 
of Beaver County, which, at that date, was still without in- 
habitants except, possibly, a few Indian traders. 

There followed, in 1773, the erection of Westmoreland 
County, which adopted for its territory- west of the Mononga- 
hela River the lines of the two townships previously estab- 
lished by Bedford County, retaining also the names — Pitt and 
Spring Hill. Therefore Pitt township, Westmoreland Count>'. 
also covered the present south side of Beaver County.* 

Washington County was erected in 1781.^ and Allegheny 
Coimty in 1788,^ and from territory- taken from these two coun- 
ties Beaver County was formed, March 12, iSoo.-^ Washington 
County contributed that portion of the county in the small 
triangle lying west of a line identical with the dotted Une in the 
Draft of Fotir Tcnimships situated South of the Ohio, marked 
'' Alleglieny and Washington lifie i/Sg/' (See Draft H, page 880). 
Allegheny County contributed all the rest of the county on the 
south side of the Ohio River, and all on the north side of that 
stream on both sides of the Big Beaver Creek. 

Before considering the formation of the townships in Beaver 
Coimty itself, it may be of interest to inquire what townships 

* But Westmoreland County, as previously stated (.see vol. i., p. 305\ must also ha\*e 
extended its jurisdiction north of the Ohio. Early deeds for lands bnng or. the north 
side of that stream in what is now Beaver County frequently locate those lands in West- 
moreland County. 

■ P. L., 1781, p. 400; Carey & Bioren, vol. ii.. p. 2S2. 

■ Carey & Bioren, vol. iii., p. 277; 2 Smith's L., 44>- 
• * See Bioren vol. iii., p. 421 ; 3 Smith's L., 429. 

History of Beaver County 855 

covered the different parts of its territon- while that territory 
was still in these parent counties. And first, as to that portion 
of Beaver County north of the Ohio River — to what township 
division of Allegheny County did it belong? From Vol. I. of the 
Minutes of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Allegheny County 
the first sixteen pages are torn out and lost, but the first existing 
record (at page 54), being the minutes for March Sessions, 1790, 
recognizes in the appointment of constables the following town- 
ships: Moon, St. Clair, Mifflin, Elizabeth, Versailles, Pltmi, and 
Pitt. We learn from the minutes of the Supreme Executive 
Coxmcil of the State that these townships were formed by the 
court at its first session after the erection of the county.' The 
township for which we are enquiring — that, namely, which cov- 
ered what is now Beaver County north of the Ohio River — ^was 
the last named, Pitt. Pitt township included in its comprehen- 
sive limits all that part of Allegheny County north of the Ohio 
and west of the Allegheny rivers, and remained unaltered for 
seven years. The changes which followed are hard to under- 
stand because of the meagemess of the records, and the lack of 
uniformity in the use of names as given on the maps of the 
early times, but in the interest of history we shall here transcribe 

* As stated above the minutes of the coiirt of Allegheny Cotinty are defective, but the 
action of that court creating the original townships has been preserved to us in the minutes 
of the Supreme Executive Coimcil of Pennsylvania, from which we make the foUowixiff 

"The certificate of the di\'ision of the coimty of Allegheny into townships or districts by 
the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, tor the purpose of electing Justices of 
the Peace, which was received and read in the Council on the fifteenth day of May last, was 
this day read the second time in the following words: 

**'At a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace and Jail Delivery, holden at 
Pittsburgh for the county of Allegany, on the eighteenth day of December last, in the y]ear 
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, before George Wallace, Esquire, 
President, and Joseph Scott. John Johnston and John Willdns, Esquires. Justices of the same 
Court, the Court proceeded to divide the county of Allegany into tov^-nships in the follow- 
ing manner, to wit : 

" * Moon township: Beginning at the mouth of Flakerty's run; thence up the Ohio river 
to the mouth of Chartier's creek; thence up the said creek to the mouth of Miller's nm; 
thence by the line of the county to the place of beginning.' " 

Then follows the description of the other townships, St. Clair, Mifflin. Elizabeth, Ver- 
sailles, and Plum, which we do not quote as they have no connection with the history of any 
part of Beaver County, and Pitt, the one which covered all of what is now Beaver Coimty 
north of the Ohio River, is defined as follows: 

" ' Pitt township: Beginning at the mouth of Pockety's run; thence up the Allegany river 
and by the line of the county to Flakerty's run; thence up the Ohio river to the mouth of 
the Monongahela river; thence up the said river to the mouth of Turtle creek; thence up 
Turtle creek to the mouth of Brush creek; thence by the line of Plimib creek to the place 
of beginning.' " 

The app>roval of the Cotmcil, confirming the described township divisions is then recorded 
as follows: 

"Whcreuixjn it was Resolved, That the division of the said cotmtv into tOA^*nships or 
districts, as before described, be, and the same is hereby confirmed." Minutes ot the 
Supreme Executive Coimcil, Sept. 4, 1789. — Col. R£C., vol. xvi., pp. 149-150. 

3 * A T C 



History of Beaver County 


all that we are able to find in the documents that have survived 
the accidents of the century past. The sources of information 
remaining to us are Docket No. i of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of Allegheny County, Reading HowelFs map of Pennsyl- 
vania of 1791, and the map of the Depreciation Lands (see 
drafts A and B accompanying). 

At the December Sessions of the court in 1795 two new 
townships were struck off from Pitt, namely, ** Irvine" and 

** Mead*' * and at June Sessions following a new township called 
"Erie** was formed from Mead, and one called "Deer** from 
Gappen*s and Moor*s districts.* These had no connection 

* ** On application of a number of Inhabitants on the waters of French creek &c — stating 
the laree extent of Pitt Township and praying that it may be divided. — It is ordered that a 
New Township be erected off Pitt Township to consist of Benjamin Stokely's and Alex- 
ander McDsmiel's s\irveying Districts called Irvine Township.' 

'*And that part of said Township of Pitt which consists of Power's, Rees's, and Nichol- 
son's Districts to be erected into a New Township called * Mead Township.' " (Qviarter Ses- 
sions Docket No. I., No. I. December Sessions, i79S. P. 130.) 

• " On application the court erect a new Township off the Township of Mead to consist 
of Reese's District only called ' Erie Township.' 

** It is also ordered that Gapin's and Moore's Surveyor Districts be erected into a New 
Township called * Deer Township.' 

"And that Jonathan Leet's District be erected into a New Township called *Pino 

"The Districts of John Hoge and Thomas Stokely erected into a New Township called 
'Beaver Township.' " (Docket No. i, June Sess., 1796, p. xsa.) 

8sS Histmy of Beaver County 

with the territory afterwards inchided in the hxmts of Beaver 

But at the Sesaons last named. June, 1 796. Jonathan Leet's 
District (on the map of Depreciation Lasds. D. Leet's) was 
erected into a new township called "Pine township." and the 
districts of John Hoge and Thomas Stokely (the latter hii^ for 
the most part north of the limits of what was afterwards Beaver 
County: see drafts A, B, and G) were erected into ''Beaver 
township." (see note 2, ante p. 857). This, then, as will be seen 
by the accompanying drafts, put all of the original territory 
of Beaver County which lay west of the Big Beaver Creek in 
Beaver township and all of that territory east of Big Beaver in 
Pine township, Allegheny County, except so much of Thomas 
Stokely 's District as was included in the first district of Donation 
Lands as far east as the Butler Cotint}^ line. These divisions 
remained unchanged until 1797, when Pine township was 
divided by the east line of Breading's District of Depreciation 
Lands, and the part west of that line was called '^Sewickley 
township." ' Sewickley township, Allegheny Coimty. covered 
then, with the exception just noted, all that part of Beaver 
County east of the Big Beaver. As one of the original townships 
of Beaver County, Sewickley covered, with the same exception, 
the same territory. North Beaver township, as will be seen 
below, cutting ofiE from it about six miles of its northern end. 

Second, as to the portion of the county south of the Ohio 
River, contributed to it in 1800 by Allegheny and Washington 
counties. Previous to 1786 all of what is now the south side of 
Beaver Coimty lay in the then Washington County townships. 
Smith ' and Robinson ; all that portion of the territory west of 
Raccoon Creek being in Smith, and all east of it in Robinson, In 

* ** It beinj? represented to the Court by the Cotmty Commissioners as wtSl from the 
ioiormation and complaints of others as from their own knowledge that the Townships 
of Pine and Deer arc too large and inconvenient for the assessment and collection of taxes. — 
It is ordered that the said Township of Pine be div*ided by the East line of Braden's Sur\-ey- 
or District of depreciation lands and that the lower division thereof be a new Township 
auid called Sewickley Township— jand that the Township of Deer be di\-ided by the East 
Hne of Cunningham's Surveyor District of depreciation lands. — and that the upper diN-ision 
thereof be a new Township called BufTaloe Township." (Quarter Sess. Docket r*o. i, Dec. 
Term, 1797, p. 265.) 

Pine township was very large. Even after this division was made it extended nearly 
23 miles up the Ohio and Allegheny rivers. 

• Smith township was the last one of the original thirteen Washington County town- 
ships set off. It was by the siaggestion of Judge James Edgar (one of the trustees) named 
in honor of the Rev. Joseph Smith, of Buffalo and Cross Creek congregations, whose labors 
often extended over what is now Beaver County territor>-. He was the author of Old 
RMdstont. (Sec Crumrine's Hist, oj Wash. Co.^ p. 910.) 

History of Beaver County 


January of that year (1786), a petition of certain inhabitants of 
Smith township, praying for a division of that township, was 
presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions. The petition was 
granted by the court, and the action confirmed by the Supreme 
Executive Council on the 2d of September following.* The part 
of the township set off by this division was named Hanover, 
and embraced the territory lying north of Harman's Creek and 
Brush Run to the Ohio River, bounded on the east by Raccoon 

! Sm,uh's L^ 


Creek and west by the Virginia line.^ This division left that por- 
tion of Beaver County which we are now considering, in the 
then Hanover and Robinson townships of Washington County. 
(See drafts C and D.) 

No further change occurred until about a year after the 
erection of Allegheny County (September 24, 1788), when, on a 
petition of sundry of its inhabitants, all of the northern part of 
Washington County, east of a straight line from the point where 
the Ohio River intersects the State line to White's mill on 
Raccoon Creek, was by an Act of the Legislature bearing date 

' Col. Rec, vol. XV., p. 76. 

' See Crumrine's Hist, of Wash. Co., p. 80a. 


Histor)' of Beaver County 

jtfffAimiSrff J * . 1 : .<o . annexed to Allegheny Cotinty . ' The territory 
^ii^« .-if ilkiii hnt remained in Hanover township. Washington 
C"jtk»i3i **j3l the? erection of Beaver County. March 12, raoo. 
'^>fc*tt v«^»6hs}> WAA then divided, all of the township north of a 
WMLiStjt Jue cast from the State line to White's mill ' being 

included in the new county of Beaver, the name Hanover being 
retained in both counties, Beaver and Washington. 

» See Bioren vol. ii., p, 49a. The lanjjiiaRC of this Act reads in part as follows: 
"Whereas, the inhaV/itants of that part of the county of Washington which is included 
in the boundaries hereinafter rnentirmed have by their petition represented to this hous^ 
their remote situat.irm from the s<rar of justice, and firayed to be annexed to the county 
of Allegheny, and thi: prayer of the jHrtitioners appearing just and reasonable etc." — it is 
enacted that th«- t.'Tritory U^unded by the following lines shall be included in Allegheny 
County, namely: 

"Ekginning at the Ohi-* river, where the boundar>* line of the State cnDSses the said 
river; frrim thence in a straight line V) White's mill, on Raccoon creek; from thence by a 
•traight line to Armstrong's mill, on Miller's run; and from thence by a straight line to the 
Monongahcla river, opposite the mrjuth of Perry's run.'* 

• White's mill was Iniilt in 17^0. and was probably the first mill in what is now Beaver 
County. It was at what is now Murdfx'ksWlle, and this place is interesting as being the 
point of intersectjf.n of the lines of three counties, viz.. Beaver, Washington, and Allegheny, 
and from the fact that five toA\'nships comer here, viz., Hanover and Independence in 
Beaver County, Hanover and Robinson in Washington County, and Findlay in Allegheny 
Co\inty. Thomas Martin White of Darlington township is a grandson of the then owner of 
White's mill, his father, John White, having been bom and reared there. 

History of Beaver County 86 1 

After the annexation to Allegheny County of this large sec- 
tion of Washington County, what disposition was made of it as 
regards township lines? There is no map of Allegheny County 
of that period showing townships, and there is a break in the 
Minutes of the Court of Quarter Sessions from 1793 to 1820, 
two books having been lost or burned at the time of the burn- 
ing of the Allegheny County court-house, May 7, 1882. But 
from what is yet remaining of those minutes, that is, up to 1793, 
and from the Road Dockets and Miscellaneous Dockets, it would 
appear that this annexed territory was considered a part of one 
of the original Allegheny County townships, namely Moon. The 
dockets uniformly show under the head of Moon township the 
petitions for roads, etc., coming up from the inhabitants in every 
part of the annexed region. This is the case up to 1800, when 
Beaver County was formed ; and until 1804, when Beaver County 
ceased to be connected with Allegheny County for judicial pur- 
poses, — all that part of the county, even as far down as 
Georgetown, is spoken of as Moon township. The following ex- 
tracts will illustrate this: 


I December 1791. — ^A road to lead from Thomas White's mill on 
reckoon creek to Jacob Bausman's ferry opposite to the town of Pitts- 
burgh. » 

I June 1793. — A road to lead from Michael Chrisler's ferry [now 
Shippingport, Beaver County] in Moon township to Brodhead's road. 

I March 1797. — A petition for a road to lead from Brodhead's road 
to Isaac Lawrence's ferry on the Ohio river opposite Samuel Johnston's 
in Beaver Town. 

I September 1798. — ^A petition for a road to lead from the county 
line near James White's to Beaver Town on the Ohio river. 

I June 1799. — ^A petition for a road to lead from the home of David 
Scott to the landing place opposite of Big Beaver creek, petitioned for 
some time since should be vacated, 

4 December 1799. — A petition for a road to lead from Thomas 
Smith's ferry on the Ohio river in the lower end of Moon township to 
John Eaton's at the county line between Washington and Allegheny 

5 March 1803. — Petition for a road from William Guy's, Senior, 
in Moon township to Brodhead's road leading to Beaver Town and it is 
computed that distance will be two miles nigher than the best road. 

7 June 1803. — Petition for a road leading from George Town to 
Pittsburgh. A remonstrance against this road filed. 

' Jacob Bausman was the great grandfather of the editor. 

H6a Histmy of Beaver Cooocr 

County. For the tmesnsiz Tri^.^ri ri bii iai niicLf irn: m. liie 
names of its si^^inen. «:r*nrijs>? s:^. in '6o<a wc^ooc of tie ■sarij jwwrtgma 
^4 the count/, v^ ^/e btre 2liiici» ^ 00*5.7 ±i : .iZ cc a. ^gr.izimi iir 
a road, as foHi^^jn: 

The PetitiOCi '•-r' i r.^::rr.r.i*r '-c ^r-jt It/^-^v.zjutlzi :c lii* 7 1'lniiiiir :r Mi:i:n. 
hombly shenr^rr. — 

That * r-,*rf U -r'-r;/ r.'.-i'.'' -vat.:.':!! fr'.rr. a r--fi.i t=j -.2i* tLirzc :f Hmui- 

rrf ;Kjf Bea-^w* Cr*i»iK. a. roa^ friotr. ?uk» ta^ ^••bt^- ir*v*itii f:r saay jears 
as it in the onlj roftd I't^z -v^gr^'^j, -tjsic ^z^yti fr^.tTi ?rn.KJt=:^ :r Warft- 
ifsgton tr* B<tav^rrtiOTrri ar^ ?.a.^ >^a'.Tv 3ur*a.'iy r/. grta* -sniliTT -o ibe Dnhabi- 
tanta ol th<i ToTOTiah'-.p^ ^f VL^^/r. ^A paniitilanT ^,- v, cer5<:c» csiaranin^ 
to the !icttIeTr-ttT*t% r^>r".h ar..'i tot'a-, r.f tht Oh:', r:v*r i-r: lizs mad bis aoc 
yet been Iai«i r»tit by a-r.'v^r:*/. :r. c^^ns^^^fitic^r '.': whaii. r: s greatly 
OQt o€ repair. 

Yoar pettttonet^ th/rrtf'.T''; r.-^m'.-iiy pray ^he Co^=r: iio ap-c-ccic men. re- 
view the prftTrii,v». & :f Uz-ir f/z rr.fjT". r/i tbt-rr. shall see nrfcsssary Tihar. :±if7 
lay otxt a ro!44 fiejpr.rtir.j^ '^yn hrr/nfiT.f:iA' h roa/i fnotn CC'S •:.:■ t±nce r=iles 
frotin the River Oh:>>, ar*('! frorri that place to proceed 0*1 s-zcc. a rotiti a:$ 
they may think i>At v.» 'hft aV^vt df.-rv:T:bt^ fi-rr].-. ar^i yc-cr- zetrCPDCjers 
as in dirty bound ^^II ev^rr pray 

John Bak^rr John Dcrjds 

Henry Baker John Oark 

William Cocly 
hi.^ Thomas Bar.k5 

Dar.iol y Wa;(;(l': Daniel Hean 

rr;ark James Tod 

David McKeay 
Daniel Waj^Io, Jun. \Vm. Jordan 

John Wajfgl#; Keurxm Re-lcn 

John Bak<rr. Sr. John Smith 

And rev,' JohnsU/n James Smith 

JoIjii Parkinsf/n Wilham GrAy. 

September, ijvQ. 

Coming' now to 1800, the date of the erection of Beaver 
County, we may ask what were the names of the original towTi- 
ships? There is no record of the court of Allegheny County 
showing any action taken in the matter of township divisions 
for the new county of Beaver, and it is to that court we should 
look for such action, since Beaver County was connected with 

History of Beaver County 863 

Allegheny County for judicial purposes until 1804, four years 
after its erection ; neither is there any legislative action of the 
Assembly touching the matter so far as we have been able to 
discover. We have, however, several sources of information 
which determine the question for us. The first of these is the 
tax books which are still preserved in Beaver, and which show 
returns from the sections of the county south of the Ohio, and 
north of that river on both sides of the Big Beaver. From 
these it appears that there were in 1800 three townships on the 
south side of the Ohio, namely, Hanover, First Moon and Second 
Moon, and three on the north side, namely. North Beaver, partly 
on the east and partly on the west of Big Beaver Creek; and 
South Beaver on the west, and Sewickley on the east, of that 

In addition to the tax books we have the Warrant and Sur- 
vey books of the county, a careful examination of which shows 
the same townships existing in 1800 as those named in the tax 

Through the courtesy of Mr. W. R. Merriam, Director of the 
United States Census, we have also obtained from the census of 
1800 for Beaver County the names and population of the differ- 
ent townships of that date. It will be seen that the townships 
are therein named as above. The Director says: 

The United States Census for 1800 showed the population of Beaver 
County by townships as follows * : 

Townships Population 

First Moon 527 

Hanover 421 

North Beaver 338 

Second Moon 1,056 

Sewickley 853 

South BeavcT 2,581 

Total 5,776 

The original townships, i. e., the townships formed at the 
date of the erection of the county (1800) were therefore, we 
repeat, North Beaver, east and west of the Big Beaver Creek; 
South Beaver, west of the Big Beaver; and Sewickley, east of the 

* This report for Beaver County is also published in A Geographical Description of 
Pennsylvania by Joseph Scott, Philadelphia, 1806. Therein mention is made of 3 slaves in 
Second Moon and 1 slave in South Beaver. 


rHssorr oa: Beaspcr Connty 

:^ig iSeaver — <ui riortii ji ittB 'jfci: Xrrer; and HirarrrEr., Fin 
' Looa, ^ua Sicomi Mcoix. ysmxzi if ihe Ohio. (See I^rBri E 
!- wC 11* u«.»w e^jnanier^faerfBarrT^icsit^ons of the three scnriii a: 

Mo OAT/' 


townships, with the aid of the accompanying draft (marked E). 
Hanover township, as formed in 1800, embraced all the ter- 
ritory contributed by Washington County to the new county 


History of Beaver County 865 

of Beaver, that is to say, all within the triangle formed by the 
State line, the line drawn at a right angle from the State line 
to White's mill, and the line running from that mill to the inter- 
section of the Ohio River with the State line. 

Second Moon township lay immediately east of Hanover, 
embracing all the territory between the eastern line of that 
township and Raccoon Creek, with the Ohio River for its north- 
em boimdary. 

First Moon was bounded on the north by the Ohio River, 
on the east by the same stream, on the south by Allegheny 
Coimty, and on the west by Second Moon. 

This is the correct statement of the form and position of 
these townships, but as there has been doubt in the minds of 
some as to which of the two Moons lay next to Hanover town- 
ship, we will submit the proof of the statement as follows: 

On page 136 of Beaver County Survey Book, No. i, is a dia- 
gram of a certain survey, which is thus described: 

The above is a draught of a tract of land surveyed May 2, 181 1, in 
pursuance of a warrant granted to John Ansley, dated the 14th day of 
March, 181 1, situate in First Moon Township, Beaver County, adjoining 
lands of Robert Agnew, Alexander Gibb, William Nelson and William 
Lockhart, containing 108 acres and 51 perches and an allowance of 6 per 

The draft shows the tract bounded on the west by **the heirs 
of George Shaffer," whose lands are known to have been east of 
Raccoon Creek, and therefore as the lands designated in the 
just mentioned survey are said to lie in First Moon township, 
we have the position of that township as east of Raccoon Creek. 
On the 6ist page of the Beaver County Warrant Book is this 

Sept. I, 18 10. — ^Joseph Robertson enters his warrant for fifty acres 
of land dated the 28th day of December, 1793, — Situate in the cotmty 
of Allegheny now Beaver, First Moon Township, adjoining lands of James 
McKee, Major Ward and Logstown old survey and Short . 

This **old survey" is of lands in what is known as Logstown 
Bottom and vicinity, opposite the site of the old Indian town of 
Logstown, and in the present township of Hopewell. This 
proves that Hopewell township is a part of First Moon, and 

866 History of Beaver County 

that the latter township was in the extreme eastern part of the 
south side of Beaver County along the Ohio River. 

And the position of Second Moon is clearly indicated in the 
two following entries: 

May 24, 1804. — William Frazier enters his warrant dated December 
3, 1803, for 100 acres of land situate in 2d Moon Township in the coimty 
of Beaver, adjoining lands of John Nelson, David Kerr, John Thompson & 
others on the waters of Serv^ice creek, etc.^ 

Herein is proof positive that Second Moon township lay 
west of First Moon and pushed in above the northern line of 
Hanover clear down to Georgetown, for the lands of the men 
named in these entries, notably those of David Kerr, John 
Nelson, and the Laughlins, are known to all as being about 
Hookstown. We give one more entry from the Warrant Book 
to show how far west above Hanover township Second Moon 
stretched : 

May 12, 1813. — James Dawson enters a warrant for one hundred and 
fifty acres of land situate on the waters of Mill creek in Second Moon 
Township, Beaver Coimty, adjoining lands of Robert D. Davison, 
Alexander Laughlin, Sen'r, Robert LaughHn and others, dated the 27th 
day of Feb'y, 1813.' 

The draft of this warrant in Sun^ey Book No. i shows the land 
named therein as lying between Mill Creek and Little Mill Creek. 
This proves that Second Moon township ran in above the north- 
em line of Hanover down to the State line, and that Hanover's 
northern line was, at the erection of Beaver County, made iden- 
tical with the Allegheny County line of 1789 (see draft E). 

We have now shown that the three original townships on the 
south side were located in the following order — Hanover on the 
west. Second Moon in the center, and First Moon on the east. 
Where, now, was the division line between First and Second 
Moon? We think it was nearly or quite Raccoon Creek. The 
proof of this is found in two drafts in Survey Book No. 1.3 The 
first of these drafts is of the land of Daniel Beer, dated February 
13, 181 1. His land is described as being in First Moon town- 
ship, and as being bounded on the west by Raccoon Creek. In 
the other draft, that of Daniel Morgan, dated August 13, 1810, 

* Warrant Book, p. 50 • Id., p. 64. » Pages 135-137. 

History of Beaver County 867 

the land is described as being in Second Moon township, and as 
having eastern boundaries common to the western boundaries of 
the first named tract. That is to say, a tract in Second Moon 
is bounded on the east by Raccoon Creek, and a tract in First 
Moon is bounded on the w^est by the same stream, showing 
that stream to be the dividing line between those townships. 

But changes were soon made in these six original townships, 
as we shall now show. The first Court of Quarter Sessions of 
the Peace and Jail Delivery sat in Beaver, February 6, 1804. 
At this court constables were appointed for the borough of Beaver 
and the following townships: First Moon, Second Moon, Han- 
over, South Beaver, Little Beaver, Big Beaver, North Beaver, 
North Sewickley, New Sewickley. This list of townships shows 
that between 1800 and 1804 there had been created Little 
Beaver and Big Beaver townships, and a division made of the 
territory of Sewickley into two townships. This was done by 
the court of Allegheny County. The original petitions for these 
divisions are filed in the office of the Clerk of the Court of Quar- 
ter Sessions of that county, among the road petitions,' and we 
reproduce them here in full, showing the order in which they were 
presented and in which the new townships came into existence. 

The first petition was presented some time in 1 80 1 , and is as 

To the Honorable Alexander Addison and his Associate Judges of the Court 
of the County of Allegheny: 

The Petition of a number of the Inhabitants of South Beaver Town- 
ship Humbly Sheweth 

That the said Township of South Beaver is so large that it is incon- 
venient and injurious to a great part of the Inhabitants of said Town- 
ship to attend Township meetings, &c., at so g^eat a distance, — They 
therefore pray that the said Township may be divided Beginning where 
Little Beaver [creek] crosses the State Hne; thence up said creek to 
the Big Lick; thence to the stream on which John Kelso's mill is erected; 
thence down said stream to the mouth where it empties into Big Beaver 
Creek, or in such way as yotir Honors may think most proper. Your 
Petitioners therefore pray for a division and that said Township be called 
Little Beaver Township, and your Petitioners as in duty boimd will ever 

James McDowell, John Lozer, James Graham, Jacob Lautzenbriefer, 
John Savier, Christopher Barr, Benjamin Shepherd, John Davison, 

' No record of these petitions is made in the Road Dockets — the original papers are 
themselves filed among the old road petitions. 

868 History of Beaver County 

John Shotise, George Hillis, Robert Hall, John McCready, Joseph Wilson, 
Thomas Boel, James Stevenson, William Hinson, John Ratliff, William 
Stevenson, William Davidson, William Robinson, John Beard, Jr., 
Thomas Smith, Francis Porter, John Sprott, John Sharp, Samuel C. 
Moore, James Gorrell, George Mason, Thomas Stratton, Samuel Parks, 
David Clark, Joseph White, Sr., John Lawrence, James McCown, John 
Thomas, Thomas Rogers, William Wilson, George Baird, James Boies, 
William Justus, William Lowrey, Peter Young, Joseph White, Robert 
Wamock, Samuel McClure, Elnathan Cory, Brice McGeehon, William 
Gabey, William Hotiston, Saml. Adams, David Hays, Robert Johnston, 
James Johnston, Samuel Fields, William Johnston, James Johnston, 
John Dobbin, John Marshell. 

This petition seems to have been held under advisement, 
and on September 30, 1801, another was presented, as follows: 

To the Honorable Alexander Addison and his Associate Judges of the 
Court of the County of Allegheny: 

The Petition of a nimiber of the Inhabitants of South Beaver Town- 
ship Humbly Sheweth 

That your Petitioners labour under considerable difficulty on accotmt 
of our Township being too large for Township meetings, making roads, 
collecting taxes, &c. And as a Petition has been laid before your Honors 
for a division of said Township, the line to Run nearly East & West, we 
therefore Pray for a division of the North part of said Township that a 
line be run parallel with the State Line to make Both Townships as nearly 
of an equal size as may be and that the West part be called Field Town- 
ship and the East part Meadow Township, or in what way your Honors 
may think best. 

Yotu" Petitioners as in duty botmd will pray: 

David Clark, James McDowell, John Marshell, James Stevenson, 
Joseph McNutt, Samuel Homer, Elnathan Cory, Peter Lozer, Robert 
Wamock, Robert McMin, Joseph Chapman, James Chapman, John Yoimg, 
John McCready, William Lowrey, Andrew Moore, John Beer, Wm. 
Plumer, John Beard, John Reed, Robert Andrews, Brice McGeehon. 

The viewers or commissioners appointed by the court made 
their return as follows: 

We the commissioners of Allegheny County, do recommend a Divi- 
sion of the within mentioned Township agreeably to the prayer of the 
within Petition. James Robinson 

Nat. Irish » 
Wm. McCandless. 

This petition was also continued under advisement, and in 
the following year, 1802, the decree of the court confirming the 

* Nathaniel Irish had been an officer in the Revolutionary Army. 

History of Beaver County 


division was made, but the court gave the names Little Beaver 
and Big Beaver to the new townships instead of those suggested 
in the petition.* A diagram, probably made by the commis- 

rZt^trt-*^ #Ac:**-<^ 

* We have fottnd in the files of petition* in the office of the Clerk of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions of Allegheny County one reading as follows: 

" Petition froni di\-ers Inhabitants of Field and parts adjacent in the county of Alle^Jieny 
— Petition for a road or cartway from John Sprott's mill through Field township to inter- 
sect a road from Steuben\'ille nigh the house of Thomas Wilson at the western boundary of 

This petition is endorsed "1801, Beaver." and the names of persons and localities 
mentaoned in it are well known in the northwestern section of Beaver County. The per- 
sistence of names is here shown: the petitioners saying "Allegheny." though they were 
then living in B eaver Connty. No Field township ever existed in Beaver County, as we 

VOL. II. — 17. 

870 History of Beaver County 

sioners, is filed with this petition, and is herewith reproduced 
(Draft F). On the back of it is this note: 

The object of the petitioners of South Beaver township is to have the 
township divided into three townships agreeably to the Draught here 

We have now accounted for two of the new townships formed 
between 1800 and the date of the holding of the first court in 
Beaver, viz., 1804. These are Little Beaver and Big Beaver, 
both on the west side of Big Beaver Creek. The other new town- 
ship created in that period was on the east side of the Big Beaver, 
which in 1800 was all Sewickley township, south of the eastern 
half of North Beaver. We cannot find any clear record of the 
division of that township into North Sewickley and New Sewick- 
ley, the names of which appear, as we have said, in the appoint- 
ment of constables at the first court of Beaver County in 1804. 
In the files of Allegheny County there is nothing but the follow- 
ing petition : 

To the Honorable Alexander Addison, etc.: 

The Petition of a number of the Inhabitants of the lower part of 
Sewickley township Humbly Sheweth that yotir Petitioners for a 
long time have labored under the inconvenience and disagreeable 
necessity of working on the roads to the utmost bounds of the township, 
a distance of at least thirty miles. — 

Your Petitioners therefore pray that you may in your wisdom think 
proper to make a division of said township ; by having a line run between 
the Depreciation land and that of the actual settlers commencing at 
lands of Joseph Robinson on Big Beaver, Adam Wolf and William 
French's (on Brush creek), thence to continue a straight line to the 
Boundary of the next District, and your Petitioners will ever pray: 

William Woods, T. Lukens, A. Atkinson, John Conely, Samuel Wade, 

see from the above cited action of the court that the name was rejected: but the people 
had adopted that name for what was made Little Beaver township, and retained it for 
some time. This strange retention of names by the people is also shown in the first dupli- 
cate tax book (1802) for South Beaver township in which Samuel Johnston is named as 
the collector for the township with Thomas Beatty his assistant in Meadow township, and 
John Reed in Field township. Here we see the people persisting in using the names Meadow 
and Field which had been rejected by the court for Big Beaver and Little Beaver. 

The present township of Big Beaver is the result of legislative action following the 
erection of Lawrence Cotmty in 1849, when several of the northern townships of Beaver 
County were divided and part of their territory contributed to Lawrence. By Section a 
of an Act approved Feb. 28, 1850, it was enacted 

"That that part of Big Beaver township within the county of Beaver, is hereby erected 
into a separate township, to be called Big Beaver; and the same is hereby erected into a 
separate election and school district, and the qualified voters thereof shall hereafter hold 
their general and township elections at the hoiise of Mrs. Eliza Miller, in said township." 
P. L.. io6. 

History of Beaver County 871 

Richard Waller, E. Byers, Wm. Orr, James Orr. Noah Custard, James 
Akin, Joseph Oliver, Ezekiel Jones, A. Wolf, Mattison Hart, Robert 
Woods, John Foster, James Moor, Timothy Doty, Alexander Aken, 
Robt. French, Jacob Yohe. 

It is probable that this was the petition which led to the 
division in 1801 of Sewickley township, Beaver County, into 
North Sewickley and New Sewickley. In the list of township 
officers appointed by the Court of Allegheny County in 1802, 
New Sewickley is named. 

At the May and August terms of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions at Beaver in 1804, petitions were presented from sundry 
inhabitants of North Beaver township praying for a division of 
that township. On one of these petitions the court acted favor- 
ably, and directed the formation of two townships, — one on the 
east of Beaver and Shenango creeks, to be called Shenango 
township; and one on the west side to retain the name North 
Beaver. We give below both of the petitions referred to. It 
is interesting to see the names of so many early citizens of the 
county. The first petition read as follows: 

To the Honorable the President and Associate Judges of the County of 
Beaver at their General Quarter Sessions of the peace held at Beaver 
Town in and for said county May term, 1804. 

The Petition of a nimiber of the inhabitants of Beaver County, 
Humbly Sheweth: 

That the township in said county now called North Beaver township 
is twenty miles long at least and six miles and a half broad, which renders 
it inconvenient for the inhabitants in general to attend their township 
meetings to choose township officers, and your petitioners therefore pray 
that said township may be divided so as to divide it as nearly equal as 

Your petitioners beg leave further to present that Big Beaver creek 
and the Shenango which are natural boundaries will divide it nearly 
equal and that that part on the west side of Beaver and Shenango creeks 
be called West Beaver township and that part on the east side of said 
creek be called East Beaver township and your petitioners as in duty 
bound will pray, etc. 

Edward Wright, Alexander Fullerton, James Hope. Martin Willis, 
James Fullerton, John Sterritt, John Clarke, Benjamin Wells, George 
Baird, Thomas Cloud, John Patterson. Charles Clark, Abrm. Dehaven, 

McCombs, Andrew Patterson, William Woods, Robert Patterson, 

John Htmter, John Nisbet, James Pollock, James McGinley, Thomas 
Luke. Moses Cannon, James Vanater, David Jtistice, John Miller, Saml 
Sample, Thomas Irvine, Jacob Wettenberger. 

872 History of Beaver County 

This petition is endorsed: 

Petition for the divisdon of North Beaver township May Sessions 
1804. Continued over to Augtist Term 1804. 

And the following paper is filed with the petition: 

Petition granted, and the Court direct that the Township be Divided 
in the following manner, that is. Beginning on Big Beaver creek where 
the Southern line of North Beaver Township crosses said creek ; thence 
up the same to the forks thereof; thence up Shenango creek to where 
the Northern line of said Township crosses the same, and that part of the 
Township aforesaid which Hes east of said Beaver and Shenango creeks 
to be called Shenango township and the part on the west side to retain 
the name, North Beaver township. 

The second petition referred to is as follows: 

To the Honorable Jesse Moore, Esquire, Preset of the Court of Comtnan Pleas 
of the sixth Circuit and his associates, now composing a court of 
Quarter Sessions of the peace in and for the county of Beaver: 

The petition of a nimiber of the inhabitants of North Beaver township, 
in said county. Humbly Sheweth 

That your petitioners labor under great inconvenience on accoimt 
of the length of said township which is nearly twenty-foiu* miles and only 
about seven miles in breadth. We therefore pray that a division of said 
township be granted by yoiu* Honors in the following manner, viz. 
Beginning on Shenango creek where the county line crosses said creek 
and down the same to Big Beaver creek, and down said creek to where 
said township line crosses the same which will divide said township about 
equally into two different townships and your petitioners as in duty 
bound will ever pray, etc. : 

Samuel Whann, William Moore, William Martin, John Bell, Benjamin 
Cunningham, John Martin, James McKee, Hezekiah Holladay, Samuel 
English, James Frew, George Killdos, Alexander Frew, Henry Clinds, 
John Frew, Alexander Frew, Sen'r, Samuel Springer, John Jones, Thomas 
Morrow, Jehu Lewis, Benjamin Kirkindall, Ball Sharp, William Squeer, 
Neathenl Squeer, William Cairns. 

This petition is endorsed on the back : 

August Term 1804. — Petition for the division of North Beaver Town- 
ship. Granted on another petition. 

The minutes of the Court of Quarter Sessions has the fol- 
lowing entry of the decree in this matter: 

On the petition of a number of the inhabitants of North Beaver 
Township for the division of said Township. — The court order that the 
township be divided in the following manner (viz.) Beginning on Big 
Beaver creek where the southern line of said township crosses said creek. 

History of Beaver County 873 

thence up the same to the forks thereof. Thence up Shenango creek 
to where the northern line of said township [crosses the same] and that 
part of the township aforesaid which lies east of said Beaver and Shen- 
ango creeks to be called shenango township, and the part on the 
west side to retain the name of north beaver township.' 

The general impression in the county has always been that 
North Beaver township was entirely on the west side of the 
Big Beaver. We are sure that many of our readers will be sur- 
prised, as we ourselves were on first finding these various docu- 
ments, to learn that it ran along the northern section of the 
county, from the State line to the Butler County line, being 
nearly equally divided by the Big Beaver and Shenango Creeks.' 
For a long time we were greatly puzzled in trying to discover 
the reason why this township, as originally formed, should have 
had such unusual proportions, it having been nearly twenty 
miles in length by about six in width. While studying the data 
we possessed the explanation of the difficulty suddenly came to 
us, and, with the aid of the draft on page 874 (Draft G) we 
think we can easily enable the reader to see it. 

* August term* Quarter Sessions Docket No. i., p. ai. 

* A petition bad been presented to the court of Allegheny County in 1 80 a asldng for 
the division of North Beaver in nearly the same terms as those in the petitions later prS' 
sented to our own court and given above. We first discovered this old petition in the 
Allegheny County court-house and sharing as we did the general belief that North Beaver 
township lay wholly west of the Big Beaver Creek, we could not understand it. Finding 
later the other petitions, we came to a correct understanding of the matter. The first 
petition reads as follows: 

"To Albxamdbb Addison*. Esqtiire, 

•* The President and A<;sociate Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the county 
of Allegheny 

" The Petition of a number of the Inhabitants of North Beaver Township in the County 
of Beaver Humbly Sheweth 

"That the Inhabitants of said Township do labour under great difficulties on account of 
the great length of the same, being twenty miles long and six miles broad — 

•• We therefore pray that you would please to order the same to be divided into two 
Townships, East Beaver and West Beaver Townships, and allow the Big Beaver creek 
and Shenango creek to be the Division Line between said two Townships, and the Boun- 
aries of the same to be as follows: — viz. — the West Beaver Township to be^n at the Penn- 
sylvania Western Boundary, where the South Boundary of the first district of Donation 
land joins it. thence East by said Donation district line to Big Beaver creek, thence up 
the same creek to the Shenango. thence up the Shenango to the North Boundary of Beaver 
County; thence West by said County Boundary to the West Boundary of Pennsylvania, 
thence South by the said West Boundary to the place of Beginning ; and the East Beaver 
Township to begin at the Shenango where the North Boundary of the County of Beaver 
crosses, thence down said Shenango creek to Big Beaver creek, thence down Big Beaver 
creek to where it crosses the South Boundary of the first District of Donation lands, thence 
East by the same to the East Boundary of Beaver Cotmty, thence North by the East 
Boundary of Beaver County to the North Boundary of said County, thence West by the 
said North Boundary to the place of Beginning, and your Petitioners as in duty bound 
will ever pray &c. 

•• Hugh McKibben, John Sterrett, Wm. Dickey, James Fullerton, James Campbell, 
Thomas Oive, William Gibson. Hugh Gibson. James Hope. Adam Hope, Robert Smith, 
Wm. Espy, Pra's Nisbet, John Nisbist, Tohn Dinning, Leonard Drjbbin. William Woods, 
John Semple. Samuel Semple, James McGinley. Nicholas Briant. Edward Wright. Thomas 
Luke, Robert Patterson. Thomas Woods, Abrm. Dchaven. James Wilson, Ebcn'r Thomas, 
John Toms, William Cogswell, Charles Clarke, William Carson, Jeremiah Banin. John 
Hamilton. John Patterson. Robert Brewster. Robert Bamett, David Tidball, Joseph 
Gilmore. Sept., i8oa."^ 


History of Beaver County 

It will be remembered that at its June Sessions in 1796, the 
court of Allegheny County erected out of John Hoge's and 
Thomas Stokely's surveyors' districts (see Draft A and ante, 
page 857) a new township called Beaver township. It will also 
be remembered that the northern boundary of Beaver County, 
as originally erected, was made ** the north line of the first donation 
district.** There was thus included in the new county of Beaver 

(as the broken line in Draft G marked "Beaver Co. Line" will 
show) so much of Beaver township, Allegheny County, as lay 
within the limits of that district (the first Donation District) 
west of the Butler County line, and those of John Hoge's Dis- 
trict of Depreciation Lands. Then, in the division of the new 
cotmty into townships, the portion of old Beaver township re- 
maining in it was evidently divided by the line between the 

Historj' of Beaver County 875 

fest Donatioii District and Hoge's (,see petition txnder note 1 
GO page 873), the narrow strip to the north receiving the name 
North Beaver township, and Hoge's EHstrict to the south being 
called South Beaver township. 

Borough township was formed at November Sessions, 1804, 
in response to a petition which we now give, and from which it 
win be seen that the borough of Beaver was once a part of 
South Beaver township, and that the bounds of Beaver borough 
axid of Borough township were identical: 

To tht HoHorabU thi justices of the Court cf General Quarter Sessions of tk^ 
Peace &c. of Beaver County, of Xovember Sessions. 1804. 

The Petition of a number of the inhabitants of South Bea\-er Town- 
ship Humbly Sheweth 

That Sotrth Beaver Township is ver\' large that the inhabitants of 
the Borough of Beaver are subject to taxation for making and repairing 
the roads throughout said Township whereas they hav-e more than they 
can wen do within the bounds of the Borough of Beaver leaWng out the 
lanes, streets, &c.. your Petitioners further state that it would be much 
more convenient for the inhabitants within the bounds of the Borough 
to have said Township divided so that the lines of the Borough as now 
established by law be the lines of a new Township which said Towtiship 
to be called . 

Your Petitioners therefore pray that said Township may be divided 
and the line of the Township to be erected be that of the Borough afore- 
said, and your Petitioners as in duty boimd will ever pray 

A. Lacock. Samuel Lawrence. J. Lawrence. D. G. Mitchell. John 
Hannah, John Johnson, Samuel Johnston. Le\-i Jones. Geo. Holdship. R. 
Moore, Israel Pickens, James Allison, Jr.. David Hayes. 

At the same Sessions, November, 1804, the prayer of the 
petitioners was granted, and it was ordered by the court **that 
the bounds of the borough of Beaver as established by law be 
the bounds of the new township to be called Borough township.'*' 

At the May term, 1805. South Beaver township was divided 
into Ohio and South Beaver townships. Sundr\- inhabitants in 
the territory affected had expressed to the court their desire 
for this division in the following petition: 

* Road Dcxricet No. i. Ko. 31. November Sessi.ins, 1S04 This petition reveals a fed, 
as tarprisinc as it is interesting, viz.. that at that early period the incorporation of a tow» 
did not always relieve its citixens from the burdens of taxation in the parent townshipt 
See under Beaver borotxgh the steps by which this township has been reduced to its pressat 


8/6 History of Beaver County 

To the Honorable Court of Quarter Sessions for Beaver County: — 

The Petition of stmdry Inhabitants of South Beaver Township in 
Beaver County most respectfully sheweth that your Petitioners labor 
under considerable Difficulties and Inconvainancjrs in attending Town- 
ship meetings, working on Public roads and Township officers performing 
their several offices — ^from the Distance they have to Travel occasioned 
by the Excessive Largeness and Extensive bounds of said Township. . 

Your Petitioners respectfully Prays your Honors would take the 
Premises into consideration and grant them relief by Dividing the afore- 
said Township into Two Townships by a Division Line, to wit beginning 
on the line of the State, at a deep gully between James Grorrel's and Jehu 
Coulson's thence a Direct course to Alexander Reed's Including said 
Reed in the Division next the Ohio river from thence to George Conkle's 
striking B ready's run at the East side of said Conkle's Plantation In- 
cluded in the above Division, thence down the north side of the Bottom 
of said run to Big Beaver creek, the Division next the Ohio river to be 
called Ohio Township and the other Division to retain the name of South 
Beaver Township,— or whatever other names or Division line, as to your 
Honors may appear most practicable, &c. 

And your Petitioners shall ever Pray. — 

David Drennan, William Duncan, James Drennan, Chas. Phillis, 
Alexander Reed, Neal McLaughlin, David Withrow, Samuel Robb, James 
Grimes, James Freel, Henry Woods, John Cotton, Henry Corkendall, 
James Phillis, Thomas Blackmore, Paul Reed, Henry Barnes, Joseph 
Smith, James Cotton, Ezekiel Moore, George Mason, Sen'r, William 
Reed, John CHndinning, Alexander Grant, John Bavington, John Himter, 
Edward Neville, Solomon Carlile, John Hampton, Wm. Steel, Saml. 
Calhoon, George Mason, Jesse Smith, Abrm. Buskirk, David Calhoon, 
James Witacre, Saml. Caughey, John Shireers, Benoni Dawson, Robert 
Barnes, Philip Mason, Thos. Hoyt, Willum Calhtme, Jacob Hackathom, 
John Cross, Robert Himter, John Campbell, Benjamin McGaffick, John 
McGaffack, Charles Beventon, Alexander Todd, Thomas McCoy, Daniel 
Martin, H. Johnston, Jonathan Grant, James Kennedy. 

This petition was presented at the November Sessions, 1804, 
and the court at the same Sessions appointed David Drennan, 
Henry Kuykendall, and Samuel Caughey as viewers to enquire 
into the propriety of granting the petition. A return was made 
by the viewers at February Sessions, 1805; and at the same 
Sessions a remonstrance was presented against the division of 
the said township, which was held under advisement by the 
court until the May Sessions. Samuel Caughey filed a dissent 
from the return of the other two viewers. At May Sessions, 
1805, the court confirmed the report of the viewers and divided 
the township, **the south part of the division to be called Ohio 

History of Beaver County 877 

township and the other to retain its original name of South 
Beaver." ' 

As stated above, the south side of Beaver County was. at 
the time of its erection, divided into three townships, viz., 
Hanover, First Moon, and Second Moon. The desire of the in- 
habitants of that part of the county for a rearrangement of the 
township divisions of the territory was later made evident to 
the court by their petitions praying for a division of the same. 
Three petitions were presented. The first was presented at the 
November Sessions, 18 10, and was continued for consideration 
to the January term, 181 1. This petition, with its signers, is as 

To the Honorable Samuel Roberts, Esquire, President, and his Associates, 
Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions in aftd far the County of 

The petition of siindry Inhabitants of said County humbly represents 
that the townships within said coiinty south of the Ohio river were 
originally erected w^hen under the jurisdiction of Washington County, 
and secondly attached to Allegheny County — that in running the lines of 
the aforesaid counties, some of the Townships were cut into a triangular 
form, and other Townships west of the Ohio were erected and laid off 
under the jurisdiction of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Allegheny 
County by natural lines and irregular bounds and size, and that except 
in one or two instances they have remained without alteration ever 
since the organization of Beaver County — That it is in many instances 
inconvenient for Township officers to discharge the duties of their offices, 
and for the citizens in general to convene in Township meetings as the 
places of meeting in several adjoining Townships would be more con- 
venient for a number than in their own Townships. 

Your Petitioners do pray for a division of one or more Townships 
and are humbly of opinion that it would be necessary to new mould the 
whole — 

Your Petitioners humbly pray your Honorable Court would take 
the premises into consideration and grant them relief by laying out 
the whole county anew into regular and convenient sized Townships 
having regard as far as practicable to the local situation of the Inhabi- 
tants of the different quarters of the county, and the present lines and 
names of the Townships, either by appointing a number of suitable 
characters to view and lay off the same, or in what way you your Honor- 
able Court may direct, and your petitioners as in duty bound shall ever 

Dated the 9th day of October, 1810. 

Hugh McCtillough, Robert Barbett, Robert Laughlin, Jun., Thomas 
Laughlin, Robert McCaskey, David Hays, Saml. Laughlin, James Huston, 
• Road Docket No. i.. No. 34. Nov. Sess., 1804. 

878 History of Beaver County 

John Cahoon, David Heckeythom, Thomas Smith, Wm. Harshe, Joseph 
Smith, James Lowden, Wm. Btmting, Henry Kykendall, John McCahky, 
Joseph Laughlin, Rezin Barnes, George Campbell, Matthew Neilson, 
John Neilson, William Campbell, Wm. Frazer, Dawson Blackmore, Wm. 
Dawson, James Samson, N. Krehl, James Hall, James McCaskey, Joseph 
Smith, Thos. Foster, James Eaton, David Boyd, George Dawson, James 
Thomsbnrgh, James Thompson, George Harris, Saml. Blackmore, Htigh 
McFall, Zebtdon Kinsey, Samuel Grossman, John McFall, James Lake, 
Henry Moss, WiUiam McMillin, Danl. McCasky, James McCullotigh, 
Francis Cross, Benjamin Hooke, James Reid, Joseph Justice, Danl. Christy, 
Jacob Lyon, George Campbell, Samuel Calhoon, George Goshom, John 
Btmting, Wm. Bunting, Robert Miller, Michael Hertle, Alexander 
Laughlin, Neil Carney, George Cristler, Alexander Reed, Robert Mcllheny, 
T. L. Dimlap, George Hackeythom, George Hackeythom, Jun., Wm. 
Camagey, Wm. Littell, Abrm. Lyon, Mattw. Scott, David Patton, Robert 
Camegy, Jim., John Langfitt, N. Blackmore, John Parks, Thos. Bell, 
James Dimgan, Edwd. Crail, Thos. Potts, Wm. Slone, Henry Hays, 
Samuel Moore, Henry Wilson, AlexV Allison, Hugh Skillin, Andrew Poe, 
John Ewing, Moses Hays, John Ralston, Jas. Harshe, John McCullotigh, 
Hugh Miller, D. D. Dungan, James Miller, William McCullough, Samuel 
Conlin, Joshua Nash, John Harshe, James Steele, Benjamin Latighlin, 
Joseph Calhoon, Park Hind, William Calhoon, Robert Gray, David Park, 
Andrew Ingles, Wm. Kirkpatrick, Robt. M. Scott, Jas. Carothers, James 
Swaney, Jacob Willaby, Solomon Fink, Andrew Vance, Noah Potts, 
Thomas Swaney.' 

This petition asked that the whole cotinty be reformed in its 
township divisions, and apparently the court did not take any 
action upon it. Perhaps too much was asked at one time. At 
the November term of the same year another petition came 
from sundry citizens of the same territory, asking for the division 
of the south side into four townships. This, with its signers, 
is as follows: 

To the Honorable Samuel Roberts, Esq., and his Associates, Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, etc. Now sitting for Beaver County in the 
State of Pennsylvania: — 
The petition of a number of the inhabitants of the east [properly 
south, Ed.] side of the river in the county aforesaid humbly sheweth that 
whereas, your petitioners labor tmder great difficulty from the scattered 
form and the largeness the townships is now in, which makes it very in- 
convenient for the people to attend at the township meetings, and whereas, 
the place of holding the place of the general election must be moved from 
Georgetown on account of Handover and Ohio being formed into a dis- 
trict election by themselves, and, whereas, it appears it would be much 
more convenient for the people to have the three townships on this side 
' Road Docket No. r, No. z8i, Jantiary Sessions, 181 1. 

History of Beaver County 879 

at the river divided into four. We therefore pray you to consider our 
situation and appoint men for to arrange and lay off these townships, 
and your petitioners will ever pray 

Matthew Neilson, Johnston Calhoon, N. Blackmore, Robert Park, 
William Btmting, Sr., James Dungan, Charles Blackmore, Henry Conkle, 
James Thompson, James Linn, Andrew McCleary, Thomas Parks, Htigh 
McCready, William Campbell, Sr., Thomas Swaney, Andrew Ingles, 
Robert Leeper, Henry Hays, John Witherspoon, George Scott, John 
Thompson, Edward Crail, Robert McElhaney, Samuel Chrietlow, Robert 
Gill, William McMillen, William Frazer, John Calhoon, John Knowles, 
John Ingles, William Calhoon, Robert Miller, James Eaton, William 
Kirkpatrick, Samuel Patton, Robert Swaney, John Swaney, James 
Thomburgh, Henry Wilson, William Dawson, William Gilliland, James 
Chambers, Thomas Foster, James Ferrel, Sr,. John Boyd, Matthias Hooke, 
John Boyd, Sr., John McCullough, Thomas Dawson. David Hays, Samuel 
Park, William Wilson, Thomas Laughlin, Alexander Reid, Robert Wright, 
John Harshe. James McScott, Robert Laughlin, Joseph Laughlin, John 
Dallaghan, John Allison, Solomon Linn, Alen Cowen, William Calhoon, 
Samuel Carothers, Zachariah Swearingen, William Winch, Thomas 
Moore, William Campbell, Henry Campbell, Samuel Willson, Charles 
Murray, Andrew McCalley, William Langfitt, James E. Hueston, John 
Conley, Rezin Barnes, Benjamin Laughlin, Hugh McCuUoiigh, David 

The court appointed James Carothers, Thomas Foster, and 
David Scott, Esqs., as viewers.' These gentlemen, for reasons 
now unknown, did not do anything, and their delinquency is 
made the ground of the following petition,* which, with its sub- 
scribers, is given in full: 

To the Honorable Samuel Roberts, Esqr., president, & his associate Judges 
oj the Court of Common Pleas in and for the County of Beaver: — 

The petition of a number of the inhabitants of that part of said county 
wh. lies south of the Ohio river, humbly sheweth, that whereas said in- 
habitants did forward a petition for having that part of said county 
laid off into four townships, the present divisions being very inconvenient 
and grevious to the inhabitants, in consequence whereof your honors 
granted an order for the same appointing three men to execute the busi- 
ness, which said men have not executed the business, and consequently 
the grievances are not removed; therefore we the subscribers pray your 
honors to appoint other persons to execute the said business — And we 
will pray 

John Harshe, David Gordon, James Anderson. Wm. Bunting, Jr., 
Rezin Barnes, Benjamin Anderson, Isaac Wood, Benj'm Hooke, John 
Crail, Thomas Stephen, Christopher Jordan, Robert Gray, Thos. Smith, 

* Road Docket No. i. No. 19a, Nov. Sess.. 1811. * Id., No. 196, Jan'y Sess., i8ia. 


History of Beaver County 

Michael Hertle, Wm. Dawson, John Park, Andrew Poe, James E. Hueston, 
Joshua Barnes, Francis Cross, Saml. Wilson, Noah Potts, James White- 
hill, Matthew Neilson, James Hetiston, John McCullough, John Calhoon. 

On the back of the original paper is this note: 

No. 196 January Sessions 181 2. Petition for a division and new 
modeling of the townships south of the Ohio. January Sessions 181 2. 

Granted viewers: James Whitehill, John McCullough, Daniel Christy, 

The persons named above, John McCullough, James White- 
hill, and Daniel Christy performed their duties as viewers with 
commendable promptness, for we find that at March Sessions 
following (181 2) they made a report stating that **they have 

History of Beaver County 88 1 

examined the premises and find the original boundaries are very 
inconvenient and grievous to the inhabitants in general, and 
they have laid out by courses and distances four townships, as 
represented in a draft annexed." The survey for this purpose 
was made by John Harshe * in February, 1812. From the 
original draft of these four south-side townships we have had a 
transcript made for this work by ex-County Surveyor James 
Harper, which appears here. (Draft H.) 

Although no decree of the court confirming the above de- 
scribed division of the territory of the south side is discoverable, 
it was certainly confirmed at this time or soon after, for the 
four townships named by the viewers, viz., Hanover, Greene, 
Moon, and Hopewell, are from this time onward recognized 
always, as in the appointment of constables, in township elec- 
tions, etc. 

At the November Sessions, 18 14, a petition was presented 
asking for the division of South Beaver and Ohio townships. 
Viewers were granted, viz., John Martin, Samuel Jackson, Esq., 
and Armstrong Drennan. At the January Sessions, 18 15, the 
viewers reported that **they have made a division of the town- 
ships agreeably to a draft annexed, and with submission to their 
honors, named the new township Brighton.'* ' A remonstrance 
against this report being filed, and, at the August term, 1815, 
another petition being presented asking for a division of the 
same townships, a re-view was granted, and James Carothers, 
George Dilworth, and John Beer were appointed as viewers. At 
the January term, 1816, two of these viewers, viz., George Dil- 
worth and John Beer, made a return, together with a diagram 
annexed, recommending the division of the aforesaid townships. 
This return suggests the division of South Beaver and Ohio 
townships into four townships of nearly equal size and shape as 
shown in their diagram, with Ohio and Brighton on the south, 
and South Beaver and Adams on the north. The name Adams 
was probably given in honor of Dr. Samuel Adams, who settled 
at Adamsville, or the upper part of what is now Beaver Falls, 
sometime before 1800. While no decree of the court confirming 
this division can be found, such a decree must have been made 
(the name Adams being changed to Chippewa), since the present 

' See note on John Harshe or Harsha, vol. i., page 408. 
« Road Docket No. 1, No. 233. Nov. Scss., 18x4. 

882 History of Beaver County 

townships of South Beaver, Chippewa, Ohio, and Brighton cor- 
respond in a general way to those shown on the diagram an- 
nexed to the report in question,* and at the spring election 
following, the election returns show for the first time the election 
of township officers from Brighton and Chippewa townships. 
The names of Brighton and Chippewa townships also occur for 
the first time in the list of constables appointed by the court at 
the March Sessions following (1816). Since the above was 
written we have found at Harrisburg an old map by Hugh 
McCullough, D.S., a reproduction of which faces this page. This 
map confirms our conclusion; since it was made in 181 7, only 
one year later than the division in question, and shows the lines 
and names of the townships as we have supposed them to have 
been. Hugh McCullough was bom in County Antrim, Ireland. 
Emigrating to this country at an early age, he settled at George- 
town, Beaver County, and for many years followed the occupa- 
tion of a surveyor. He was a member of St. Luke's Episcopal 
Church, and is buried in the cemetery at Georgetown. 

January Sessions, 1824, a petition was presented asking for 
the division of North Sewickley township. The court appointed 
as viewers, Sampson Peirsoll, Esq., Stephen Runyon, Esq., and 
James Stockman, Esq. The viewers reported at April Sessions 
that they had, by certain courses and distances laid down in 
their report, formed three townships of the two Sewickleys.* 
No names of these new townships recommended by the viewers 
are given in their report, and there is no record that we can find 
of any action of the court in the matter. 

October Sessions, 1825, another petition for the division of 
North Sewickley township was presented. Viewers were granted, 
viz., Andrew Jenkins, William Cairns, Esq., and James Sholes. 
The docket says: 

Exit order to divide loth January 1826 continued. 12th April. 
1826, Andrew Jenkins and William Cairns report the following divisions, 
to wit, Commencing at the mouth of Conoquenessing creek thence up the 
same to the Butler Coimty line. April Sessions 1826 approved. 3 

At the August Sessions of 1826 a petition for a re- view of 
the division of North Sewickley township was presented to the 

* Road Docket No. t. No. 254, Aug. Sess., 1815. 

• W. No. 445. Jan'y Sess., 1824. * Id., No. 477. Oct. Sess., 1825. 


^qV|Vq)0'^^^}3J'^)^VVu( ^^al iht abcvt is copUdfrom tt« mmp now rtmaintnj on file in -theJDepar^ 
/^ *^^ ^ofTnf^moil ^Affairs of 1P€nnsytwni^I have Tiereunio set my hand and. c«ute< 
Seal of saidjDe/^rimeni io he t^txed «f ITarrishurq^ iKt fif^^ ^«5 of ^^^ 


IcSitr^tmrj mf^falarSSl 

History of Beaver County 883 

court, and Joseph Hemphill, Esq., Benjamin Adams, Esq., and 
Thomas Henry, Esq., were appointed to review the premises. 
At the August term, 1827, the gentlemen named reported un- 
favorably to the division of the township as recommended by 
the first viewers.* 

At the August term, 1826, a petition for the division of New 
Sewickley township was presented, and the court appointed 
as viewers Joseph Hemphill, Esq., Stephen Stone, Esq., and 
Thomas Henry, Esq.' They made their return recommending 
the division, and accompanied it with a diagram showing the 
lines of the two new townships suggested, and on this diagram 
the decree of the court is recorded as follows: 

April Sessions, 1827. The court after hearing a remonstrance and 
ai^gmnent confirm the division of New Sewickley township according 
to the diagram herewith annexed and referred to in the report to which 
this order of confirmation is attached, and direct that the township 
marked on the said diagram with the letter "C" and called Sewickley 
be called Economy township, and that township marked on the diagram 
"B" be called New Sewickley township and for the present retain the 
Beaver creek for its boundary, and that the division of Brighton town- 
ship be held under advisement imtil the next August term. 

The reference in the last clause above may be to one or both 
of the two following petitions. 

At the August Sessions, 1826, a petition from sundry in- 
habitants of New Sewickley and Brighton townships asked for 
the division of Brighton township. The viewers granted were 
Joseph Hemphill, Esq., Benjamin Adams, Esq., and Thomas 
Henry, Esq. A remonstrance was also filed against the pro- 
posed action.3 We have been unable to find any record of the 
action of the court in regard to this petition unless the clause 
noted above refers to it, but there is on file in the office of the 
clerk of courts an undated paper, a petition, which sets forth: 

That a new Township has been laid off out of parts of Brighton and 
New Sewickley Townships at January Sessions, 1827, and has been 
held imder advisement to the present Sessions [not named], and now 
awaits the confirmation of the court. 

At the January Sessions, 1827, a petition was presented ask- 
ing for the erection of a new township out of parts of Brighton 

^ Road Docket No. i. No. 4Q0. Aug. Sess.. 1826. 

* Id,. No. 4QI. Aug. Sess.. 1826. * Id., No. 40a, Aug. Sess.. 1826. 

884 History of Beaver County 

and New Sewickley townships, to be called Falls township. No 
action of the court is recorded unless as above. 

At the October Sessions of 1827 a petition was presented 
from a number of the inhabitants of the townships of Ohio, 
Brighton, and South Beaver, praying for the erection of a new 
township to be formed out of parts of those townships. Viewers 
were appointed, viz., Adam Poe, Thomas Barclay, and Barnard 
Anderson. Two remonstrances were filed against this division 
at the same Sessions. The viewers reported at the January 
Sessions, 1828, showing that they had surveyed and laid out a 
new township, but there was no decree of the court in the mat- 
ter, and it was suffered to fall.' 

At the December Sessions, 1832, a petition was presented 
asking for the erection of a new township to be formed out of 
parts of Greene and Moon townships. This petition was signed 
by the following persons: 

John Potter, Cvmningham Cliflford, Matthew Johnston, Edward Crail, 
Robert Moffet, Abraham Vaghn, James Scott, Edward Owen, Wm. Can- 
non, John Cannon, Wm. Rambo, James Conner, James Lyon, John 
Wi throw, Benjamin Crail, John Weyganott, Henry Weyganott, John 
Mowry, James Ingles, Jtm., Wm. Littell. John McCormick, Rezin R. 
Gamble, James Ingles, Sr., George Langley, John Kerr, Jr., John Breaden, 
Saml. Gormley, Wm. Hales, A. V. Hayden, James Laferty, John Wilson, 
Jesse Wallace, John Crail, James Ewing, John McConnel, James Tod, 
Jonathan Cross, Thomas Reed, Henry McConnel, Alexander Ewing, Jr., 
Henry Ewing, John Gormley, Adam Kerr, Samuel Shuster, George 
Frank, Peter Rambo. William Hendrickson, S. M. Crail, Michael Rambo, 
George Mowry, Sampson Kerr, Boston Risor, John Lafferty. 

The court at the same Sessions appointed as viewers, Henry 
Davis, George Dawson, and James Scott, whose return was made 
at March Sessions, 1833, establishing the new township, which 
is called Raccoon. The decree of the court confirming their 
return was made at the September term, 1833.* 

At the June Sessions, 1836, a petition was presented praying 
for the division of Shenango township. The court granted as 
viewers, Major Andrew Jenkins, Edward Hoops, and John C. 
Stamm. This petition was signed by 

* Road Docket No. i. No. saa, Oct. Sess.. iSa?. * Id., No. a, Dec. Sess., 183a. 

History' of Beaver County 885 

Wm. Cairns. Andrew McKay. James Jackson. Isaiah White, P. Pollock, 
George Leslie. PhiHp Smith, William McConnel. John C. Ault. Andrew 
Conner, A. C. Cubbison. Nickles Wimer. Wm. Cubbison. Thos. Lutton. 
Daniel Bfiller. B. Pollock, Jacob Lutton. Thos. Joseph, Charles Campbell, 
James Johnston. James Frew, Jacob Houk, Wm. Houk. John Houk, John 
ABen, Henry Mershimer. John Bell, Philip Houk, Sr.. Lawrence Miller, 
John Booher, Joseph Baldwin, Jeremiah Cochran. Joseph Batow. Wm. 
D. Alexander, David Robertson. John Newton. Isaiah Smith, James John- 
ston, Jr., James Rigby, Thomas Alford, R. M. Gibson, Frederick Miner, 
Peter Hage, A. Nelson, M. Graham, James Shaw, William Adams, Jacob 
Miller, Thomas Hennon, Joseph Gonsollis, Samuel Stevens, Comelittt 
Miller, J. M. Cimningham, Robert Vanemon, James Mowr>', James Ault, 
Samuel Rodgers, Jacob Boot, Wm. Brown. Burton Joseph, Jacob Conner, 
John Gaston, Wm. Jackson, Thomas Hanna. Isaac Rigby, Jacob Stoner, 
William Pence, Jeremiah Barnes, J. T. Wamock. C. Stone, John A. Vance, 
G. Allan, J. Walker Vance. John Catterson, J. T. Dushane, John Ecklet . 
John Alford, James Cubbison, Wm. Lutton, John Wolton. 

The report of the viewers was favorable, and at September 
Sessions, 1837, *^^ court finally approved the division, "the 
part on the west to be called Shenango and the part on the east 
to be called Slippery Rock.*' » 

At the September Sessions of the court in 1836, a petition 
was presented praying that when Shenango township is divided 
into two townships the eastern end should be called Mendham.' 
No such division was ever made, or that name given to a town- 
ship in Beaver Cotmty. 

Rochester township was erected by an Act of the Legisla- 
ture, approved April 14, 1840. Section 52 of this Act provided: 

That that part of New Sewnckley township in the county of Beaver 
contained within the following lines, to wit: Beginning on Big Beaver 
at the lower line of the borough of New Brighton, thence running with 
said line in an easterly direction, so far as to include that part of Mitchell's 
tract of land not included in said borough, thence to James Black's, 
thence to James Porter's, thence to Daniel Cable's, thence to David 
Trindell's, thence to Jonathan Kelly's, including the several tracts of 
land on which said persons reside, thence to intersect the western line 
of the borough of Freedom, thence by said line to the Ohio river, thence 
down said river to the mouth of Big Beaver, and thence up Big Beaver 
to the place of beginning, be and the same is hereby erected into a new 
township, to be called Rochester, and that their general and township 
elections, shall, in future, be held in the school house in the village of 
Rochester, with all the powers and privileges usually exercised and 
enjoyed by other townships in this Commonwealth. ^ 

* Road Docket No. i. No. 20, June Boss., 1836. 

•Id.. No. 7. Sept. Seas.. 1836. « P. L., 341. 

VOL. II.— 18. 

886 History of Beaver County 

Patterson township came into being in 1 841, in consequence 
of the following petition and action of the court thereon: 

To the Honorable the Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions & Common 
Pleas in and for Beaver County: — 

The petition of the subscribers, citizens of Brighton District Beaver 
Cotinty respectfully represents that the Legislature of the State some 
years since separated this "District" from Brighton Township as an 
election district in connection with Fallston, and afterwards into an in- 
dependent ''Election & School District'* with power to elect "Supervisor 
and other Township officers" — that as now we are neither Township, 
Town or Boroxigh, and in consequence labor under some inconveni- 
encies and disadvantages — among others — we are by the decision of 
the authorities at Harrisburgh pronoimced incapable of choosing and 
electing our Jxistices of the Peace — a privilege secured by the Constitu- 
tion to the people of Towns, Townships and Boroughs — ^and which power 
we are desirous to enjoy with other of our fellow-citizens — ^We your 
petitioners once before addressed ourselves to your Honors on this sub- 
ject, and imderstood you had appointed a commission to report on the 
subject, but have never heard of any further action. We this session 
petitioned the Legislature upon the subject, but a "Standing Rule* 
prevented them from acting in our favor. 

We therefore pray your Honors to erect our District (within our 
present boundaries) into a "Township** to be known by the Stile and 

Title of Township, and as our elections for jxistices are held 

in the spring and as we wish to have the opportimity to elect a Justice, 
and as there will and can be no objection raised, having been for years 
separated from Brighton Township, We very respectfully and earnestly 
solicit your Honors to grant our prayer before the adjournment of the 
Court — and your Petitioners will ever pray 

A. Robertson, J. K. Dean. Wm. Harrison, Hugh Woods, Charles H. 
Gould, Andrew Nelson, Robert Saddler, Sr., Horatio M. Large, John 
Gibbons, Jacob Bauer, Robert Moffatt, John Robertson, Wm. Conklin, 
William Piatt, Sam. Kennedy, James C. Sims, John Baker. Ralph Delenz, 
Keron MoUay, James Patterson, Joseph Ross, Nathan Hillis, John K. 
Hoops, Thos. B. Wells, H. J. King, James M. Gricr. Clark Hooker, Thos. 
Anderson, Daniel Loomis, Joseph Small, Wm. Clayton, Ira Ransom, 
Charles Alexander, Peter W. Mantle, Joseph Reeves. W. Alexander, John 
Montgomery, Elijah Moulton, Adam Keller, John Dilworth, Henry 
Sims, Jr., Robert Calhoon, John Boyles, Robert Partington. 

April 13, 1 84 1, the court appointed Francis Hoops, Elihu T. 
Pugh, and Charles Lukens. commissioners to inquire into the 
propriety of granting the prayer of the petitioners. On **the 
27th day of May (5th Mo.)" the commissioners made a favor- 
able report, with a draft of a township annexed to be called 

History of Beaver County 887 

Patterson township. The 15th of October, 1841, the court 
erected the township as described in the return of the commis- 
sioners by the name and style of Patterson township.' 

At June Sessions, 1844, a petition was presented from sundry 
inhabitants of North Sewickley township asking for the division 
of that township into fovir new ones, corresponding to the four 
election districts into which the township had been divided by 
an Act of the Assembly.* At the same Sessions the court ap- 
pointed as viewers, Dr. Joseph Pollock, Joseph Irvin, and David 
Marquis, who, at the September Sessions following, reported 
favorably to the prayer of the petitioners being granted, and 
recommended the division of the said township into four town- 
ships in accordance with a draft which they annexed to their 
report. February 6, 1845, ^^^ court confirmed the "division 
and erection of Four Townships out of North Sewickley Town- 
ship, To wit: 

**No. I — Wayne Township, The Township Election to be 
held at Bird's in said Township. 

**No. 2 — Perry Township. The Township Election to be 
held at M. R. Clarke's in said Township. 

**No. 3 — Marion Township. The Township Election to be 
held at G. Hartzell's in said Township. 

** No. 4 — North Sewickley Township. The Township Election 
to be held at the house where the annual election is held in 
Miller's District." 3 

At November Sessions, 1846, a petition was presented from 
certain inhabitants of Little Beaver township asking for the 
division of said township, '* commencing at the line of Big 
Beaver township at or near the Rev'd George Scott's Church; 
thence to the house of Archibald Cunningham; thence to the 
house of Daniel McCarter; thence to the Ohio State line at or 
near the house of John Smart, having reference to the present 
arrangement of School Districts throughout the course," and 
praying the court to appoint suitable persons to run said line, 
dividing the township and '* making the south end of the Town- 
ship a new Township by the name of Darlington Township." 

The viewers appointed by the court at the same Sessions 

» Road Docket No. i. No. g, March Sess., 1S41. 

■ Sec P. L., 1840, p. 34a; 1846. p. Qo. * Road Docket No. x, No. 8, June Sess., 1844, 

888 History of Beaver County 

reported favorably, January 12, 1847, annexing a diagram of 
the division recommended. They were James Davidson, John 
Imbrie, Esq., and Wm. Harrison Power. October 15, 1847, a 
decree of the court was made confirming the division.' 

March Sessions, 1848, a petition came from sundry inhabi- 
tants of Hanover township, asking for the division of that town- 
ship; and at September Sessions following a remonstrance was 
presented against said division. The case was continued, and 
at October Sessions, the same year, the court refused to grant 
the petition.* 

At November Sessions, 1847, a petition from sundry in- 
habitants of Hopewell township was presented, asking for the 
division of said township. November, 1847, the court granted 
viewers, viz., Azariah Wynn, Robert Nevin, and Philip Cooper. 
March 21, 1848, the viewers reported, recommending the divi- 
sion as prayed for, and a remonstrance being presented against 
it, the court held it under advisement. October 19, 1848, the 
court approved and confirmed the division of Hopewell town- 
ship into two townships, according to the draft of the division 
made by the viewers. By the court the southwestern division 
was erected into a new township by the name of ** Indepen- 
dence,** and the other part of the township was erected into a 
township by the name of Hopewell.3 

Frankhn township was formed by an Act of the Legislature 
approved February 28, 1850. By Section i of that Act it was 
enacted : 

That all that part of Marion Township, Beaver County, lying north 
of Conoquenessing creek, and that part of Perry township in said covinty, 
lying south of the Beaver and Lawrence County line, be, and the same 
are hereby, erected into an independent township, to be called Franklin; 
and the qualified v^otersof said township shall hereafter hold their gen- 
eral and township elections at the house of Mark R. Clark, in said town- 
ship, and that Thomas Wilson, Esq., shall act as judge, and Abner Morton 
and J. Grier shall act as inspectors at the next succeeding election after 
the passage of this Act. 4 

Harmony township was erected by an Act of the Legislature, 
approved April 3, 1851. Section 14 of that Act reads as follows: 

* Road Docket No. a. No. ii, Nov. Sess., 1846. * Id., No. 14, Nov. Sess., 1847. 

• 7d., No. 28, March Sess.. 1848. ♦ P. L.. 106. 

History of Beaver County 889 

That all that part of Economy township, in the county of Beaver, 
lying within the following boundaries, viz. : Beginning at the mouth of 
Sewickley creek on the Ohio river, where the line crosses dividing the 
counties of Beaver and Allegheny; thence up said creek along with the 
line of Allegheny County, to the north-east comer of Depreciation tract, 
ntmaber eleven ; thence northwardly along the range line of Depreciation 
tracts to the south-eastern comer of tract number twenty-two; thence 
westwardly by the line dividing tracts number twenty-one and twenty- 
two, to the Ohio river; thence up the said river to the place of beginning, 
including the village of Economy, be, and the same is hereby, erected 
into a separate township, to be called Harmony township, and shall con- 
stitute a separate election and school district, etc' 

At the March Sessions, 1853, a petition was presented from 
divers inhabitants of the townships of Brighton and Ohio, set- 
ting forth their situation and needs as residents of Industry Dis- 
trict, as follows: 

That the inhabitants of Industry District, laboring under great 
inconvenience for want of a township — they therefore pray your Honors 
to grant them a township to include the same boimds that is in the Dis- 
trict, and also to include in said Industry township those who live on the 
line that divides Indvistry from Brighton townships. 

March 18, 1853, the court appointed viewers, viz., Azariah 
Wynne, David Minis, and Richard Porter. September 17, 1853 
the viewers made an adverse report, adding "that had they not 
been confined to said election distriict bounds, but had had 
liberty to make their own bounds, they should have reported 
favorably to the erection of a township out of parts of the above 
named townships.** December 28, 1853, their report was con- 
firmed by the court, and the matter was dropped for a consider- 
able time.* 

But at the June Sessions, 1855, another petition was pre- 
sented from citizens of the same townships as those named 
above, asking for a " township to include i^early the same bound- 
aries that is in the District of Industry, to commence at the 
southeast line of Industry District, including lands of Thomas 
and James Russell; thence by Henry Noss, Sarah Daniels, 
Daniel Knight, Joseph Ewing, Alexander Ewing, widow Reed, 
James Duncan, John Mason, James Potter, Jr., thence along the 
east line of land of Jesse Smith to the Ohio River, thence up 
said riiver to the place of beginning.** The court appointed as 

^ p. L., 31X. * Road Docket No. a. No. 5> March Seas.. x8s3' 

890 History of Beaver County 

viewers James Davis, John Scott, Esq., and William Porter, 
Esq., who at September Sessions following reported recom- 
mending the laying out of the township asked for. And, Febru- 
ary 7, 1856, the court issued a decree confirming the erection of 
Industry township.' 

At November Sessions, 1853, a petition of sundry inhabitants 
of New Sewickley township was presented, asking for the erec- 
tion of a new township out of said township, and the court at 
the same term appointed Francis Hoops, Solomon Bennett, and 
David Wamock to view the premises and report. March 18, 
1854, the viewers reported, recommending the laying out of the 
new township under the name of Pulaski. This report was con- 
firmed by the court, September 14, 1854; and the court ap- 
pointed **the officers already elected in the said township of 
Pulaski to hold the next general spring elections.*' ' 

At the November Sessions, 1856, a petition from sundry 
inhabitants of Economy and New Sewickley townships was pre- 
sented asking for the erection of a new township from the ter- 
ritory of the said townships, to be known by the name of Baden. 
Francis Reno, John H. Whisler, and Hugh Jackson were ap- 
pointed viewers. They reported recommending the granting of 
the petition, but at a special election held in the townships 
affected, October 13, 1857, the division was defeated by a major- 
ity of 133 votes.3 

White township was erected in response to a petition from 
ninety-one inhabitants of Chippewa township, presented at the 
June term, 1887. The court granted viewers, Harry T. Barker, 
David E. Lowry, and John H. Wilson, but the latter being 
unable to serve, Levi Fish was appointed August 17th, to take 
his place. Septembej* 5th the viewers reported favorably, and 
by order of the court the question was submitted to the electors 
of Chippewa township at the general election held November 8, 
1887, when 134 votes were cast **for," and 9 votes "against," 
the division. On the 8th of December, 1887, the election re- 
turns being laid before the court, it was "ordered and decreed 
that the said township be erected agreeably to the lines marked 

" Road Docket No. a, No. s. June Sess., 1855. 

*Jd., No. 8, Nov. Sess., 1853- 'W., No. 3. No. a, Nov. Sess., 1856. 

History of Beaver County 891 

out and returned by the commissioners," and it was ** further 
ordered and decreed that the name of the new township erected 
from that portion of the old township east of the division line 
returned by said commissioners shall be called White,*' ^ This 
name was suggested to the court at the time the decree was 
drawn by John M. Buchanan, Esq., and Edward B. Daugherty, 
Esq., and was given in honor of Robert White who long lived 
near Morado Park. 

March Sessions, 1890, a petition, signed by 118 inhabitants 
of Hopewell township, asked for the division of said township, 
creating a new township consisting of a narrow strip along the 
Ohio River, to be called **Logstown." Viewers appointed by 
the court, viz., Joseph C. Wilson, Andrew Carothers, and James 
Harper, recommended the granting of the prayer. November 5, 
1890, a return of an election, held November 4. 1890, in Hope- 
well township, in the matter of the division of the township, 
was filed, showing the following result: For Division, no votes; 
Against Division, 145.^ 

September Sessions, 1890, a petition was presented, praying 
for a division of New Sewickley township by a line running east 
and west through the southern extremity of **Big Knob," the 
northern part to retain the name of New Sewickley. The usual 
proceedings were had, and at an election, held May 21, 1891, 
by an order of the court, the following result appeared: Feazel 
District (New Sewickley township). For Division, 65 votes; 
Against Division, 67 votes. Freedom District (New Sewickley 
township). For Division, no votes; Against Division, 105 votes.^ 

An effort to secure the division of Pulaski township was 
made in 1890, but it failed of success. -♦ At December Sessions, 
1892, another petition for the same object was presented, and 
the question of division being submitted to the people at an 
election held June 27, 1893, ^ majority of four votes was given 
in favor of the division as desired. Thereupon, by a decree of 
the court, made January 27, 1894, the division of Pulaski town- 
ship was confirmed, and it was ordered and decreed "that the 
name of the township thereby formed lying west of the line as 

* Road Docket No. 5. No. r. June Sess., 1887. ' Id„ No. r. Sept. Sen., 1890. 

*Id., No. 6. Bfarcb Sess. 1890. * Id., No. 3. Dec. Sem, 1891. 

892 History of Beaver County 

described by the viewers, retain the name of Pulaski, and the 
larger part of said original township lying east and north of 
said line be called Daugherty.** This name was given to the 
new township in honor of Edward Black Daugherty, Esq., of 
the Beaver County bar, who was bom and reared within its 

In 1849, when Lawrence County was erected, a strip ten 
miles in width was stricken off from Beaver Coimty, which, with 
the territory contributed by Mercer County, formed the new 
county. In this ten mile strip were Little Beaver, Big Beaver, 
North Beaver, Wayne, Perry, North Sewickley, Shenango, and 
Slippery Rock townships, several of which were divided, leaving 
a township of the same name in each county. The original 
comer-stone between Beaver and Mercer counties, on the Ohio 
State line, is still standing. 

The history of the townships in the several divisions of the 
county follows in the succeeding chapters. 

'Road Docket No. s. No. 4, Dec. Sess.. 189a. 


Hanover Township: Frankfort Springs Boroxigh — Harsha\nlle — Han- 
over United Presbyterian Church — King's Creek United Presbyterian 
Church — Mt. Olivet Presbyterian Church — Greene Township: 
Geoi^etown and Hookstown Boroughs — Shippingport — Mill Creek 
Presbyterian Church — Tomlinson's Run United PresbN-terian Church 
— Moon Township: Monaca Borough — Colonia — North Branch 
Presbyterian Church — Hopewell Township: Mt. Carmel Presby- 
terian Church — Raccoon United Presb\'terian Church — ^Aliquippa 
Borough — Shannopin — New Scottsville — New Shefl&eld — Woodlawn 
— Raccoon Township: Ser\'ice United Presbyterian Church — Eu- 
dolpha Hall — Bethlehem Presbyterian Church — Mt. Pleasant United 
Presbyterian Chtirch — Independence Township: Independence — New 
Bethlehem United Presbyterian Church. 

The townships on the southern side of the Ohio River in 
Beaver County are: Hanover, Independence, and Hopewell, 
adjoining the Washington and Allegheny county lines; and 
Greene, Raccoon, and Moon, along the river. 


This township, which is one of the original townships of 
Beaver County, occupies the southwest comer of the county. 
Its boundaries are Greene and Raccoon townships on the north, 
Washington County on the south. West Virginia on the west, 
and Independence township on the east. Big and Little Travis 
creeks are mostly within its limits, and King's Creek heads in it; 
Raccoon Creek cuts across its southeastern comer, and Tomlin- 
son's Run across its northwestern comer, and a branch of the 
latter rises in the township. 


894 History of Beaver County 

The report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the State 
for 1900 shows in this township 446 taxables; 21,284 acres of 
cleared land ; 5330 acres of timber land; value of all real estate, 
$718,096; value of real estate exempt from taxation, $16,900; 
value of real estate taxable. $701,196. The population of Han- 
over township, as shown by the United States Census of 1880, 
was 1351; by that of 1890, 1213; and by that of 1900, 1031. 
A considerable loss of population is here observable. Other 
south-side townships show a like falling off. Since the decline of 
the sheep-raising industry in that section of the county the 
character of the farming has been altered, and removals on this 
account have been frequent. There is also to be considered the 
increasing attractiveness and drawing power of the great com- 
mercial and manufacturing centers. These influences have for 
several decades past made themselves felt not only on the south 
side, but in other parts of the county, and, indeed, throughout 
the country, leading to a gravitation of population to towns 
and cities. 

No township in Beaver County is richer in historical incident 
than Hanover. In Appendix V., this voliime, will be found a 
list of its taxables for 1802, and we give in Chapter IV. some 
interesting details concerning its pioneer inhabitants. We have 
stated the history of the formation of the township and the 
changes which have been made in its limits in Chapter XXV. 

Frankfort Springs borough was formed from the territory of 
this township. Its history will be found in the chapter on the 
smaller boroughs of the county (see Chapter XXIV.). 


This place, a small hamlet, is situated toward the north- 
eastern comer of Hanover township. It was named Harshaville 
in honor of Robert Harsha, who, in 1859, secured the estab- 
lishment of its post-office. Previous to that date it was called 
Hanover, after the United Presbyterian Church of that name, 
whose modest house of worship was the first building erected on 
the site of the village. It is thought that the first dwelling- 
house in the place was one built about 1836 by Robert Bell. 
Some of the most substantial and well-known families of the 
county trace their origin to the early settlers of this place and 

History of Beaver County 895 

its vicinity, among whom were the Robert Bell, just mentioned, 
Robert Johnston, Isaac Parkinson, William Peters, and John 
Harsha. The latter has already been spoken of in connection 
with the political and educational history of the county, having 
been one of its worthiest early teachers, a justice of the peace, 
and a representative in the Assembly of the State for the years 
1836-38. He was also one of the school inspectors for Beaver 
County from Hanover township, appointed by the court in 1834, 
when the new free common-school system was being organized. 
Other early settlers in this vicinity were James Harper, father 
of James Harper of Beaver, ex-county surveyor; John Smith; 
John Leeper; James Bigger, grandfather of Ellis N. Bigger, Esq., 
lately deceased; James Neilson (Nelson as now spelled), father 
of David A. Nelson, Esq., of Beaver; Adam, John, and Alexan- 
der Gibb; John, James, and David Little (Littell); Thomas, 
James, and Charles Anderson; Thomas and Alexander Adams, 
and James Miller, father of the distinguished Presbyterian min- 
ister, writer and Sabbath-school editor, Rev. James Russell 
MiUer, D.D., of Philadelphia and of Rev. R. J. Miller, D.D., 
editor of The United Presbyterian of Pittsburg, Pa. 

The post-oflSce at this place has been served by the follow- 
ing persons: 

Robert Harsha, Jan. 19, 1859; David Short, May 16, 1864; John G. 
Adams, Aug. 15, 1865; Benjamin F. Reed, April 24, 1867; James R. 
Wilson, July 6, 1869; Martin L. Armstrong, Aug. 28, 1872; John P. 
Robertson, April 13, 1892. 

This office was discontinued, April 4, 1901, on account of 
the establishment of rural free delivery. 

Hanover United Presbyterian Church. — The date of the or- 
ganization of this church is uncertain, but it was probably 
some time before 1825. It is supposed that Rev. John Graham, 
D.D., was instrumental in securing its organization. He was 
pastor of Cross Roads Church in Washington Coimty from 1820 
to 1829, and visited the field here, giving encouragement to the 
people to proceed with their enterprise. The first elders of the 
congregation were John Smith, William Sterling, John McCor- 
mick, and Thomas McGuire. In later years the eldership of this 
church has included such men as John Harsha, Thomas Harsha, 
WilHam Harsha, William Ralston, Samuel Plunket, Robert 

896 History of Beaver County 

Gorsuch, Alexander McCoy, James Torrance, William Swearin- 
gen, John A. Gibb, Robert Harsha, John Purvis, William Miller, 
and Joseph Mahaffey . Two church-buildings have been erected ; 
the frame, spoken of above, built in 1827 ; and the present one, 
built in 1844. 

No record of pastors is obtainable until 1837, from which 
time to date the following ministers have served the church : 

James Prestly, D.D., May, 1837-Sept. 8, 1840; John Junkin Bu- 
chanan, Nov., 1842-March 26, 1844; Thomas Calahan, June 20, 1849- 
April II, 1854; William L. McConnell, 1857-1858; William M. Richie, 
Sept. 1862-Jime 20, 1865; James L. Purdy, 1867-April, 1881; M. S. 
Telford, 1882-1888; F. B. Stewart, 1889-1892. 

Since 1892 the church has had stated supplies. The present 
membership is seventy-four. 

Kendall post-office, named after Amos Kendall, Postmaster- 
General under Andrew Jackson, is located in the northwestern 
section of this township, on the Georgetown and Washington 
State Road. Its postmasters have been the following: Robert 
Patton, 1837; Martha Patton, May 5, 1851; Robert M. Patton, 
January 22, 1886; John A. Swearingen, May 13, 1893; James 
W. Schooler, February 2, 1895; Mary M. McCoy, December 7, 
1898; discontinued November 21. 1900. 

Cometsburg post-office, in the southwestern comer of the 
township, with Mrs. Eleanor Ramsey as postmistress from Janu- 
ary 21, 1869, was also discontinued, November 21, 1900. 

Poe post-office, named after Andrew Poe, the Indian-fighter, 
was discontinued, August 27, 1892. It had been in charge of 
the following persons: Henry Moore, 1855; William Z. Davis, 
April 9, 1880; Thomas W. Swearingen, April 4, 1881; Henry 
Moore, March 6, 1882 ; David Reed, April 3, 1882 ; Henry Moore, 
April 18, 1883; Hettie E. Reed, May 19, 1892. 

The rapid development of rural free delivery accounts for the 
discontinuance of so many of these small offices. 

King's Creek United Presbyterian Church is in Hanover 
township, a few miles north of Cometsburg post-office. This 
church was organized, May 27, 1854, by a commission appointed 
by the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Steuben ville, in answer 
to a request of the people uniting in its formation. The com- 
mission consisted of Rev. William Lorimore of Richmond, Ohio, 

History of Beaver County 897 

moderator; and elders David Anderson of the same place, 
David White of Knoxville, Ohio; and John Crawford of Paris, 

The following persons were admitted to the new organiza- 
tion on confession of their faith: 

William M. Breaden, John Breaden, Robert Breaden. Agnes Arnold, 
William Andrews, Mary Jane Andrews, Rebecca Cameron, and Robert 
Ralston. On certificate the following: Peggy Anne Moore, Adam Reed, 
Stisan Reed, Jane Reed, John McCauly, Walter Breaden, Jane Breaden, 
Mitchel Ramsey, Anna Ramsey, John Tenan, Anna Tenan, Robert 
Ramsey, Margaret Ramsey, David Ramsey, Jane Ramsey, Eleanor 
Ramsey, Robert Ramsey, David Carson, Elizabeth Carson, Alexander 
Morehead, Agnes Morehead, Eleanor Jane Tenan, Samuel Martin, Jane 
Martin, Robert Martin. Maria Martin. Samuel Martin. Eleanor Jane 
Martin, John Arnold, Mary Arnold, William Ralston, Martha Ralston, 
Milton Ralston, Mary Jane Ralston — in all 42 members. 

It is thought that there are to-day only two of these original 
members living within the bounds of the congregation. 

Six ruling elders were elected, viz.: Samuel Martin, WilHam 
Ralston, John Arnold, Mitchel Ramsey, Walter Breaden, and 
Robert Ramsey. These are now all dead. In February, 1864, 
three elders were elected: William Gilliland (now deceased), 
Thomas Ramsey, and W. M. Ramsey; in 1879, C. G. Arnold 
(deceased January 13, 1898); August 11, 1900, John F. Deemer. 

The pastors of this church have been as follows: J. L. Purdy, 
1860-80; Joseph McKelvey, 1884-89; W. J. McClintock, June, 
1891-November, 1891; S. M. Krohn, 1892-died July 18, 1898; 
W. J. Hawk, July 12, 1 900-November 23, 1902. 

The congregation has had two church-buildings: the first, 
built in 1853, and costing about $2000, was burned in 1866; and 
the present building was erected in 1867 at a cost of about 
$2500. The church was organized in the former building. 

Mount Olivet Presbyterian Church is in the extreme north- 
eastern comer of this township, close to the line of Independence 
township. This church was organized, January i, 1876, at 
Gorsuch*s schoolhouse, by a committee of the Presbytery of 
Washington, consisting of the Revs. J. T. Fredericks, Samuel 
Forbes, and Stephen A. Hunter. The church started with a 
membership of fifty-three. In the same year a substantial 
frame church-building was erected at a cost of $2500. December 
13, 1876, a charter was obtained, the names of the incorporators 

898 History of Beaver County 

being T. A. Torrance, William McCally, Cyrus McConnell, James 
Russell, Thomas Butler, James H. McCoy, William Figley, 
James McCoy, and James Miller. The Minutes of the Gen- 
eral Assembly give the following report of ministers serving 
this congregation: Stated supplies, 1876-77; 1878-84, W. H. 
Hunter; 1885-87, vacant; 1888-90, James B. Lyle; 189 1. 
vacant; 1892-93, Albert M. West; 1894, vacant; 1895-96, 
Charles P. May; 1897-01, Wilson Asdale. 


This township is situated on the south side of the county, 
being bounded on the north by the Ohio River, on the south by 
Hanover township, on the east by Raccoon township, and on 
the west by the "Panhandle" of West Virginia. Previous to 
181 2 its territory was part of that of Hanover and Second Moon 
townships, from which it was formed in that year as one of the 
four new townships of the south side then erected. 

The soil of this township is excellent and the drainage good. 
Big and Little Mill creeks are wholly within its limits, and Service 
Creek heads in it. 

The report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs for 1900 shows 
in this township 434 taxables; 14,439 acres of cleared land; 
2693 acres of timber land; value of all real estate, $596,472, of 
which amount $14,035 represents real estate exempt from taxa- 
tion and $582,437 real estate taxable. The population of 
Greene, like that of some of the other townships of the county, 
shows a gradual decline during the last two or three decades, 
the United States Census for 1880 giving its population as 1249, 
that of 1890 as mi, and that of 1900 as 1023. This decline, 
as before remarked, is due to changed conditions in the business 
of farming and to the gravitation of population towards the towns 
and cities. Nevertheless the character of the people here is 
now, as it has always been, that of sturdy yeomen, knowing how 
to cultivate the soil, but careful as well to cultivate their minds 
and souls. How well they have always cared for their intel- 
lectual and spiritual culture is evidenced in the number of men 
and women who have gone out from among them into the higher 
walks of life. 

The boroughs of Georgetown and Hookstown, taken from 

History of Beaver County 899 

the territory of this township, will be found described in the 
chapter on the minor boroughs of the county (see Chapter XXIV). 

Shippingport, as the name implies, is a river town. It is a 
thriving little village on the Ohio River, in the northern part of 
Greene township. A post-office was established here about the 
year 1862. The first postmaster was William Elliott. He was 
followed by W. A. Brunton in 1873; Lizzie A. Hall, February 
25, 1878; Thomas Swaney, October 29, 1885; Stephen Brice- 
land, March 25, 1889; Mary J. Briceland, August 27, 1890; 
William J. Hanley, May 11, 1893, and Elmer L. Arbuckle, June 
9, 1897. 

In the southwestern part of the township is the Mill Creek 
Presbyterian Church, whose history has been so rich that we 
shall give it here somewhat at length. 

Mill Creek Presbyterian Church.' — This congregation is con- 
ceded to be the oldest of any denomination in Beaver County. 
Like all the first churches in this region no definite record is pre- 
served of a formal organization, but it is certain that religious 
services were held here as early as 1784, though earlier still there 
were Presbyterian settlers in the immediate neighborhood. 
From the date just given, however, the beginning of the church 
is reckoned, and accordingly its one hundred and eighteenth 
anniversary was appropriately celebrated in 1902. 

Mill Creek Church is named from Mill Creek, on a branch of 
which it is situated, about a mile and a half from Hookstown. 
The name occurs on the records of Redstone Presbytery first in 
April, 1785, in connection with a request for supplies. At a 
meeting of that body, October 19, 1785, Rev. Joseph Smith 
was appointed a supply, and he, with the Rev. Messrs. John 
McMillan, D.D., John Clark, John Brice, James Hughes, John 
McPherrin, Robert Finley, Robert Marshall, George Hill, 
William Swan, David Smith, Thomas Marquis, and Thomas 
Moore preached here at intervals for the next succeeding eight 
years. John Brice and James Hughes were licentiates, and in 
1789 a call was presented to Brice, which was not accepted. 
Up to the organization of the Presbytery of Ohio in 1793, calls 
were made without success to Robert Finley, William Swan, 
and George Hill. Mill Creek became one of the churches of the 

* The data for this sketch we have drawn in part from the History of Mill Creek Church 
read at its late celebration by the pastor, Rev. James R. Hosick. 

900 History of Beaver County 

new presbytery, being represented at its meeting in April, 1793, 
by Elder George McCuUough. The first settled pastor was the 
Rev. George M. Scott, who, in the spring of 1799, accepted a call 
for his services presented to the Presbytery of Ohio from the 
united congregations of Mill Creek and the Flats (now Fairview). 

The bounds of this congregation were at first, of course, very 
large, including nearly all of what is now the south side of the 
county, and reaching over into part of what is now Washington 
County, and in addition to the Presbyterian churches since 
formed out of its membership, such as Bethlehem, Frankfort, 
Hookstown, and Pine Grove, Mill Creek has contributed to 
churches of other denominations formed within its original 
bounds. Associate, United Presbyterian, and Methodist, and 
also to the Presbyterian churches of eastern Ohio. 

The session of this church, as nearly as can be ascertained, 
has had the following elders. Sometime prior to 1790 Joseph 
McCready, Sr. (died 1799), George McCuUough (died 1812), 
Alexander McCuUough (died October 20, 183 1), and David Kerr 
(died 1824) were elected and ordained to that office. A few 
years later John Thompson (died 1830) and James Ewing (died 
1 831) were added. The McCuUoughs and Thompsons were 
natives of Scotland. John McCuUough, Thomas Harsha, and 
Joseph McCready, Jr. (died 1862) ' were chosen in 18 10; John 
Harsha and Robert Ramsey in 18 19; William Ewing, William 
McCuUough, and John Mitchell in 1827; Nathaniel Douglass 
and James Moody in 1833; Samuel Reed, Matthew Glass, 
James McKinley, and Thomas Moore in 1848; WiUiam Moore 
and Israel Beabout in 1854; Robert W. Stewart, John T. Tem- 
ple, and Eli Ramsey in 1864; Alexander G. Pugh in 1870; 
Robert G. Stewart and Samuel McHenry in 1873; James Mc- 
Kinley, Samuel M. Ramsey, and Jesse Mercer in 1882, and in 
1896 Hampton R. Massay, William S. Swearingen, and James 
B. Buchanan. 

Of the ministers who have served this church there is a long 
and honored roll. George M. Scott, as already mentioned, was 
the first pastor of Mill Creek Church. His great-grandfather 
was a member of the Scottish parliament, before the union of 
Scotland with England. His grandfather, John Scott, and his 

* There were three McCreadys named Joseph. They were father, son, and grandson, 
the latter not an elder. 

History of Beaver County 901 

wife, Jane Mitchel Scott, emigrated to America in 1720. and 
located in Bucks County, this State, on land upon which the 
first log college of Pennsylvania was built. His father, John 
Scott, was a ruling elder in the church of Mt. Bethel, in the 
Moravian settlement about ten miles from Bethlehem, Pa. 
George M. Scott was bom near Crooked Billet Tavern in Bucks 
County, November 14, 1759. He graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1793, and studied divinity and taught in 
Princeton College for the next ensuing three years. In April, 
1796, he put himself under the care of the Presbyter\' of New 
Brunswick, and May 30, 1797, was licensed by the same presby- 
tery to preach. His diary, now in the possession of Margaret 
S. Sturgeon, his grandniece, has this entry concerning this event: 

May 30. — This day presbytery met to license Mr. Sloan and myself. 
Int he evening 1 preached ^discourse from Rev. ii., 5, after which pres- 
b3rtery proceeded to license us to preach the Gospel. 

Oh Lord strengthen an imworthy worm of the dust for this important 
calling. Grant me thy spirit to enable me for every duty to w^hich thou 
hast called me. Keep me from the fear of man which bringeth a snare, 
and above all keep me from sin, that I may honor thy name while here 
upon earth, and at last be admitted into thy presence where there is 
fulness of joy and rivers of pleasure for evermore. 

November 7, 1798, he was ordained by the presbytery as an 
evangehst, and the following spring, as has been stated, he ac- 
cepted the call to Mill Creek and the Flats. This was in April. 
On July 1 , 1 799, he made the following entry in his diary: 

Set off this day on our way to Mill Creek, near the Ohio river, with 
our moving, A great number of our friends and neighbors accompanied 
us part of the way. 

This shows how serious a matter a journey west of the Ohio 
was considered in those days. 

July 2d. This morning I found that I had left a bvmdle of money 
sent by Alexander Miller to Thomas Miller. Went back for it, which 
detained us till afternoon. Forded the Lchi. and passed through Allen- 

July 17th. Crossed the Monongahcla river, where I parted with the 

wagon for a while and went, accompanied by Moses Scott, to see my 

father's cousin, Wm. Scott and my imcle James Scott. I met the wagon 

again at the Black Horse tavern. Continued on our joiuTiey through 

Canonsburg. and put up with a Mr. Boyce, about two miles out of to^Ti. 
VOL. 11. — 19. 

902 History of Beaver County 

July 1 8th. This day arrived at Robert Lyle's where we remained 
till the next morning, when we continued on our way through Burgetts- 
town, or West Boston, where we fed, passed on and put up with Mr. 

July 2oth. Arrived at Mill Creek and took lodging with Mr. Eaton. 

July 2 1 St. Preached at Mill Creek meeting house to a large audience. 

He was installed September 14th, following, and continued 
his labors with the people of the united charges until the spring 
of 1826, when he resigned from the Flats. He continued with 
Mill Creek for full time until December 26, 1837, when, on ac- 
count of age and infirmities, he was, at his own request, released 
from the pastoral relation. For the most of the following year, 
however, he supplied the piilpit, thus rounding out nearly forty 
years of ministerial labor in the Mill Creek congregation. His 
last sermon was preached from Matthew v., 6, ** Blessed are they 
which do hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be 
filled.*' On the following Sabbath, August 15, 1847, he fell 
asleep, at the advanced age of 88 years. Mr. Scott was a faithful 
preacher and pastor, and as an educator did much for the church 
and the community in which he lived. His log college sent a 
number of men into the ministry, several of whom became 
eminent, as Rev. Samuel McFarren, John W. Scott, D.D., LL.D., 
his son, father of the first wife and grandfather of the second wife 
of the late ex-President Benjamin Harrison, and W. H. Mc- 
Guffey, LL.D., the well-known educator. Mr. Scott was also 
a zealous evangelist to the Indians, making frequent trips to 
their wilderness abodes. 

After the death of Mr. Scott several candidates were heard, 
and in the spring of 1839 a Mr. Polk became stated supply. In 
the fall of the same year a call was made out for him, but he was 
not installed. Having supplied the pulpit a year as pastor- 
elect, he left the field. In 1840 a call was extended to the Rev. 
John B. McCoy, who, after a pastorate of a little over a year, 
died October 18, 184 1. The salary named in his call was $400, 
but a few days before his death it was raised to $500. 

Mr. David Robinson then supplied the pulpit for a few weeks, 
and in the following December accepted a call at a salar^*^ of $500. 
He was ordained and installed in April, 1842, and remained 
until October, 1854. 

Rev. R. S. Morton accepted a call in connection with Hooks- 

History of Beaver County 903 

tbwninApril, 1855, and was installed June 1 2th, of the same year. 
His salary in the united charge was $600, with $60 for house 
rent. He resigned in the spring of 1865 to accept a chaplaincy 
in the army. 

Mr. Samuel Graham, a licentiate of the Clarion Presbytery, 
next accepted a call for all time, and was ordained and installed 
November 20, 1865 ; salary, $650 with $50 for house rent. This 
pastoral relation was dissolved October 3, 1866. 

A successful pastorate followed, viz., that of Rev. John L. 
Fulton, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, who was called from the United 
Presbyterian Church. He accepted the call and immediately 
began his labors, though he was not installed until December 
II, 1868. His salary was $1000. He remained for five years. 

Rev. David McFie, of Edinburgh, Scotland, was the next to 
serve the church, acting as stated supply for about one year from 
the spring of 1873. Presbyterial supplies were given until 1876, 
when Stephen A. Hunter, a licentiate of the Pittsburg Presby- 
tery, was made stated supply, and remained for the greater part 
of a year. 

William H. Hunter, a brother of the preceding, followed as 
stated supply, and after a few months a call to become the reg- 
ular pastor of Mill Creek and Mt. Olivet, at a salary of $800, was 
made for him and accepted, and Mr. Hunter was installed. 
He remained in the field until 1885. During his pastorate the 
present church-building was erected. 

In 1888 James B. Lyle, a member of the senior class of the 
Western Theological Seminary, was called to the two churches 
at a salary of $1000. During his stay the first and only parson- 
age that the church has ever had was erected. Mr. Lyle was 
pastor for about two years and six months. 

In April of 1891 Rev. Brainerd T. DeWitt was called for all 
his time to Mill Creek at a salary of $800 and the free use of the 
parsonage. He was installed September 18, 1891, and remained 
tmtil April, 1893. 

Early in the following year the present pastor. Rev. James 
R. Hosick, then a student in the Western Theological Seminary, 
came to the field. After three months service as a stated supply, 
the churches of Mill Creek and Hookstown united in extending 
to him a call at a salary of $1000 and free use of the manse. 
This call was accepted, and September 25, 1894, Mr. Hosick 

904 History of Beaver County 

was ordained and installed. Dxiring this pastorate the member- 
ship has increased from 140 to 260, and the Sunday-school has 
attained the largest enrollment in the history of the church. 

This church has been remarkable for the number and char- 
acter of the revivals which have taken place in it, especially in 
the earlier years of its history. Even before there had been a 
settled pastor the people had met for prayer, and had witnessed 
great awakenings. The brave frontiersmen came to these meet- 
ings armed to resist the attacks of the savages who were lurking 
about them. The first house of worship was a log cabin, 18 x 20 
feet, located on the spot now occupied by the old burying- 
ground, and this building was constructed so as to afford security 
from surprise. It was without doors or windows, being lighted 
from the roof, and the entrance was by an underground passage. 

From the membership of this church there have entered 
the ministry the following: Revs. Joseph S. Christmas, D.D., 
John W. Scott, D.D., LL.D.. Samuel Moody, Robert Ruther- 
ford, William Harsha, John Y. Calhoon, Aaron M. Buchanan, 
D.D., Marion Moore, Samuel McFarren, Samuel H. Jeffrey, 
Robert Bunting, D.D., Captain Murray, David Carson, D.D., and 
A. B. Allison. 

We have spoken of the first house of worship of this people, 
of which little more is known than we have stated. This gave 
place to a double log house 30 x 60 feet. On each of the longer 
sides of this building there was a recess of ten feet. The pur- 
pose of these recesses was to support the ends of the logs, the size 
of the structure requiring two lengths of logs. The pulpit, put 
in later, was in one of the recesses. In the recess opposite the 
pulpit was a door, and there was a door in each end of the 
building. The change in the building shows that the constant 
threat of danger from the Indians no longer existed. This build- 
ing was in use when Mr. Scott began his labors in 1799. About 
twelve years later, pews, stoves, and a pulpit were put in; none 
of these conveniences having previously been enjoyed. 

In 1832 this building was replaced by a brick structure 50 x 
60 feet, with a gallery. The building committee was Robert 
McFarren, Joseph McCready, Robert Ramsey, David Gordon, 
and Hezekiah Wallace. Robert Taylor contracted for the brick 
work at $1050, and James Carothers for the carpenter work at 
$1200. On account of insufficient foimdations this building 



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: *»oc Fir?: 3£>:^ Trzs Tr'«T:5h:r ^.^^ ^r. : V *.'^.^r;^5J^Astt^T^^ x^^^^w^^ 
zc zbt hzrrtiz s:5* "^^^c in :be ben.'. .>: :>>e 0>,^^^ K:\\^^. >^^^^^^ 

Iniep«enien:^. and Hc^pe-oreH :>r ::s rs<'Xj:>,X>Ts T^^ no,v»AsV ^M 
Mcic-n taTn>hip is gener^y hi'/.v An^: ::s >f.^*.' v>: a v,\^ixr,;*,\< %;x\a1 
itv. r-.aJTiy loam. There jLr>f r.v^ >:reA:r,> v>: ',r,Vj\>rTA«xV \>uhx\> 
it? lirrits. but Raccoon Creek bour.viji U rowAT\is th<^ wv^nI ^i\v< 
separates it from the township of Rav\\\m\ Uesut<\^ ^^^!v 

9o6 History of Beaver County 

there are a few small runs emptying into the Ohio, and it has the 
advantage of that great river along a good portion of its domain. 

As shown by the United States Census in 1890, the popula- 
tion of this township was 1092; by that of 1900 it was 1095. 
In 1900 it had 355 taxables; 10,029 acres of cleared land; 1978 
acres of timber land ; the value of all its real estate was $552,189 ; 
of that exempt from taxation, $33,625, and that portion taxable 
was $518,564. 

Monaca, formerly Phillipsburg, was once within the bounds 
of Moon township. The history of that important and rapidly 
growing borough is given in a preceding chapter. Adjoining 
Monaca, just opposite Rochester, is the new town of Colonia. 
It was laid out in the year 1902 by the Colonial Land Company, 
they having purchased about 400 acres of land — all of the well- 
known farms of the Baldwin and Mellon heirs, Eckert, and other 
smaller tracts. A magnificent town site is laid out on the higher 
ground, streets being paved, sewered, curbed, and otherwise 
beautified. Mr. H. C. Fry, of Rochester, was the projector 
naming the new town and company which had put new life and 
energy into the whole south side district adjoining. It is be- 
lieved that this is the beginning of a very enterprising and grow- 
ing community, the great Crucible Steel Mills of the Colonial 
Iron Company (also projected and started in 1902), being lo- 
cated on adjoining property. In addition, the large Sanitary 
Manufacturing Works of Arrott & Co. and several other manu- 
facturing plants are in successful operation within the last year. 
It is predicted that here in ten years a city larger than Beaver 
Falls will be added to the county. 

In the western part of the township, on the Ohio River, is 
situated the county home and farm for the support of the poor. 
This institution will be found described in Chapter VI. 

The post-offices of the township are Baker's Landing, with 
the following postmasters: William Lawson, April 20, 1883; 
Mrs. J. Lawson, May 3, 1886; Anna McDonald, October 16, 
1901. Bellowsville: Mrs. Eliza S. Flocker, May 4, 1876. Shaf- 
fer's post-office was discontinued April 4, 1901. It had been 
served by Daniel Shaffer, December 24, 1880, and Ellen Shaffer, 
January 30, 1897. 

North Branch Presbyterian Church. — This church is situated 
in the northeastern part of Moon township. It was started in 

History of Beaver County 907 

1833 as a branch of Mount Carmel Church in Hopewell town- 
ship. Members of the latter living in Moon township, so far 
away from the house of worship, foimd it difficult to attend 
regularly, and the pastor came over and held services for them 
at Daniel Weigle's, the meetings being held in his house in the 
winter and in his bam in the summer. The congregation in- 
creased so rapidly that in 1834 a house of worship was erected 
on a lot donated by Mr. Weigle. In 1837 a regular congrega- 
tional organization was effected. Among the first elders elected 
were John Douds, William McDonald, and Henry Reed. Soon 
after there were added to the bench John Carey, father of Daniel 
Carey, now of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Monaca, 
George Baker, and James Douds, son of John Douds. Among 
the first members of this congregation in addition to those named 
were William Irwin, his wife, and daughters, Mary and Ann, 
Thomas Hood and wife, John Hood and wife, Daniel Weigle, 
wife and son, Daniel, Mrs. Thomas Irwin, Mrs. John Weigle, 
John Landis and wife, Jacob Landis and wife, William Elliott 
and wife, Mrs. Jacob Baker, Samuel Uselton and wife, Mrs. 
Philip Baker, Mrs. John Stewart, William Srodes, Mrs. John 
Braden, John McBriar and wife. Rev. J. D. Ray, the first pas- 
tor of North Branch, remained in charge until 1842. There 
have succeeded him Rev. Messrs. Hare, Henderson, Sr., Hender- 
son, Jr., J. D. Hazlett, O. H. Rockwell, J. M. Smith, and P. J. 
Cummings, G. W. Shaffer, Hugh F. Earseman, Matthew Ruth- 
erford, John J. Srodes, and J. T. Hackett. The present pastor 
(1904) is Rev. P. J. Cummings. 


In the readjustment of the territory of Beaver County on 
the south side of the Ohio River, made about 181 2, when four 
townships were formed out of the original three, Hopewell was 
one of the new townships created.* Its territory was reduced 
in 1848 by the formation out of it of Independence township. 
Its bounding townships to-day are Independence, Raccoon, and 
Moon, and the Ohio River flows along its eastern border. 

* The name Hopewell was probably taken from a Presbyterian church, ox^Kanized about 
ten years earlier, on the farm of Orion Aten. Three or four years later the church was 
removed a mile farther south into Pindlay township, Allegheny County, where the grave- 
yard may still be seen. 

9o8 History of Beaver County 

There are no streams of importance in this township. Rac- 
coon Creek cuts through its western part in two loops, and a 
small run flows into the Ohio River at Aliquippa. 

The general agricultural features of Hopewell are similar to 
those of the other south-side townships. In its southeastern por- 
tion there are several small patches of the Pittsburg coal near 
the tops of some hills that rise six hundred feet above the Ohio 
River. The oil and gas development of the township is, how- 
ever, its most important geological feature, and has been the 
source of abundant wealth to its citizens. The New Sheffield 
field is celebrated for its production of natural gas. 

The population of the township in 1900, as shown by the 
"United States Census, was 1346. Its taxables in that year 
were 462. It had 7995 acres of cleared land and 3984 acres 
of timber land. The total value of its real estate was $560,721, 
divided into $16,000 of real estate exempt from taxation and 
$544,271 taxable. 

Previous to the erection of Independence township in 1848 
the village of Independence was the voting place, and it was 
there that the militia held their musters. The earliest road 
through the township was the Brodhead Road, running from 
the Monongahela River through the township to Fort Mcintosh. 
Later, a road was opened from Beaver to Burgettstown. Still 
later, a road was opened from near Service Church, passing near 
Independence, called the Georgetown and Pittsburg Road, 
Within a few years three other roads, all spoken of as Hooks- 
town and Pittsburg grades, were opened. The southern one 
went by way of White's mill, with a cut-off two miles north 
uniting with it, a mile west of Clinton. The middle road crossed 
Raccoon Creek, at Link's Fording, and the northern one at Wil- 
son's or Bouck's mill. 

The following items of information about some of the early 
settlers of this immediate neighborhood will be of interest. 
Thomas White, whose mill is named in the definition of the 
boundaries of the county at its erection, came from Ireland in 
1770. A few years later he and his wife, Jane Martin, settled 
on a 400-acre tract, part of which was in this township. He 
was the father of the late John White, Esq., of Darlington. 
John Bryan settled on Service Creek. He was the father of 
the late Dr. Thomas Bryan, of New Sheffield, who was bom in 

History of Beaver County 909 

1797. Aaron or Orion Aten * was a neighbor of Thomas White. 
Mention is made of the organization on his farm of Hopewell 
Church. George McElhaney was an Indian scout, and located 
on the lands where his sons, William and John and Thomas, and 
his son-in-law, Major Thompson, afterwards lived. William 
Maxwell owned the Shaffer and Gibb farm, Link's Fording. 
Alexander Gibb, the great-grandfather of John L. Gibb, ob- 
tained possession of one of these farms in 1794, and George 
Shaffer, the grandfather of Samuel Shaffer, of Shaffer post-office, 
settled on the other in 1803. Mrs. James McCormick, long a 
member of Hopewell Presbyterian Church, was a daughter 
of Mr. Maxwell. Through her comes the statement that in 
early times there was a tilt-hammer on the site of the Shaffer 
saw-mill. Thomas Reed,^ the grandfather of Rev. A. M. Reid, 
Ph.D., of Steubenville, Ohio, was a Revolutionary soldier, and 
settled on Raccoon Creek at the mouth of Service. David 
Patten, the grandfather of the late David Patten, Esq., of Shan- 
nopin, settled near Backbone, in the times of Indian raids. He 
and his family had frequently to flee to **Fort** Dillow. four 
miles southeast of what is now Frankfort Springs. William 
Gordon, of Gordon's Landing, settled first on the Eachel farm 
in 1784. Timothy Shane settled at or near Independence some 
time before 1790. In that year, when he and his family had 
taken refuge from the savages at Fort Beelor, his son, John, 
father of Isaac Shane, of Four Mile, was bom. Among others 
who came to the neighborhood as early, or a little later, were 
Robert Agnew, William Sterling, Peter Shields, and Robert 

Mt. Carmel Presbyterian Church. — ^The date of the organ- 
ization of this church is not ascertainable, but it was very early. 
Among the first members were James Reed, Thomas Barnes, 
James Hutchinson, Adam Vance, the Kerrs, and the Todds. 

An early name given to the church was *' White Oak Flats,'* 
derived from its situation at that time in or near a forest of 
white oak timber. This was the mother church of North Branch 

' This name Aten was formerly Auter and is now Eaton, 

• Thomas Reed was in the expedition, which attempted to take Quebec. He was 
buried in a field on the farm of the late John C. Reed in Hopewell township. In Aui?ust. 
1904. Rev. Dr. Reid and J. F. Reed, Esq.. of the Beaver bar, who is a great-grandson of 
Thomas Reed, had the ashes of this old veteran removed and re-interred in the burial- 
ground of Mt. Carmel Presbyterian Church. 

9IO History of Beaver Cbunty 

Presbyterian congregation in Moon township. Its first building 
was a log structure, to which an addition of frame was after- 
wards made. This was destroyed by fire in 1837. Later a brick 
building was erected on the same site at a cost of $2000, and 
this was replaced in 1 871, by a substantial frame, costing about 

In order of time the pastors of this church have been: An- 
drew McDonald, Frazier, Rutherford, J. D. Ray, 

W. G. Taylor, D.D., P. J. Cummings, 1887-1898. The As- 
sembly's Minutes report the pulpit of this church vacant 1899- 

Raccoon United Presbyterian Church. — This congregation 
was organized about the year 1823, and for a few years wor- 
shiped in the homes of the community and in the woods just 
in the rear of the present church-building, where the custom- 
ary "tent** was erected for the minister. In 1829 the erection 
of a church-building was begun. It was situated in the east 
end of the plot of ground containing the present cemetery. A 
short time ago the old foundation of this building was unearthed 
in the digging of a grave. This church was replaced in 1867 
by the present structure. 

Among the first elders in this congregation were James Mc- 
Cormick and William McCune. No record is preserved of the 
names of the pastors until 1837, but since that time the minis- 
ters who have served it (the dates assigned being in some cases 
approximate), were the following: James Prestly, May, 1837, to 
September 8, 1840; Robert Armstrong, 1845-51; William L. 
Wilson, September, 1859, to April, 1862. James W. Wither- 
spoon, at present pastor of the Fifth United Presbyterian 
Church of Allegheny City and Corresponding Secretary of the 
Freedmen's Board, was in charge of this church, in connection 
with Ohio congregation, from September, 1863, until December 
9, 1866. James P. Sharp, now pastor of the "Wharton Square" 
congregation in Philadelphia, was installed at Raccoon, Septem- 
ber 27, 1870, and resigned sometime in 1883. For three years 
— 1870-1873 — he was in charge of Raccoon and Ohio. Hugh 
W. Millin was called in 1884 and resigned about 1897. He is 
now pastor of Scottdale, Pa., United Presbyterian Church. 
M. D. Telford, the present pastor, began his work in 1900, and 
holds but the one charge. 

History of Beaver County 911 

Raccoon congregation numbers about 115, being much 
weakened by removals to the towns. The church is near the 
village of New Sheffield, in the midst of a good farming com- 
munity. Many worthy sons of this congregation have gone out 
from it into the ministry and other professions. The present 
session of the church is composed of John Anderson, George 
Hall, and Thomas Shannon. 

The borough of Aliquippa was taken from this township. 
(See Chapter XXIV.) 

On the bank of the Ohio, just above the borough, is a beauti- 
ful picnic ground, known as Aliquippa Park, with a station of 
the same name on the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad. 

Shannopin is a village of this township, with a station of that 
name on the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad. It is a growing 
town, deriving its importance from the proximity of a rich field 
of natural gas and petroleum. 

New Scottsville is a small hamlet near the center of the 
township, having not more than six or seven houses. 

New Sheffield is a village and post-office, located north of 
the center of the township. The postmasters have been as 

William M. Calvert, Jan. 9, 1879; Zachariah Hall, Sept. 9, 1885; 
Thomas S. Mercer. Dec. 7, 1888; William M. Calvert. Aug. 13, 1889; 
Clarence E. Reed, Jvily 17, 1893; Thomas C. Sterling, Sept. 9, 1895; 
William M. Calvert, Sept. 23. 1897 and Elsworth W. Swearingen. May 5, 

Ethel Landing is a post-office in the southeastern comer of 
Hopewell township. Following are the names and dates of ap- 
pointment of its postmasters: 

Frank R. Morris, Jtme 28. 1886; Minnie B. McCandlish, Aug. 14, 1890; 
Minnie B. Kohl. June i, 1891; Jennie Nye, April 16. 1892; Harry G. 
Bell. Atig. 8, 1894; Hugh C. Wright, Oct. 30, 1896; Htigh H. McCoy. 
Oct. 10. 1899; Samuel M. Thompson, April 16, 1901. 

Zeller post-office, discontinued April 4, 1901, had two post- 
masters, Henry C. Zeller, appointed July 29, 189 1; and Mary 
E. McCormick, appointed July 20, 1892. 


Woodlawn is a beautiful little village situated on the south 
bank of the Ohio River and on the line of the Pittsburg & Lake 

912 History of Beaver County 

Erie Railway, whose station here is called also Woodlawn. The 
small population of the village, and that of the surrounding 
country is composed of the best elements of Beaver County's 
yeomanry. From the earliest times an interest in education, 
religious and secular, has been taken here, a Sabbath-school 
having been organized as early as 1810. Preaching services 
were held occasionally in the old saw-mill prior to the erection 
of the academy building, and afterwards in the hall of that 
institution, which was used for this purpose from about 1879 
on until the building of the Presbyterian Church. 

The Presbyterian Church of Woodlawn. — As just stated, ser- 
vices had been held in the village for many years in an irregular 
fashion and at different places. These were conducted for the 
most part by Rev. P. J. Cummings, pastor of the Mount Carmel 
Presbyterian Church, but there was as yet no formal organiza- 
tion. This was effected, September 12, 1895, ^7 ^ committee 
of the Presbytery of Pittsburg, consisting of Revs. J. M. Mercer 
and P. J. Cummings, together with elder W. H. Goiy. The char- 
ter members were as follows: Eliza J. Barnes, Mrs. Jane Bruce, 
Vena Bruce, Lillie Bruce, John Cochran, Mary Douds, Martha 
Douds, Andrew McDonald, Jane H. McDonald, Stella A. Mc- 
Donald, Theodosia McDonald, William McDonald, Mary Mc- 
Donald, David A. McDonald, Mary F. McDonald, Eliza McCune, 
Maria McCune, Casalena McCune, Peter Maratta, Catherine 
Maratta, Martha Maratta, Marsh W. Maratta. William V. Maratta, 
James Maratta, Sarah J. Maratta, James C. Ritchie, William M. 
Ritchie, Martha V. Ritchie, Phoebe W. Ritchie, George J. Davis, 
Mary E. Davis, S. F. Sutton, Agnes J. Sutton, T. A. Torrence, 
Mrs. T. A. Torrence, P. H. Torrence, Vena Torrence, B. F. 
Swartz, Amanda Swartz, Martha Wilson, Mrs. Hannah Somer- 
ville, Robert Ritchie. 

The elders elected were John Cochran, Robert Ritchie, and 
T. A. Torrence, Cochran alone accepting the office. 

The comer-stone for the present building was laid in Octo- 
ber, 1897, and the church was dedicated in April, 1898. It cost 
$3600. There are at present thirty-five members. Rev. P. J. 
Cummings served the church as stated supply from its organiza- 
tion until April, 1903; since which time it has had supplies 
from the Presbytery. 

Woodlawn Academy was chartered, April 7, 1879, by James 

History of Beaver County 913 

C. Ritchie, C. I. McDonald, O. A. Douds, J. W. Fitch, Dr. Wil- 
liam Woods, D. A. McDonald, Alfred Ritchie, Archy Lawson, 
Robert Brown, William M. Ritchie, Elery Douds, and Mary W. 

The capital stock consisted of 100 shares of $25 each — total, 
$2500. The building, erected in 1879, is a two-story frame, 
which cost $2500. The officers of the board of trustees were 
William Woods, M.D., president; C. I. McDonald, secretary; 
and Robert Brown, treasurer. For some years the academy 
has not been running, and the building has been used as a 

The New Sheffield Council, No. 153, J. 0. U. A. M., was 
organized at Woodlawn, May 14, 1887, with thirty-five mem- 
bers, and met in the Woodlawn Academy building. 


Following is the list of postmasters at Woodlawn, with the 
dates of their appointment: 

C. I. McDonald, Nov. 13, 1877; Robert W. Anderson, Oct. 26, 1880; 
T. A. Torrence, March 10, 1882; William Ritchie (did not qualify) June 
8, 1886; James C. Ritchie, June 14, 1886; T. A. Torrence, July 13, 1889; 
John De Haven, April 13, 1892; Anna M. Wilkes, Sept. 20, 1894; Mattie 
V. Ritchie, Jtme 30, 1896; Joseph M. Irons, Jan. 29, 1900; Fred. L. 
Todd, Jtine 11, 1902. 


This township was formed from parts of Moon and Greene 
townships by a decree of the court made at the September Ses- 
sions, 1833. It takes its name from Raccoon Creek, which divides 
it from Moon township on the east. Its western boundary is 
Greene township, its southern Hanover and Independence, and 
its northern the Ohio River. One or two small streams flow 
through its northern portion, reaching the Ohio River and Rac- 
coon Creek, and Service Creek cuts across its southern half. The 
soil of this township is good and well-timbered. An interesting 
reference to this section occurs in Washington's journal of a 
trip which he made down the Ohio in 1770, which we quote, as 

Oct. 20, 1770. Col. Croghan, Lieut. Hamilton and Mr. Magee set out 
with us. At two we dined at Mr. Magee's, and encamped ten miles 

914 History of Beaver County 

below and four above Logstown. 21st. Left our encampment and 
breakfasted at Logstown, where we parted with Col. Croghan and com- 
pany. At eleven we came to the mouth of the Big Beaver creek, opposite 
to which is a good situation for a house ; and above it, on the same side, 
that is the west, there appears to be a fine body of land. About five 
miles lower down, on the east side, comes in Raccoon creek, at the mouth 
of which, and up it, appears to be a good body of land also. All the land 
between this creek and the Monongahela, and for 1 5 miles back, is claimed 
by Col. Croghan under a purchase from the Indians, which sale, he says, 
is confirmed by his majesty. On this creek, where the branches thereof 
interlock with the waters of Shtutees [Chartiers] cr. there is, according to 
Col. Croghan 's account, a body of fine rich level land. This tract he 
wants to sell, and offers it at £$ sterling per 100 acres, with an exemption 
of quit-rents for 20 years; after which to be subject to the payment of 
four shillings and two pence sterling per 100 acres; provided he can sell 
it in ten-thousand-acre lots. At present the imsettled state of this 
coimtry renders any purchase dangerous.' 

The early history of the territory of this township is that of 
the townships of Washington, Allegheny, and Beaver counties, 
to which it has belonged in various periods. The pioneer his- 
tory has been already given in the earlier chapters of this work. 

This township had previous to 1901 four small post-offices, 
which in that year were discontinued on account of rural free 
delivery being extended to the territory which they had sup- 
plied with postal facilities. These offices, with their postmas- 
ters and dates of appointment, were as follows: 

Green Garden — Michael Springer, April 25. 1867. Holt — ^James H. 
Christy, May 31, 1870; Maria M. Christy, Dec. 11, 1882; Alonzo L. 
McMahon, Oct. 25, 1888; Albert J. Lloyd, May 22, 1897; Irwin Baldwin, 
April 19, 1898; Homer J. Gormley, Aug. 9, 1900. McCleary — Robert 
Hall, March 24, 1864; Robert Moore, March 28, 1896. Service — ^Joseph 
H. Meheffey, April 21, 1879; Stonewall J. Morgan, Nov. 15, 1892; Robert 
L. Morgan, April 13, 1896; William McCague, June 24, 1897. 

* It does not belong to this history to tell the story of Washington's real estate specu- 
lations, but it is an interesting one and full i^trticulars of it as far as it pertains to the 
county in this State named for him will be found in the excellent History of Washington 
County by Boyd Crumrine, Esq. The Father of his Country purchased several thousand 
acres of land in that county and did not hesitate to defend his rights against the settlers, 
bringing ejectment suits against many of them. The journey down the Ohio referred to 
above was made by him with a view to selecting for surveys choice lands for the purpose 
of satisfying the claims of the officers and soldiers to whom grants had been made by 
Governor Dinwiddie as a reward for their services at the beginning of the French War. 
These lands were ultimately surveyed and appropriated, every officer and private soldier 
receiving his due proportions. Where deaths had occurred the heirs were sought out and 
their claims verified and allowed. To Washington belongs the credit of bringing this 
whole matter to a satisfactory adjustment. See Sparks's Life of Washington, p. no. 

Tig a ~t2^s^ tfwn^miT it c?5:^ ^wft^ t^^*^ tr ts^, 
osxe isssi Tr-iirrgga: n tokt liar >«Kr sau n .* >!»mi^ 4tK*^NR^ 

rt srr iJKiuiinrmcrmr tr ^ht ;\'Uftv> ^ tl*$n 
-WEH* ifaii: or :3ir iuixsr n Vihiurr \c^i!^«*^i^ *»iv>jtv2ii/f ,^i: 

if :is ug^'HTiTzirn nL x mr^^ 5mra vi5> t,>rinfcN tmdtf. !s. ^j^tri'iv^^ifc 

Tnr i irrinf tciik scra.-rmr*'. w*:;^^^ r;: ^::> T^i^r^. ^J^v^ ^<l*s*y^ ^^"^ ^Ihi^ 

ia-TOi = 1^55 ^7 Rev. WiC^^rr, Xl^^; McK^x^w. l> l> 4k .At^s^ 

U:rted Prcsbyteriar. Cb:irc^h *>: Fr^r/KVr: ^5>rt*\^^ NN^v^x^j^h xu 
Chapter XXIV. He serve-i :hi>i ohx^roh xinv,l Jx\K. Hs^jk. 
The next pastor was Rev. Da\*ivi \V\ O^TVvxn. O l'^ v u'^j* ^f 
Then followed Rev. John C. R^>e, 1870 v\^; Rev \Y J i^xxKW^x 
1885-95: Rev. A. P. Gibson, orviainevi ^mi insu\\tc\l Juut^ ♦^^ 
1899. released Januan- 23. iqoi : the present |Viistor tvouv^i K \V 
McFarland. who senses this chuix^h half tin\e. \:^vu\>i the \>Uw 
half to Mount Pleasant. The present session nre A> A Kv^lvevt 
son, J. M. Ewing, J. B. McKibben, and A. Campbell tttul \\\P 
membership is about one hundred. Many of the deswn^lttntj* wi 
the early members are still in connection with the iH>nureiirtlUM^^ 
as the Nelsons, ShiUitos. Craigs, Shanes. Haneys. Kwiu^M» Kol\ 
ertsons, Littells. Campbells, McKibbens, Smiths, mul oO^erw 

^ Wednesday and Thursday, Aiurust ijith and ulh, iMo«v th«> C0ittt>iu\U) of lh»> (MnniM^fk 
tion of this church was appropriately celebrutoil. 

91 6 History of Beaver County 

The congregation is in good condition. Its cemetery is called 
the Dr. John Anderson Memorial Cemetery of Service and is 
under the management of a board of directors.^ 

Eudolpha Hall and Rev. John Anderson, D.D.' This school 
of the prophets and its first teacher played such an important 
r61e in the early history of Beaver County that we cannot pass 
them without a rather extended notice. Dr. Anderson was bom 
in England, near the Scotch border and of Scotch parents, about 
the year 1748. Graduating at one of the Scottish Universities, 
he studied theology at the Associate Divinity Hall, and was 
licensed by a Presbytery of the Secession Church, but owing to 
a defective voice and dehvery he became a **stickit minister," 
and served for several years as a corrector of the press. In June, 
1783, he sailed for the United States, landing in August at Phila- 
delphia. On the way over he lost his aged mother, who died at 
sea, and a valuable library was also lost in the passage. For 
four years he itinerated under the care of the Associate Presby- 
tery of Pennsylvania, and was then ordained sine titulo in Phila- 
delphia, October 31, 1788. In the autumn of 1792, as already 
stated, he was installed pastor of Service and King's Creek, 
in this county, where he remained until his death, April 6, 1830. 
April 21, 1794, Dr. Anderson was appointed Professor of The- 
ology for the Associate Church, and so continued until the spring 
of 18 10, when he was compelled to resign on account of the 
infirmities of age. 

Dr. Anderson was remarkably small, not over five feet in 
height, with a large head, and thick, tangled hair. His eyes 
were black and penetrating, and his whole manner that of a 
man not belonging to the ordinary grade of humanity, but 
marking him off as one of unusual powers. He impressed all 

* The following minute was obtained from old records of this congregation : 

"August 20, 1793, at a congregational meeting, it was agreed upon by the Associate 
congregations of Service and Raccoon, that the meeting house be at the very place it was 
first appointed if it can be obtained of Mr. Redick; if not, it is to be on the other side of 
the creek, on the west side of the road that leads from Record's old mill on Raccoon creek 
to Waggoner's old cabin. It is also agreed upon at this meeting that five men are appointed 
to regulate the affairs of the congregations for one year, viz: John Kain, Joseph Baggs, 
Nathaniel McCoy, Samuel Kenedy, James Kenedy. Likewise tnree collectors appointed, 
viz: Hugh Graham, Matthew Ncilson, Mathew Kenedy; likewise John Neilson. treasurer; 
likewiscWilliam Little is appointed to pxirchase the ground for the meeting house and get 
the conveyance." 

In tearing down this old Service chtirch a deer prong was found imbedded in one of 
its big hewed sills. A section of this interesting piece of timber, with annual rings show- 
ing that the deer prong was planted in the tree perhaps 370 years before Service church 
was built, was placed in the Centennial Loan Exhibition at BeaN'er, in 1900. 

» We are indebted to the Manual of the United Presbyterian Church of North America 
by James Brown Scouller for the facts given in the above sketch. 

Histon' of Beaver County 917 

vbo carr^e in contact with him as a man of intellect and deep 
piety. He was quick of temper and impatient of contradiction 
in matters of principle, but possessed so much humility thmt 
when he thought he had given offense to any one unjustly, he 
would immediately show the deepest humiliation and pern* 
tenoe and solicit again and again the pardon of the wounded 
person. As a student he was imwear\*ing, giving from ten to 
fourteen hours a day to the most intense application to his 
studies, and frequently carried a book with him to read when 
traveling to and fro on horseback. He is said, moreover, to 
have been so absent-minded that, when thus engaged in read- 
ing in the saddle, he would lose all consciousness of time and 
place, and that he often lost himself in going to presbytery or 
even to his own church. 

As a preacher he was tedious, and his weak voice and hesi- 
tating manner made it a difficult matter for his hearers to profit 
by his really able instructions. His unfitness for the pulpit and 
his great fitness for the chair of an instructor led to his selec- 
tion for the position in which he obtained his greatest fame — 
the professorship of theology- in the seminar^' of the Associate 
Church at Service. 

This seminary was established by the Associate Presbytery 
of Pennsylvania as the means of meeting the want of the church 
for educated young men for its ministr\', the church having been 
up to this time mainly dependent upon the supply of ministers 
sent from Scotland. Classical schools and a few colleges had 
already sprung up, but the provision for theological training 
was yet to be made. On the 21st of April, 1794, as we have 
said above, Dr. Anderson was elected by the Associate Presby- 
tery of Pennsylvania as its teacher in divinity. He was given the 
option of locating the seminary to suit his own convenience, 
and chose a site about one mile west of Service church, a short 
distance east of the direct road from Beaver to Frankfort Springs. 
For some years the seminary had its class-rooms in Dr. Ander- 
son's own modest log house, but about 1805 a two-story log 
building was erected near by which was devoted to its needs. 
About eight hundred valuable books, most of which ^weI3e don- 
ated by Associate brethren in Scotland, were collected^ heyij ais 
the foundation of a library. The course of instruction ex- 
tended over four years, with one term during the winter season, 

VOL. 11. — 'JO. 

9i8 History of Beaver County 

and the number of students varied from five to ten. **The pro- 
fessor's chief employment was the reading of lectures founded 
upon Marck's Medulla TheologicB. These he expanded at every 
repetition, until they became so voluminous that he was not 
able to finish them during the four years of his last class, al- 
though he read for four hours on each of four days of every 
week of the four sessions.'* Some Hebrew and Greek exegesis 
was taught, but not much else besides Didactic and Polemic 

In 1 819, the year following Dr. Anderson *s resignation, the 
Synod divided the seminary into an eastern and a western hall. 
The former was located in Philadelphia; and the latter, in 
1821, was opened in Canonsburg, Pa., and finally, in 1855, 
removed to Xenia, Ohio. 

The log building at Service, in which the theological students 
boarded, is still standing and used as a dwelling. The old 
seminary building is gone. This seminary was popularly known 
as **Eudolpha Hall," which word Eudolpha we take to be a 
corruption of Eudelphia, signifying brotherly kindness. With 
two exceptions this is the oldest theological seminary in the 
United States. There had been professorships of divinity at 
Harviard and Yale and William and Mary, but the first separate 
theological school was founded by the Dutch Reformed Church 
at New Brunswick, N. J., in 1784. The Roman Catholics fol- 
lowed with the Theological Seminary of St. Sulpice and St. 
Mary's University at Baltimore in 1791; and Eudolpha Hall 
was founded next, in 1794. Pictures of the old school and 
boarding house are given herewith It is of interest to note the 
names of some of the eminent men who were students in this 
primitive structure, or at least were taught by its principal. 
Among these are Rev. William Wilson, who had a grandson of 
the same name, who was a former resident of Beaver. Mr. 
Wilson was bom in Ireland in 1770, and came to America in 
1791 or 1792. He was the first student under Dr. Anderson, 
though the building known as Eudolpha Hall was not erected 
until he was through his -course. Rev. Daniel McLean, father of 
Dr. D. JI. A. McLean, at one time a resident of Beaver, studied 
'ifijfh pr. Anderson; also Rev. Thomas Allison of Virginia (died 
1*840); Rev. James Ramsay, D.D., first professor of Theology 
in the Western Hall at Canonsburg, and father-in-law of Rev. 

- 1 
a. I 

History of Beaver County 919 

Dr. William Meek McElwee; Rev. Andrew Heron, D.D., of 
Cedarville, Ohio ^ Rev. Alexander McClelland, D.D., sometime 
professor in Dickinson College; Rev. Joseph Scroggs, D.D., 
over fifty-seven years pastor of the churches of Fairfield 
and Donegal in Westmoreland County, Pa.; Rev. Thomas 
Beveridge, D.D., Professor of Theology at Canonsburg, Pa., and 
Xenia, Ohio; Rev. Abraham Anderson, D.D., from 18 18 to 
182 1 Professor of Languages at Jefferson College, and after- 
wards Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology in the Asso- 
ciate Seminary at Canonsburg; Rev. Thomas Hanna, D.D., 
pastor at Washington, Pa., 1851-62; Rev. Francis Pringle, Jr., 
of Xenia, Ohio; James Pringle, his brother, of North Carolina 
and many others. 

Bethlehem Presbyterian Church.' — The inception of this 
church was in the Christian influence and efforts of several good 
men who felt the need of the community round about Ihem for 
some definite religious instruction. One of these was William 
Rambo, who was bom about the year 1800, in the region of 
Raccoon Creek, and about five miles from the place where the 
church was afterwards built (died December 13, 187 1). Another 
was John Potter, father of Rev. Henry N. Potter, of Darlington, 
this county. Mr. Potter, amid much discouragement, and some 
opposition, established here sometime in September, 1830, a 
Sabbath-school, which met first in the house of Edward Crail, 
with eleven scholars present. The next Sabbath the school 
was held in his own house, and the following week in that of 
William Connor. The attendance increased verj- rapidly, and 
Abraham Vaughan*s house being all one large room, it was used 
until the church was erected. Mr. Potter had been ordained an 
elder at the early age of twenty-two, and he was now the only 
teacher in this Sabbath-school. He occasionally read after the 
sessions of the church a sermon from Burder*s Village Sermons. 
A librar}^ was also established in the school, sixteen dollars being 

* In 1843 Dr. Heron was suspended from the ministry because he had gone (although 
on a week day) to hear the Rev. H. H. Blair, an "exscinded" brother preach. He after- 
wards became a member of the Indiana Presbytery of the U. P. Church. He became 
deaf, then blind, and finally crippled by a fall when eighty-three years old. Possessed 
of vast accumulations from wide reading and an iron memory, he still maintained an 
active life, preaching occasionally, though supported on crutches and unable to see his 
audience or hear his own voice. 

• The facts for this sketch were jMirtly obtained from an anniversary sermon preached 
at Bethlehem on August lo, 1877 by Rev. H. N. Potter, of Darlington, and partly from 
liewn. William Cook and James Henderson. 

920 History of Beaver County 

raised for this purpose, although the farmers had little money 
in those days. 

Another man who did much for the work of Christ in this 
neighborhood was Jonathan Cross, who after the organization 
of Bethlehem Church took a deep interest in its welfare. He 
became an elder, and afterwards a minister in the Presbyterian 
Church, dying December i8, 1876. 

In addition to the school, Mr. Potter started a weekly prayer- 
meeting, and on his application to the Presbytery of Ohio sup- 
plies were occasionally sent to preach for the people here. Rev. 
George Scott, then pastor of Mill Creek Church, was the first 
Presbyterian minister to preach in the neighborhood, coming 
occasionally on a week day for that purpose. The Sabbath- 
school was maintained for nearly two years, when, on the 
representations of the need of the community for a church 
organization made to the Presbytery of Ohio by Mr. Potter, a 
committee consisting of Rev. Mr. Allen, Rev. James D. Ray, and 
Elder Henry Reed was appointed to view the field, and report to 
Presb3rtery. They came and preached two sermons on Sabbath 
in the horse-mill of WilHam Rambo that stood on the bank of 
the Ohio River, a short distance above Christler*s Landing — 
now Shippingport. This committee made a favorable report to 
Presbytery, which then appointed Rev. John K. Cunningham 
to preach and organize a church in this neighborhood. Mr. 
Cunningham came and preached on Sabbath, June 17, 1832, 
in a grove on the stream near William Connor's, and the next 
day met the people at the house of Mr. Connor and organized 
a church of thirty members, who presented letters from the con- 
gregations of Mt. Carmel, Beaver, and Mill Creek, chiefly from 
the latter. Mr. John Potter, having been a ruling elder in the 
church of Mingo, Washington County, Pa., was then elected to 
the same office in this new organization, and installed by Mr. 
Cunningham. On September 2d, following, William Rambo 
and Jonathan Cross were ordained and installed as elders by 
Rev. James D. Ray. By a vote of the congregation the church 
was named Bethlehem, and it was decided to erect a church- 
building. The ground for this purpose and for a graveyard 
was donated by William Rambo, who also in the summer of 
1832 built the church, the funds for which were raised by the 
people with some outside assistance. This was the first building 

History of Beaver County 921 

of any kind that was erected in that neighborhood without the 
tise of whisky by the workers. 

For eleven years and seven months this church remained 
without a pastor, during which time it was supplied by Presby- 
tery. It is worthy of remark also that during this time one 
htmdred and ninety-four persons were received into its com- 
munion, the membership being one hundred and fifty when the 
first pastor was settled. 

The first regular pastor of Bethlehem was Rev. Samuel 
Hair, who was called September 6, 1844, and remained until 
the summer of 1847, having received during those years thirty- 
two persons. He was succeeded by John W. Hazlett, who 
was called September 7, 1847. This was his first charge, which 
he held for five years. November 17, 1852, Rev. A. O. Rockwell 
was chosen as his successor, and remained until March, 1855, 
thirty-six communicants being added to the roll during his 
pastorate. Rev. James M. Smith was called in September, 
1855, t>ut did not settle here until the spring of 1856, being for- 
mally installed June 12th of that year. Mr. Smith was pastor 
of this church for ten years, and enjoyed a very fruitful ministry. 
Rev. William M. White was called March 5, 1866, but preached 
only as a stated supply until the summer of 1870. The 
Rev. J. S. Pomeroy supplied this church for a year or more, 
commencing in the spring of 187 1, after whom the Rev. George 
W. Shaffer labored as pastor-elect for one year and three months, 
beginning August i, 1873. He also supplied the pulpit during 
the winter of 1876. Rev. D. L. Dickey came to the church in 
April, 1876, and stayed until April, 1882. Rev. Mr. Cunmiings 
followed, remaining from April, 1882, until April, 1887. Rev. 
J. H. Hunter was called as pastor in September, 1890, and con- 
tinued in the field tmtil 1893. Then followed Rev. T. P. Potts, 
from June, 1894, to March, 1902, and the present pastor is M. 
M. Rogers. 

From the pastorate of Mr. Hair to the close of that of Mr. 
Smith, Bethlehem was connected with the North Branch 
Church, as one pastoral charge, and was afterwards connected 
with Hookstown. 

In addition to the elders first named, we find the following: 
Samuel Thompson, Sr., 1841; Thomas Parkinson and James 
Kerr, 1845; William McClure and Samuel Wilson, Jr., 1855; 

922 History of Beaver County 

John Jack, 1858 ; same year Thomas P. Fleeson and John Tucker; 
John Engles, Robert Henderson, H. E. Wright, 1863; later, 
date not ascertainable, William Elliott, Samuel P. Thompson, 
William Hood, William Cook, and Thomas Wilson. The ses- 
sion now serving are William Cook, James Christy, Silas Wilson, 
and James Henderson. 

Besides the families named above, we hear of the Kerrs, 
Gormleys, Tuckers, Crosses, and Wilsons as early members of 
this congregation. 

The second church edifice at Bethlehem was built in 1880, 
at a cost of about $2500. 

From this church have entered the gospel ministry, M. A. 
Parkinson, James Wilson (Methodist Episcopal), James H. 
Potter, John W. Potter, Gilbert M. Potter, and Henry N. Potter 
(four sons of the John Potter mentioned in connection with the 
founding of the church here), James M. Smith (son of the James 
M. Smith who was a former pastor of the church), and Jonathan 
Wilson, a missionary to the Siamese and Laos. Samuel Hen- 
derson, a student for the ministry from this charge, died before 
his course was completed. 

Mt. Pleasant United Presbyterian Church. — This congrega- 
tion was organized July 11, 1877, from the members of Service 
United Presbyterian congregation living to the north of the 
church. Its first session was composed of Alex. Ewing, A. G. 
Ewing, John A. Christy, and Elisha Thomburgh. 

A house of worship had been built the previous year, which 
was used until 1900, when it was struck by lightning and 
burned down. The present house was erected in 1 901, at a cost 
of about $2500. 

The first pastor was Rev. J. H. Breaden, October 23, 1879, 
to 1886, followed by Revs. S. A. Moore, 1887-1895; A. P. Gib- 
son, 1899-1901, and K. W. McFarland, 1901. 

The present elders are A. G. Ewing, John A. Christy, G. A. 
Young, J. H. Thomburgh, and James Christy, and the member- 
ship is 95. 


Independence is the last township formed on the south side 
of the county. It was erected October 19, 1848, from the south- 
western portion of Hopewell. Raccoon and Service creeks 


History of Beaver County 923 

flow through the township in many meanderings. The soil 
is good, and limestone, sandstone, and shales are abundant. 
The township is almost entirely destitute of workable coals, and 
the people obtain their supply of fuel either from the Pittsburg 
bed in Hanover and Hopewell, or from the Upper Freeport, 
further down Raccoon Creek. The population of the township 
as shown by the United States Census in 1890 was 932; by the 
same census it was in 1900, 610. The report of the Secretary 
of Internal Affairs for 1900 gives the following showing for the 
township: Taxables, 284; cleared land, 10,031 acres; timber 
land, 4613 acres; value of all real estate, $387,165; value of 
real estate exempt from taxation, $34,000; value of real estate 
taxable, $253,165. 

In the eastern section of the township is the village of Inde- 
pendence and the post-office bearing the patriotic name of 
"Seventy-Six" accommodated the people here until the estab- 
lishment of rural delivery in 1901, when it was discontinued. 
Its postmasters from the first were as follows: 

William McCallister, Feb. 9, 1828; John Holmes, Oct. 20, 1831; 
James Sterling, Sept. 9, 1836; Daniel McCallister, July 10, 1841; Aaron 
S. Bryan, Aug. 21, 1852; David Reid, March 7, 1854; William Orr, Jan. 
28, 1862; W. F. Johnston, Feb. 17, 1865: William C. Shannon, June 5, 
1865; Joseph Davis, Feb. 11, 1867; John S. Todd, Sept. 6, 1872; G. W. 
Bruce, March 20, 1876; William C. Shannon, March 4, 1878; Alexander 
McConnell, July 25, 1879; discontinued April 4, 1901. 

Duluth post-office, discontinued at the same time as the office 
just mentioned, was served by the following: John M. McCoy, 
March 3, 1892; John Harper, September 9, 1893; Thomas A. 
Nichols, April 4, 1894; J. M. McCoy, January 13, 1896; Michael 
Springer, June 24, 1897. 

New Bethlehem United Presbyterian Church was organized 
June 19, 1865, by Rev. J. M. Witherspoon at the Reardon school- 
house, with the following as persons as charter members: 

Mr. W. G. Miller, Mrs. Mary Miller, Mr. James Miller, Mrs. Sarah 
Miller, Mrs. Eliza McClester, Mr. John McClester, Miss Anna E. McClester, 
Mr. Joseph Wallace, Mrs. Rachel Wallace, Mr. James M. Wallace, Miss 
Nancy Wallace, Miss Rachel Wallace, Mr. James Alexander, Mrs. Nandy 
Alexander, Miss Maggie Alexander, Miss Fannie Alexander, Mrs. Mary 
McCartney, Mr. Joseph McConnell, Mrs. Rachel McConnell, Miss Nancy 
McConnell, Mrs. Susanna Hartford, Mrs. Sarah McHenry, Miss Minerva 

924 History of Beaver County 

McHenry, Miss Rachel McHenry, Mr. John Nevin, Mrs. M. A. Nevin, 
Miss M. J. Nevin, Mr. John E. Nevin, Mr. W. G. Nevin, Mr. George 
Shillito, Mrs. Louisa Alexander. 

Two of the charter members became ministers of the gospel, 
namely, J. M. Wallace, now pastor of the Eighth United Presby- 
terian Church, Pittsburg, Pa., and W.- G. Nevin, now a minister 
in the Presbyterian Church. 

The first elders were John Nevin, George Shillito, James 
Miller, and John McClester. 

The church-building, erected in 1869, is a frame structure and 
cost about $2300, and a session house has been built at a cost of 
♦200. In 1884, Joseph Wallace donated one acre adjoining the 
church for a parsonage, which was built at a cost of about $2000. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. David French 
Mustard, who served from October, 1872, until January 12, 1875. 
He was followed by Rev. Alexander H. Orr, from his ordination, 
September 7, 1875, ^^ September, 1880; Rev. J. A. Shrader, 
January, 1882-1888, and J. R. Wallace, 1894-1904 — . 

The present membership is 147. 




South Beaver Township : Rayltown and Black Hawk — Big Beaver Town- 
ship: Homewood — Home wood Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Borough Township: Vanport — Dravo Chapel — Vanport Presby- 
terian Church — Ohio Township: Smith's Ferry — Smith's Ferry 
Oil Field — Ohioville — St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Chiu-ch — 
New Salem Presbyterian Church — Four Mile Square United Pres- 
b3rterian Church — Brighton Township — Darlington Township: Coal 
Companies of Darlington Township— Cannelton — St. Rose's R. C. 
Church — Industry Township: Village of Indiistry — Presb3rterian 
Church of Industry — Oak Grove Union Chapel — Oak Grove Cemetery 
— Patterson Township — White Township. 


This is one of the original townships of Beaver County, but 
many changes in its size and shape have taken place since 1800. 
As it now stands it is separated from Darlington township on 
the north by the Little Beaver Creek, is bounded on the east by 
Chippewa, on the south by Ohio and Brighton townships, and 
touches the Ohio State line along its western border. Besides 
that of the Little Beaver Creek, the township has not much 
drainage. Brush Run, which heads near its eastern section and 
empties into Little Beaver after leaving the State, is the prin- 
cipal stream within its limits. Anderson Run empties into Little 
Beaver at Darlington, and Brady's Run cuts across its south- 
eastern comer. 

The surface of the township is hilly, and the soil excellent. 
Massive strata of sandstone, with limestone and a good quality 
of coal are fotmd in several sections of the township. 


926 History of Beaver County 

The population of this division of the county in 1900 was 930. 
In the same year its taxables numbered 374. Its total value of 
real estate was $547,480, including $2150 of real estate exempt 
from taxation and $545,330 taxable. It had 14,587 acres of 
cleared land and 3 1 1 7 acres of timber land. 

Rayltown is a village or hamlet in this township, and Black 
Hawk, which belongs to Ohio township, extends partly into 
South Beaver. The only post-office in the township was dis- 
continued April 20, 1892. It was called Rowe, and was served 
by the following postmasters: Calvin A. Smith, September 2, 
1880; William Withow, October 26, 1880, and Jacob Smith, 
October 6, 1881. 


In 1802 South Beaver township was divided by the opurt of 
Allegheny Cotmty into three townships, South Beaver, Little 
Beaver, and Big Beaver. When Lawrence County was formed 
in 1849, Beaver County contributed part of the territory of the 
new county, and, several of her townships were cut in two by 
the county line resulting. Big Beaver was one of these, and the 
legislature of 1850 recognized the fact and confirmed the erection 
of the township as at present limited. Big Beaver township is 
bounded on the north by the township of Lawrence County, 
which was cut off from it and which bears the same name; on 
the east by Big Beaver Creek, on the south by Chippewa town- 
ship, and on the west by Dariington township. 

The surface of the township is hilly, with very rich bottoms 
interspersed. Good coal, limestone, and sandstone are plentiful. 
The streams are all small, rising in the highlands and flowing into 
the Big Beaver Creek on the east or into the Little Beaver, which 
runs along the western border of the township. 

The population of the township as shown by the United States 
Census for 1890 was 1497; ^^^ i9oo» 1380. The statistics for 
the latter year given in the report of the Secretary of Internal 
Affairs are as follows : Taxables, 454 ; number of acres of cleared 
land, 9564; of timber land, 1216; value of all real estate, $471,- 
878; real estate exempt from taxation, $11,970; taxable, 

Hoytdale village and post-office, in the extreme northeastern 

History of Beaver County 927 

comer of Big Beaver township, were formerly known as Rock 
Point. The postmasters who had charge of the office while it 
was called Rock Point were as follows: J. D. Husted (never 
qualified) appointed December 13, 1876; William W. Hamilton, 
December 20, 1876; Thomas M. McLucas, October 12, 1877; 
Lewis S. Hoyt, March 29, 1881. The name was changed to 
Hoytdale, December 12, 1892, with Lewis S. Hoyt then still in 
charge. Michael McCool was appointed June 9, 1897. 

Summit Cut post-office was discontinued, April 20, 1892; 
William F. McCready, appointed December 15, 1890. 


The village of this name is situated on the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railway, at its junction with the Erie & Pitts- 
burg Railway. 

William Grimshaw, the author of a series of popular his- 
tories of the United States and of several European countries, 
was an early landowner in the region about Homewood ; and in 
1 83 1, Joseph M. Smith purchased from him a tract of two hun- 
dred acres of land, upon a part of which the village now stands. 
Mr. Smith laid out the village in 1859, and the first dwellings 
built here were those of David Johnston, William Foster, Adam 
Camer, John C. Chapman, and Jonathan Grist. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in this place was organized 
about half a century ago by Rev. J. W. Claybaugh. The first 
stewards were W. H. Foster, David Knowles, Jonathan Grist, 
A. Hunter, R. S. Foster, J. W. Smith, Frederick Graham, and 
Clark Hunter. The same year a small frame church was built 
at a cost of $3000. Homewood was about forty years ago con- 
nected with the Enon Valley Circuit, and was supplied by the 
pastors of that circuit. Names of early ministers are Messrs. 
J. W. Claybaugh, M. Ingram, J. J. Jackson, J. W. Kessler, C. M. 
Westlake, and later came W. K. Brown, 1881; J. L. Deens, 
1882; O. H. P. Graham, 1883-84; M. S. Kendig, 1885-88; 
William Medley, 1889-90; J. W. Garland, 1891-93; G. A. 
Sheets, 1894; D. M. HoUister, 1895; Z. M. Silbaugh, 1896; S. H. 
Greenlee, 1897; F. H. Callahan, 1898-99; W. H. McBride, 1900- 
01. Rev. J. J. Buell (1902) is the present pastor. 

Homewood post-office was established in 1 86 2 . Postmasters : 

928 History of Beaver County 

William H. Foster, January 28, 1862; James C. Evans, Novem- 
ber 7, 1866; John H. Witherspoon, March 18, 1869; Mrs. Mary 
Crum, September 21, 1885; Hugh M. Shipman, February 26, 
1889; Samuel S. Overlander, July 24, 1893; and Lawrence J. 
Overlander, May 17, 1897. 


This township is qtiite centrally located on the north side of 
the Ohio River, having that river on the south, Brighton town- 
ship on the north and west, and the borough of Beaver on the 
east. It is one of the smallest townships in the county. Its 
population by the United States Census for 1900 was 612. The 
report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs for the same year 
shows it as containing 284 taxables, 552 acres of cleared land, 
50 acres of timber land, and a total value of real estate amount- 
ing to $307,879, divided into real estate exempt from taxation, 
$12,000; and real estate taxable, $295,879. 

The township was formed at the November Sessions of the 
court in 1804 from the territory of South Beaver township. 
It was decreed by the court that the boimds of the new township 
should be "the bounds of the borough of Beaver as established 
by law.** The steps by which the township has been reduced 
to its present limits will be seen in the chapter on the borough 
of Beaver, where the various changes which have taken place 
in the boundaries of that borough are described. 


This is a small village in Borough township about two miles 
below the county-seat, on the north bank of the Ohio River. 
The village was laid out in 1835 by J. J. Noss. He is said to 
have built the first brick house in the place. 

The post-office at Vanport has been held by the following 
persons: Thomas B. Boggs, January 16, 1882; Miller Flocker, 
February i, 1882; Baker Reed, September 9, 1885; N. P. Kerr, 
April 27, 1889; Lizzie A. Murta, July 24, 1893; Emma L. Bev- 
ington, May 22, 1895; Anna McCuUough, May 27, 1899. 

The ferry across the Ohio River at this point was estab- 
lished in the beginning of the last century. In his Sketches of a 

History of Beaver County 929 

Tour to the Western Country, F. Cuming thus alludes to it: '*A 
ferry two miles below Beaver is a handsome situation, beyond 
which the banks are high on both sides, and the river does not 
exceed one hundred and fifty yards wide." He saw it in 1807. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made to establish a Baptist 
church in this place. In 1858 G. T. Dinsmore visited Beaver 
and preached in the court-house. During the week he held 
meetings in a schoolhouse at Vanport and baptized five con- 
verts. Others soon followed, and a church was constituted. A 
frame building was erected, which was dedicated February 24, 
1 86 1, and services were held in it for some time with varying 
regularity and success, but the congregation were unable to hold 
the ground and the building was finally, in 1890, disposed of by 
sale to the Presbyterians, who in that year organized a church 
in Vanport. The movers in this enterprise were John Weaver, 
Hiram Noss, and James Porter, the latter of Bridgewater. Mr. 
Dinsmore remained but a brief time, and was succeeded by Rev. 
John Davis, who was the last pastor. 

A similar effort on the part of members of the United Breth- 
ren body also failed. Among those who composed the short- 
lived congregation were William Neville, John Taylor, David 
Engle, John R. McKenzie, William McKenzie, E. White, Clark 
Rogers, and Joshua Larkins. 

Dravo Chapel of the Methodist Episcopal Church was built 
in 1869, the organization dating a few years earlier. The chapel 
cost $3000, and was dedicated November 21, 1869, Rev. Sylves- 
ter Burt preaching the sermon. The first trustees were George 
Dobbs, John Moore, A. Russell, Lucius Conrad, Samuel John- 
ston, Amos Doutt, and Enoch Fowler. The services of the con- 
gregation have been largely maintained by the generous aid of 
the Hon. John F. Dravo, for whom the chapel was named, and 
who as a local minister of the Methodist Church preached there 
regularly until 1900, and still does so occasionally. 

The Presbyterian Church at Vanport. — In February and 
March of 1888 union meetings were held in the Dravo Chapel at 
Vanport. As a result of these services thirty-five members were 
added to the roll of the Presbyterian Church of Beaver, whose 
pastor, the Rev. John K. KcKallip, with officers and members of 
that church, had been active in the work. The session of the 
Beaver Church felt that they should provide stated religious 

930 History of Beaver County 

services for the Vanport membership on their own ground, and 
accordingly, the vacant church-btiilding of the Baptists having 
been secured, Mr. McKallip began on May 27, 1888, to conduct 
public worship there every alternate Sabbath. A Sunday-school 
was also organized under the auspices of the session, July 7, 

1889, with ruling elder Darius Singleton as superintendent. 
These efiEorts were so successful as to encourage the people to 
undertake the organization of a Presbyterian church. Accord- 
ingly a petition with ninety -one signatures attached, asking for 
such an organization, was presented to the Presbytery of Alle- 
gheny, December 10, 1889. The petition was granted, and the 
new church was organized by a committee of Presbytery, Janu- 
ary 28, 1890, with sixty-two members. Messrs. John S. Reed, 
John McCuUough, Thomas E. Conway, and I. F. Springer were 
elected, ordained, and installed ruling elders. The church was 
immediately favored with a large increase of membership, there 
being within a month thirty-three additions, all but one on con- 
fession of faith. Following are the names of the persons dis- 
missed by the session of the church at Beaver, January 26, 

1890, to unite with the Vanport Church, fifty-four in all: 

Mrs. Elizabeth Blair, Mr. Matthew Brookmyer, Mrs. Annie 
Brookmyer, Miss Ida A. Brookmyer, Mr. Edmund H. Douds, 
Mrs. Minerva Douds, Mr. Elihu Eckler, Mrs. Sophia E. Eckler, 
Mr. Frank L. Eckler, Mr. Alfred S. Eckler, Miss Rebecca E. 
McCullough, Miss Annie L. McCullough, Mrs. Emma Quillen, 
Mr. John S. Reed, Mrs. Drusilla Reed, Mr. Bernard Reed, Mr. 
Leon Reed, Miss Zoe Reed, Miss Maggie R. Reed, Mr. Samuel M. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Priscilla J. Ck)urley, Mr. George W. Grim, Miss 
Frances G. Johnson, Mrs. Eva Edwards, Mr. James P. Edwards, 
Miss Eliza A. Edwards, Miss Jennie V. Edwards, Mr. Samuel 
H. Maginnis, Mrs. Maggie Maginnis, Miss Minnie T. Maginnis, 
Mr. Isaac Minor, Mrs. Rosanna Minor, Mr. John Myers, Mrs. 
Susie Myers, Mrs. Minda R. Myers, Mr. John McCullough, Mrs. 
Sarah J. McCullough, Mrs. Mary Reynolds, Mr. Henry Sebring, 
Mrs. Margaret Sebring, Mr. George S. Sebring, Miss Caroline Se- 
bring, Mr. Isaac F. Springer, Mrs. Viola L. Springer, Mrs. Eliza 
Stone, Mr. Thomas W. Stone, Mrs. Minnie L. Stone, Mr. Charles 
C. Stone, Mr. Samuel L. Stone, Miss Catherine A. Stone, Miss 
Eva May Stone, Mrs. Lizzie Stone, Mrs. James C. Withrow, Mrs. 
Etta D. Withrow. 

Indian Pictographs on Ohio River near Smith's Kerry, Beaver Ctmnty, Pa., U. S. A. 

lalf-tonc Reproductions from Casts in CamcKie Miincuin, Pittsburg, Pa. ; and from phutngniphs by Jnmcs P. 
I..eaf, C.K.. of Rochester, Pu.. showing Pictographs I'lr situ. 


History of Beaver County 931 

Through the generosity of John M. Buchanan, Esq., and D. 
Singleton, of Beaver, the Baptist church-building was bought 
for this new church, and regular services were begun. October 
21, 1890, Allen Krichbaum was ordained and installed pastor of 
the church. He was dismissed at his own request in May, 1893 1 
and July 3, 1894, T. Pliny Potts was ordained and installed. 
Mr. Potts served the church until April 8, 1902, and in 1903 
Mr. M. M. Rogers was installed pastor. 


Ohio township is situated north of the Ohio River and next 
to the Ohio State line. Columbiana County, Ohio, bounds it on 
the west. On the north it is bounded by South Beaver town- 
ship, on the east by Brighton and Industry townships, and on 
the south by Industry township and the Ohio River. 

The surface of the township is broken, the soil is good and is 
underlaid with oil, coal, fire-clay, limestone, and sandstone. Its 
streams are small ; Dry Run, Island Run, Bealer*s Run, and others 
rising within its limits near the center, and passing with a very 
rapid fall into the Ohio River; and Little Beaver Creek, which, 
after having left the county and the State, enters both again 
and empties into the Ohio just at the southwestern edge of this 

Ohio township was formed in 1805 by a division of South 
Beaver, being part of the southern section of that township. At 
the same Sessions of the court (May, 1805), the court appointed 
John Witherow constable for the newly formed township. The 
population as shown by the United States Census was, in 1880, 
1376; in 1890, 1072; and in 1900, 939. The report of the Sec- 
retary of Internal Affairs for 1900 showed for Ohio township 

* We have several times quoted from Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country, the 
journal of F. Cuming, who, in 1807, passed down the Ohio River. His book was pub- 
lished in Pittsburg in 1810, and a note on page 84 says: 

"This [the Little Beaver] is a valuable stream for water works, though wildly and 
romantically hemmed in by vast hills on both sides. There are two grist mills, a saw mill 
and a large paper mill, all within two miles of its mouth ; the latter has lately been erected, 
and is owned by Jacob Bowman, of Brownsville, John Bever of Georgetown, and John 
Coulter, who resides at the mill. Over this creek, about a mile from its mouth, a new 
toll bridge was erected in the summer and fall of 1 809, on the road leading from Washington 
county to New Lisbon, Canton, Worster, &c., state of Ohio. About a mile above Ltttle 
Beaver, in the bed of the Ohio, and near the northwestern side, a substance bubbles up, 
and may be collected at particular times on the surface of the water, similar to Seneca otl. 
When the water is not too high, it can be strongly smelt while crossing the river at George- 
town : It is presumed to rise from or through a bed of mineral coal embowelled under the 
bed of the river. The virtues of the Seneca oil are similar to those of British oil. and sup- 
posed to be equally valuable in the cures of rheumatick pains, &c." 

r^yt Hbtory oc Bearer Qasatx 

^t r*au ei'-^i::^ eawKn^ fr»:d t^jutricc t^iz^: teal < 

ti,>^, ."V; Tlie UXxjwtss^ Tila^gcs arc post-cooes arc ia ^ss 

ThU u a village Sixateii oa the Ohio Rircr az>i the CSerclazid 
ft VtlvC^nr^ RsahogA, sear t2ie soothvestem comer of Okio 
Xf/irrixYii,^^. It lies pst 2icrr^A the rrrcr from Gcocjgetcvn. with 
wfii/.h it h coTirifccted by a feny that has been in operatxoa for 
or/er a htindred years, givnig the sxans of c o mmuni cation 
l>etireen the fioothem and northern portioos of the co unty . 
Tbr/mas Smith's ferry is mentioned in a road petition presented 
to the court of AUt^ntay Cotmty in December, 1799. and is 
described as being in the lower end of Moon township (see page 
Mf), Thfftnsts, Smith came from Maryland about 1790 with his 
family, Je^ise. Thomas. Sarnnel, and Joseph and Racfad, Ann 
and Sarah, He was one of the first settlers at Georgetown, and 
Smith's Perry was named from this famihr. Benjamin Dawson 
owned the ferry sometime prior to and dnring 1817,' when it 
wai^ bought again by Jesse Smith. Jesse died May 18, 1818. 
His sons Jesse and Thomas ran the ferry after his death. 

The first house in the village of Smith's Perry was built by 
James Clark, who was killed by the Indians about 1792. He 
was the first person buried in the old graveyard at Georgetown. 
Th^5 next house was one built by Benjamin Dawson, which stood 
near the site of the Western Hotel. 

Harris's Husiness Directory for 1837 names S. & S. Smith as 
menhants and innkeepers in the village. 

The post-office at Smith's Ferry was established in 1834, and 
has harl the following persons in charge: 

Samuel Smith, appointed October 20, 1834; John W. Mc- 
Parran, November 15, 1862; Jesse Smith, April 6, 1866; George 
W. McCormick, September 9, 1885; Thomas L. Minesinger, June 
4, 1889; Harvey Wallace, July 24, 1893; and William F. Smith, 
November 22, 1897. 

Al>out 1852, Thomas Elverson, father of W. H. Elverson of 
New Bri^'hton, with a Scotchman named Samuel Pollock, started 

* See map of Beaver County in i6i 7 by Hvigh McCiillough facing p. S83. 

Indian Pictographs on Ohio River near Smith's Kerry, Beaver County, Pa., U. S. A. 

Half-tone Reproductions from Casts in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa.; and from photographs by James P. 
Leaf, C.E., of Rochester, Pa., showing Pictographs im situ. 

History of Beaver County 933 

what was, perhaps, the first pottery in Beaver County about 
a quarter of a mile above Smith's Ferry, near a steamboat 
landing known as Rock Port. They made what is known as 
Rockingham and yellow ware, and continued the business there 
tmtil about i860. 

About half a mile above Smith's Ferry, on the north or 
right-hand bank of the Ohio, is a large group of interesting 
Indian picture-carvings. These pictures have been cut with 
some rude instrument upon the surface of the Piedmont sand- 
stone which is here exposed in the bed of the river at a three- 
foot stage of water. They are scattered over the surface of the 
rock ledge for a space about forty feet in width and seven hun- 
dred feet in length, and represent a great variety of the forms 
of men and animals, birds, fishes, and reptiles; including the 
beaver, the bear, the wolf, the turtle, the snake, and the eagle; 
human foot-prints and the tracks of various beasts, as well as 
inanimate objects, such as the scalp-hoop, bows and arrows, etc. 
There is also a picture of a bison chasing a dog, which is sup- 
posed to be the only existing drawing of the American buffalo 
made by Indians. 

Whether these carvings or drawings have any significance or 
not cannot now be certainly known. Some consider them only 
the idle work of Indians loafing or fishing along the river. They 
may possibly, however, have some connection with individual or 
tribal totemism, or be the record of achievements in battle or 
the chase. It has been suggested that they may possibly mark 
the boundaries of territory or purchases. Similar rock-pictures 
are found elsewhere in the State. In Venango County, on the 
left bank of the Allegheny River, five miles south of Franklin 
(nine by water), is a rock with nine figures cut upon it, which 
is popularly known as the "Indian god" ^; and below the dam 
upon the Susquehanna River at Safe Harbor, Pennsylvania, are 
two gneissic rocks on which are a large number of pictures,* 
many of them the counterpart of those at Smith's Ferry. The 
location of the two large groups, and the repetition in them of 
the forms of the wolf and the turtle, from which well-known 
tribes of the Delaware Indians were named, would seem to con- 
nect them with that nation. 

' Sec picture of this rock in Day's Historical Colkcticns of Penn., p. 638. 
* Shown on the Historical Map of Pennsylvania, pub. by the Historical Society of 
Penngylvania in 1875. 

VOL. II.— 31. 

934 History of Beaver County 

Casts and photographs of the most important of the figures 
at Smith's Ferry have been made by the Carnegie Museum, of 
Pittsburg, under the direction of Dr. W. J. Holland, and by 
Mr. James P. Leaf, C. E., of Rochester, Pa. Reproductions of 
these by the courtesy of the gentlemen named are furnished in 
this work. 

The second Protestant Episcopal Church organized in Beaver 
County was at Smith's Ferry. Its organization was never per- 
fected, however, and many removals from the locality brought 
about its complete dissolution, the church at Fairview receiving 
many of its members. 

THE smith's perry OIL FIELD 

Perhaps the most interesting part of the history of Ohio 
township is that pertaining to its oil, since what is known as 
the Smith's Ferry Oil Territory is located almost entirely within 
this township. Long before any borings were made here, oil 
would ooze out on the Ohio River, and was collected by cloths, 
and was called "Seneca oil." It still continues to float out on 
the surface of the water along the Ohio. The first well was 
bored by Messrs. Pattens, Finlens, Swan & Company, who, in 
December, i860, obtained some oil at 180 feet. In the Febru- 
ary following the Excelsior Company struck a heavy oil at a 
depth of 72 feet, only a few feet below the level of the Ohio, 
in a well called the '*Good Intent** and in the Piedmont Sand- 
stone, which is seen in the bed of the Little Beaver above its 
mouth, and along the Ohio at low water, one mile above Smith*s 
Ferry. This well obtained 400 barrels of 29° oil, when it was 
completely exhausted. On the 19th of March, 1862, the Emeline 
Oil Company, composed of P. M. Wallover, I. M. Pennoch, and 
F. Darlington, got a fair w^ell at the lower edge of Glasgow at a 
depth of 585 feet. This was a producing well for about twenty- 
five years. By this time the excitement had become intense, 
wells were bored in every direction, and the territory was rapidly 
developed. It also became known that the productive oil-rock 
was to be sought from 700 to 730 feet below the Kittanning coal, 
or about 600 feet below the bed of the Ohio at Smith's Ferry. 

The areas of development lie in the vicinity of Smith's 
Ferry and on Dr>' Run and its tributaries, and along Little 
Beaver and Island Run. The wells are all small, none ever 

Indian Pictographs on Ohio River near Smith's Ferry, Beaver County, Pa., U. S. A. 

Half-cone Reproductions from Casts in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. ; and from photographs by James P. 
Leaf, C.E., of Rochester, Pa., showing Pictographs in situ. 


■^^ • " c^- 

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>.' r .s. .".■ 1 

^r_n. '.it.j^n _ n. ...r.?..— . _.>r". .. r nrrr, r. . »» .. »» .»r- 
Bliik Hj.-:^k 7:5:-:~:e hi> hj.^ :hr ::l':"^r:j: :" vha:%:v: 

: S * : : X I M ; C : rrr.: : k I^ e : e :v.': t r : > . : > r ? . 7 r. .' : v. .i > v. ? :^ v* \ .; 
Jin-ir* :^ :^-c ji-v:> ?.-.7ker. J.»r.u;.r.* :-. :>>> W ■.>..;■/.: 
E:k>?. ?e':r-3.r.- i;. :5:r. 

EsTher p.fT-inlre h:i> leer. >fr\e.i :r. r.: •:< e>:.i': '..shiv.c::: l^v 
Rr.ber: C. Davis. aro::r.:ei M^r.^h li, :>ci Th:> :> /.: :V.o 

St. Pa'-'s Pr:<:es::ir.: E: :>c.^r."/. C::i:roh F.,:rv:o\v was 
OTZSiTi'.zel >:n:et:n:e be: ween :5;r .\ *^S,;5. drvn; :\^r a w^s acquired by deed o: CiOorj:o M.^sor. .iv.d 
Cathenr.e. his v.ife. bearing date Octyi^er r^. iS^;c^. T^.o'.v 
niembers -.vere vrLncirai'v o: the fariilie? of Masons. Hoi^o^. and 

93^ History of Beaver County 

Dawsons. After the dissolution of the church at Smith's Ferry 
the Fairview congregation received many of its members. The 
pastors of this church have been for the most part those who 
have served at Georgetown. In 1900 the Rev. Edwin Weary 
was in charge. 

New Salem Presbyterian Church is located one mile west of 
Black Hawk post-office, Ohio township, this county, on the 
State road known as the "Tuscarawas Road," and close to the 
dividing line between Ohio and South Beaver townships. 

The first recorded appointment for Presbyterian preaching 
north of the Ohio River is found in the minutes of the meeting 
of the Presbytery of Ohio at Chartiers Church, near Canonsburg, 
Washington County, Pa., October 26, 1796, when the Rev. 
Messrs. John McMillan and Thomas Marquis were appointed 
to supply **on the northwest side of the Ohio, on the second and 
third Sabbaths of November, 1796.** There were no organized 
churches in this region at that time, but from the Christian 
people living there, requests had been sent to Presbytery for 
supplies, and these men were sent out in answer to such re- 
quests. This church and the church at Darlington (Mount 
Pleasant) may have well been organized by McMillan ana 
Marqviis at this time. The date of organization is probably, how- 
ever, before 1798, though it is possible that there never was any 
formal organization by Presbyterial committee. Some of these 
earher churches seem not to have had their origin in the formal 
action of Presbytery, but simply to have been a natural result 
of the people in a given neighborhood associating themselves 
for worship, and being finally recognized by Presbytery as 
having an ecclesiastical existence. 

This church has during its history been connected with six 
different Presbyteries. These were, first, the Presbytery of 
Ohio; second, that of Hartford, to which it was attached in 
1808; third, that of Beaver (1833) ; New Lisbon (1838) ; Beaver 
again (i860); and in 1870 the Allegheny Presbytery, in which 
it is now. 

The name of this church was probably given to it in affec- 
tionate remembrance of Salem Church in Westmoreland County, 
from whose bounds a part of the people had come : that was old 
Salem, this, New Salem. The first pastor, Thomas E. Hughes, 
was called by this church in connection with Mount Pleasant, 


Indian Pictographs on Ohio River near Smith's Ferry, Beaver County, l*a., U. S. A. 

Half-cone Reproductions from Casu in Carnegie Muieum, Pittsburg, Pa. ; and from photographs by James P, 
I<eaf, C.E., of Rochester, Pa., showing Pictogrmphi in titu. 

History of Beaver County 937 

April 16, 1798. He served for some nine years, and then re- 
sided to give his whole time to the Mount Pleasant charge. 
The membership in 1804 was forty -one, and in 1807 forty-six. 
For nearly twenty years after Mr. Hughes's pastorate ceased, the 
church had only occasional supplies. In September, 18 13, 
£zekiel Glasgow was installed pastor in connection with Beaver 
Church, but lived only eight months afterwards.^ Among the 
supplies were Rev. Messrs. Satterfield and Vallandingham, the 
latter the father of the noted Ohio politician, now deceased. 

On April II, 1820, a call was given to Rev. William Reed. 
He accepted, and one year later was installed pastor for one 
half time, the other half being given to Long's Run Church, 
near Calcutta, Ohio. This pastorate continued until i860, a 
period of forty years from the call. Mr. Reed was bom in 1785 
and died at the age of eighty-two. He resided in the Long's 
Run congregation, having resigned the pastorate of New Salem 
when he was seventy-five years of age. His successor was the 
late Rev. George N. Johnston, D.D., of Pittsburg, who first 
preached as supply in May, i860. He was ordained and in- 
stalled pastor of this church, September 11, 1861, and remained 
until 1863. The next pastor was Rev. Albert Dilworth, who 
was also ordained in this church. His pastorate at that time 
was short, and in 1866 he was succeeded by the Rev. D. L. 
Dickey, D.D., this being his first charge also, and his ordination 
taking place in this church. He remained but one year, and 
the pulpit was vacant until 1869, when Rev. Alexander Mc- 
Gaughey became pastor, remaining until 1871. Mr. McGaughey 
died within the bounds of the congregation, and is the only 
pastor buried in the church burying-grounds. 

Rev. John R. Dundas, now deceased, of Homeworth, Ohio, 
officiated as stated supply for several years; and in 1875 Rev. 
William M. Kane was installed and served for a short time, 
being succeeded by Rev. James T. Patterson as stated supply 
for three years. In 1885 Mr. Dilworth, the former pastor, re- 
turned as stated supply and remained as such until 1899. He 
was followed by Rev. Robert H. Allen, 1902, and Rev. James B. 
Price, 1904. 

For the first forty years of the existence of the church there 
is a total lack of sessional records, but so far as could be learned 

* See under Beaver borough, p.'.64S. 

938 History of Beaver County 

the following is a list of the ruling elders who have served in it: 
Samuel Thompson, Robert Bradshaw, James Gorrel, Moses 
Louthan, these being the first of whom there is any record; 
George Wilson, James Wilson, Thomas Barclay, John Thompson, 
William Hunter, Hugh Mitchell, Andrew McClain, Joseph D. 
Reed, John McConnel, Robert Graham, James McMillin, Joseph 
Wilson, Robert H. Barclay, Francis Scott, Dr. Cunningham, Dr. 
T. G. Boyd, Abner Morton, R. P. McMillen, J. M. Hartford, 
Thomas B. Hunter, William Dunlap, J. F. Bradshaw, W. T. 
Eakin, and J. C. Warrick. 

The first services of this church were held near the Caughey 
burying-ground. Later, a rough log church was bviilt near the 
site of the present edifice, and in 1822 a hewed log bviilding re- 
placed it. The lot on which the present church stands was 
donated by George Foulkes, and, later, John Glass donated 
additional ground, which includes the spring. 

This congregation has given several of its sons to the Christian 
ministry. Of these two were sons of Rev. William Reed, one 
of whom died on the eve of entering the work. The other. Rev. 
David Reed, was long a successful pastor, serving various 
churches in Ohio. 

Rev. Milton McMillin, son of Joseph McMillin, entered the 
ministry in 1861, and remained in the work until his death in 
1876. One of his sons is also a minister. 

Two sons of Elder Francis Scott became successful ministers, 
and, so far as known, are the last contribution of this congre- 
gation to the Presbyterian ministry. 

New Salem celebrated its centennial anniversary on Wednes- 
day, August 31, 1898. 

Four Mile Square United Presbyterian Church. — March 28, 
181 1, application for preaching at this place was made to the 
Associate Presbytery of Ohio (organized 1808) at a meeting 
of that body at Greersburg, now Dariington, and Rev. David 
Imbrie was appointed to preach.' Services were held by him 
in the woods on the farm of George Barclay, now owned by his 
son, A. S. Barclay. 

* Mr. Imbrie was a mimster of the Associate Church, and pastor of Little Beaver (now 
Bethel). Brush Run (now Darlington), and Big Beaver from his ordination in 1806 until 
his death in 1843. He was one of the nine students who founded the "Franklin Literary 
Society" in Canonsburg Academy, afterwards Jefferson College. He studied theology 
with Dr. Anderson at Eudolpha Hall on Service Creek. 

History of Beaver County 939 

Again, at a meeting of Presbytery, February 13, 181 2, as 
shown by the minutes, Mr. Duncan was appointed to preach at 
Anderson's on the second Sabbath of March. It is believed 
that the Anderson here named was the same who owned the 
land now in possession of D. W. Scott and others, for although 
he was a Presbyterian, he is said to have offered the new con- 
gregation ground on which to build their church. For some 
reason his offer was not accepted. 

Mr. Imbrie was again appointed to preach at this point on 
the first Sabbath of July, 181 2. In this month and year the 
congregation is believed to have been organized, though the 
exact date is not known. The first communion was held at 
that time by Mr. Imbrie, assisted by Dr. John Anderson of 
Eudolpha Hall, and they are thought to have effected the 

The name of this church, — Four Mile Square, or simply Four 
Mile, as it is usually called, — was given to it from its being 
near that part of District No. i of the Depreciation lands which 
was surveyed by Alexander McClean, and which, on account of 
its shape and dimensions, was later familiarly known as '*Four 
Mile Square.** ' The first-church building of this congregation 
— a brick structure 40x45, erected about 183 1 at a cost of 
$^00, was on the farm of John Hunter in Brighton township. 
This was used until 1872, when the present building was erected 
at a cost of $4000. It is situated about eighty rods from the 
site of the old one, and is in Ohio township. 

Among the first members of this congregation were two fam- 
ilies named Graham, two named Johnson, with others named 
McLaughlin, Herron, and Ingles. Soon after these came the 
English, Rhodes, and Slentz families, the Camerons, McCulloughs, 
Andersons, Vances, and Scotts. 

There are no records showing who were elected as elders at 
the time of the organization, but the first session is thought to 
have been Hugh Graham, Hance Johnson, and Robert Herron. 
In 1 83 1 the session was composed of Hugh Graham, Robert 
Herron, William Scott, Barnard Anderson, Robert Barnes, An- 
drew Ingles, John Hunter, and Wilham Vance. In after years 
the following appear: John A. Scroggs, 1838; James Graham, 
John Shane, Alexander Ewing, and John S. Herron, 1844; 

» See vol. i., p. i86. 

940 History of Beaver County 

William Gailey and George Barclay, 1852; and in 1855, Jesse 
McGaffick; in i860, William Edgar; 1861, Joseph Niblock; 
1866, N. I. McCormick; 1869, Samuel Gibson, John Slentz, and 
William H. Laird; 1875, David W. Scott, David Hammond, and 
Samuel Anderson; 1881, J. C. Wilson; 1893, John Johnson and 
Joseph Gilliland; 1900, C. A. Hunter and D. H. Gibson, — ^in all, 
thirty-three elders, of whom only six are living. 

If any pastoral relations existed between 181 2 and 1820 the 
names of the ministers have not been preserved, but it is thought 
that during this period the church had mainly Presbyterial 
supplies. November i, 1820, Elijah N. Scroggs was ordained by 
Ohio Presbytery and installed pastor of several churches, one 
of which was Four Mile Square. He continued with this church 
until April, 1849. Mr. Scroggs was the youngest son in a fam- 
ily of twenty-one children. He died December 20, 185 1, while 
pastor of West Union, Ohio. Rev. John A. McGill was his 
successor, remaining in the charge from October 7, 185 1, until 
November 15, 1853, when he resigned. The United Presbyterian 
Church of Beaver was organized by him, while principal of 
Beaver Academy. The pulpit of this church was vacant, except 
for occasional supplies, from this date until June 11, 1861, when 
Rev. David H. A. McLean became pastor of Beaver and Four 
Mile Square. He resigned the latter charge, September 25, 
1866, becoming in the following year principal of the Beaver 
Ladies' Seminary. The pastoral succession since has been 
John C. Evans, September 17, 1867-June 13, 1871; Josiah 
Thompson, January, 1875-November, 1876; J. A. Edie, 1881- 
1886; J. S. T. Milligan, 1892-96; D. M. Davis, 1901-03; and 
A. L. Hazlett, 1904, — in all, nine settled pastors since the or- 
ganization, six of whom are still living. 


This township is centrally located north of the Ohio River, 
and is bounded on the north by Chippewa and Patterson town- 
ships, on the west by Ohio and Industry townships, on the 
south by Industry and Borough townships and the borough of 
Beaver, and on the east by Bridgewater and Fallston boroughs. 

Its streams are Brady's Run, which flows through its north - 
em part and empties into the Big Beaver below Fallston; and 
Two Mile, Four Mile, and Six Mile runs, flowing through its 

History of Beaver County 941 

central and western sections and finally empt)dng into the 
Ohio River. These streams are small, but one, at least, has 
some historic interest, being connected with the fame of the 
noted Indian scout. Captain Samuel Brady, and his exploits. 
This township was formed, with others, in 1816, from parts of 
South Beaver and Ohio townships. Its surface is generally 
hilly, and abundance of pure coal is found in several parts, 
with good limestone and sandstone, some quarries of the latter 
yielding a beautiful building stone. Near the mouth of Brady's 
Run John Dickey put down, some years ago, a salt well, and 
salt was manufactured here for a long time by him. Some show 
of oil was also obtained but the well was never pumped. 

The population of Brighton township, as shown by the 
United States Census for 1890, was 773, and for 1900 it was 687. 
The report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs for 1900 makes 
the following showing for the township: Taxables, 279; num- 
ber of acres of cleared land, 8323; timber land, 3014; value of 
all real estate, $508,628; real estate exempt from taxation, 
$6700; real estate taxable, $501,928. 

Through this township passed the celebrated Indian path 
known as the "Tuscarawas Trail,*' which is now almost iden- 
tical with one of the main highways of the county. 


Darlington township was erected, October 15, 1847, from 
Little Beaver. It lies in the extreme northwestern comer of 
the county, and is bounded on the north by Little Beaver town- 
ship in Lawrence County, on the east by Big Beaver, and on t"he 
south by South Beaver township in this county. Middleton 
and Unity townships in Ohio bound it on the west. There are 
no streams rising within its limits, but the north fork of the 
Little Beaver bends in and out again on its eastern line, makes 
an angle through its southeastern comer, and then flows along 
its southern border to the State line. The surface of Darlington 
township is rolling, and its soil is equal in fertility to any in the 
county. Its population in 1900 was 1285. In that year it had 
441 taxables, 12,053 acres of cleared land, and 1498 acres of 
timber land; and the total value of its real estate was $588,010, 
including $1550 of real estate exempt from taxation, and $586,460 

942 History of Beaver County 

When Lawrence County was erected in 1849 out parts of 
Beaver and Mercer counties, the line separating Beaver County 
from the new cotinty, in passing through several of the town- 
ships of Beaver County, so divided the township of Little Beaver 
in that county as to leave in it a very small portion, a mere 
strip of said township, which contained only about a dozen 
taxable inhabitants. This strip of Little Beaver township ad- 
joined the line of Darlington township on the north, and on a 
petition of sundry inhabitants of the latter township, the Court 
of Quarter Sessions of Beaver County, on the 30th of Novem- 
ber, 1849, niade a decree extending the line of Darlington town- 
ship up to the line of Lawrence Cotmty, so as to bring the said 
strip within the limits of Darlington township.^ 


The geological features of this township are peculiarly in- 
teresting and important.' In many portions of it are found 
large blocks of granite lying perched upon the highest hilltops, 
as well as in the valleys. Granite does not belong to the rocks 
of this region, there being none nearer than several hundred 
miles to the north. Therefore these perched blocks or erratics, 
as they are called by geologists, must have been carried by 
some agency to the point where they now lie. It is believed 
that in ages past, when this whole region was submerged to a 
depth of probably thirteen hundred feet, these huge intruders 
on our soil were transported here on the bosom of vast ice-bergs 
upon which they had fallen, and which, breaking away from the 
glaciers of the Canadian highlands, gradually melted as they 
passed into the warmer waters of the south, dropping the rocks 
which were imbedded in them upon the surface where we find 
them. These granite blocks are found only in the valley of the 
Big Beaver and that portion of Beaver County west from it. 
They have never been seen in the geological district east of it, 
nor south of the Ohio River in Pennsylvania. They are of all 
sizes, ranging from six inches in diameter up to several feet. 
One was seen in Darlington township ten feet long, eight feet 
across, and six feet high. 

* Road Docket No. a. p. 338. 

* Sec Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Report of Progress Q. pp. p, 53-53. 

History of Beaver County 943 


Three miles below Darlington borough, on the property of 
Hon. Ira F. Mansfield, is a great bed of cannel coal, varying in 
thickness from seven to twelve feet. A few remarks upon this 
once important product will be in place here. 

The coal beds of Beaver County number eight, of variable 
thickness and quality. The two most generally mined are num- 
bers six and seven, varying in thickness from three to five feet. 
The coal has a bright resinous luster, is of somewhat columnar 
structure and very friable. It contains numerous bands of 
bright crystaline coal and mineral charcoal, showing very little 
iron pyrites. The coal swells very little during coking, yield- 
ing a good coherent coke and gray ash ^ith slight reddish tinge. 
The analysis of our average bituminous coals shows about sev- 
enty per cent, of volatile matter. These make an excellent fuel 
coal, and have found a ready market with railroads, furnaces, 
and the Lake trade. 

The number four, or cannel, coal can be persistently traced 
on a level of its own across the entire county, but only at Cannel- 
ton does the vein have thickness and quality to warrant the 
mining. The cannel coal was first opened here in 1838, and 
has been continuously mined and shipped to all the gas com- 
panies in the United States and Canada. An analysis reverses 
the per cents from bituminous and shows that cannel coal is of 
a more woody nature than bituminous, and was formed from 
less decomposed vegetation in situ in open lagoons under water. 
In the making of gas, by a small admixture of cannel with a 
cheap grade of bituminous coals, the same quantity of gas was 
secured as from high-priced coals, and a gas that would carry 
long distances without condensing and bum with a white, even 
light, showing no core of red in the center of the flame. The 
cannel coal rests upon a bed of fine shale, in which are splendidly 
preserved remains of animal and plant life. Many of the fossil 
plants are perfect, showing leaves, flowers, and fruits, and of 
animals both the male and female have been found. Hon. Ira 
F. Mansfield has made here for the Geological Survey of Penn- 
sylvania one of the finest collections of fossils that has ever 
been secured at any single locality in this country, and of the 
several hundred new species of fossil plants and animals found 

944 History of Beaver County 

at this place more than twenty have been named for him. The 
first indubitable mushroom ever discovered in any of the coal 
measures is one of the treasures of this collection. 


Edwin K. Morse — 1848-53. Mr. Morse came from Poland 
Ohio, and was the first to extend the trade in cannel coal, hauling 
the same to the new line of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railway until the completion of the Darlington Cannel Coal 
Railway, in which he was a large stockholder. His shipments 
were largely to Pittsburg and Philadelphia. 

Freeman Butts — 1858-76. This gentleman was a resident 
of Syracuse, N. Y., who purchased the Sterling and Carson 
lands, operating the No. 6 and 7 veins of bituminous coals. 
During the Civil War he filled a four years* contract for two 
hundred tons per day, and in later years he shipped largely to 
the Lake trade. 

Henrici & Lenz — 1852-80. These were representatives of 
the Harmony Society, who, being compelled to take the Dar- 
lington Cannel Coal Railway, leased the cannel mine and, with 
their own bituminous mine, were large shippers to the east and 
the Lake trade. P. L. Grim was the general manager. Their 
coal and railroad investments in Darlington township were, 
however, unsuccessful, involving a loss to the Society of over 

Ira F. Mansfield — 1865-1904. Returning from the Civil 
War in 1865, Mr. Mansfield purchased the cannel coal mines at 
Cannelton, and has been ever since active in the business of 
mining. Some of his early trade was with oil companies, who 
by cooking the cannel coal in retorts, secured from one to two 
barrels of oil from each ton of coal. Gradually the market was 
extended to gas companies in Canada and New England States, 
and for over twenty-two years the output averaged one hundred 
tons a day. For several years Mr. Mansfield also operated the 
Beaver, Block, and Economy mines. 

Sterling Mining Company — 1885-1904. This company was 
organized by W. H. Warner of Niles, Ohio, and operated the 
bituminous veins from the Mansfield and Duff lands. They have 
been quite successful, having a railroad and furnace trade. 

History of Beaver County 945 

Goff-Kirby Coal Company — 1 890-1904. Members of this 
firm reside in Cleveland. The company operate veins 4 and 6 
tmder lands of Messrs. Butts, Duff, and Mansfield. They ship 
largely to Cleveland, and by Lake to Canada and western cities. 

In addition to those named above, there have been some 
small firms, which operated for a time, but failed; and there 
are also in the township many farm mines for local wagon trade. 

Cannelton is a village at the Mansfield mines referred to 
above, lying near the Little Beaver Creek. Its post-office was 
established in 1880, and has been served by the following per- 
sons: Samuel Henry, March 2, 1880; Robert A. Craighead, 
January 17, 1884; George S. Veon, January 19, 1885; Ira F. 
Mansfield, September 7, 1885; John Grim, March 7, 1888; John 
W. Inman, June 20, 1888; James Dryden, October 19, 1891; 
Samuel M. Dryden, January 31, 1901. 

Near this place, on the Little Beaver, Tanacharison, the 
Half-King had a himting cabin. When Washington came to 
Logstown in 1753 he had a runner sent after him to bring him 
from this camp for a conference at Logstown.' About his 
camping place many Indian relics have been found. Hon. I. F. 
Mansfield, of Cannelton and Beaver, has a fine collection that 
was gathered here. Colonel Bouquet, in his expedition against 
the Ohio Indians, encamped near here (just across the State 
line), October 7, 1764. A small elevation in the neighborhood, 
which was occupied by part of his force still retains the name of 
"Bouquet's Knob." 

Near Cannelton is the Roman Catholic Church of St. Rose. 
— The first Catholic families who came to this neighborhood 
were drawn hither by the opportunities for employment afforded 
by the then active industry of cannel coal-mining. They were 
at first under the necessity of going to New Castle or Beaver for 
religious privileges. Later, Rev. James Reid, pastor of the 
church at Beaver, served the people here, coming once a month 
to visit them, and saying mass in the homes of John Quigley, 
Samuel Myers, Michael Gishbaugher, and others. The number 
of Catholic families in the neighborhood had by 1861 increased 
to such an extent that Father Reid decided to erect a small 
church-building for their worship. Accordingly, on a lot which 

* Washington's Jotimal of X753. Reprinted in Ttu Olden Time, pp. 12-27; History 
of Western Penna., Appendix No. VI. 

946 History of Beaver County 

had been donated for the purpose by Samuel Wescott of Jersey 
City, a primitive structure was built, the work being done inside 
of three days. This rude structure was used for several years 
by Father Reid. On account of failing health he was compelled 
to give up his mission work, and was succeeded in the charge by 
Rev. James Canevin of New Castle, and, later. Rev. J. M. Mit- 
chell of New Brighton assumed it. This was in 1864. The 
Rev. J. C. Bigham then became pastor of the churches at New 
Brighton and Cannelton, February 2, 1866, and the latter con- 
tinuing to increase in membership, it was evident that a new 
building wotdd have to be erected. For this purpose the Har- 
mony Society, in 1871, donated a lot 250 by 100 feet, and that 
year the present building — 57 by 25 feet — ^was finished. It was 
dedicated, October 21, 187 1, Bishop Domenec officiating at the 
services. The old btiilding was removed to a point opposite, 
and was devoted to the uses of a parochial school. In 1873 a 
pastoral residence was erected on the church lot. The hard 
times following the panic of 1873 caused the closing of the 
school, which has never been reopened. Father Bigham was 
succeeded in February, 1877, by Father McMahon, who was the 
first resident priest which the charge had had. He was suc- 
ceeded in May by Rev. S. P. Herman, and he in the early part 
of the winter by Rev. Thos. Devlin. 

On the Fergus Johnson farm there was an old mill and tilt 
hammer forge, built about 181 5, which supplied the farmers in 
all that region with scythes and sickles. (See map facing p. 882.) 


Industry township is bounded by Ohio and Brighton town- 
ships on the north and west and by the Ohio River on the south 
and east. It is drained by Six-Mile and Wolf runs, two small 
streams which put into the Ohio near each other. This town- 
ship was formed February 7, 1856, out of Industry election dis- 
trict of Brighton and Ohio townships (seepage 890). 

The surface of the township is irregular, but it has a good 
soil and is well underlaid by coal of a fine quality, and by lime- 
stone and sandstone, which have been extensively mined and 
quarried. At the village of Industry is a salt well 800 feet deep, 
which was originally bored for oil, a show of which and some 
gas were obtained. Salt was manufactured from the water 

History of Beaver County 947 

from this well for some years at the rate of about ten barrels 
a day, twenty barrels of the water making one of salt. 

In 1900 Industry township had 268 taxables, 15,603 acres of 
cleared land, 2093 acres of timber land, and real estate amount- 
ing to $293,185. The latter was divided into real estate tax- 
able $285,235; and real estate exempt from taxation, $7950. 

In 1900 the population by the United States Census was 664. 


This is the only village in the township. It is situated on 
the north bank of the Ohio River, about seven miles from 
Beaver, and is a station on the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railway. 

The village of Industry dates its existence from September 
14, 1836, it having been laid out at that time by William Mc- 
Callister, but a post-office was established at this point in 1833. 
The postmasters have been as follows: 

Thomas McCreery, appointed April i6, 1833; William Cairns, May 9, 
1836; Jacob Ross, Aug. i, 1840; Hiram Cornell, July 31, 1845; Jacob 
Ross, Nov. 8, 1848; Jacob Russell, May 27, 1856; Adam Montgomery, 
Feb. 26, 1858; Lavinia J. Riley, July 23, 1861; Jane Jackman, May 31, 
1878; Levi Barnes, Nov. 10, 1885; Wilber F. Todd, April 26, 1889; 
Thomas J. Knight, July 24, 1893; and George A. Clear, Jime 14, 1897. 

About the middle of the last century a saw-mill was built 
here. This was bought in 1869 by the Baker Bros., who also 
established here a flouring-mill. In 1872 George Engle became 
a partner in the business, and in 1883 the sole proprietor. 

The United Brethren in Christ Church of Industry was 
organized in 1824 by Rev. Henry Purdy, with the following 
charter members: Mr. and Mrs. Biddle, Mr. and Mrs. John 
Knight, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Neville, Mr. and Mrs. John Cham- 
berlain, Mr. and Mrs. George Engle, and Mrs. John Cotton. 
Two church-buildings have been erected, cost unknown; one 
in 1849 and one in 1898. 

Industry was formerly connected with the Muskingum Con- 
ference (Ohio) . Among the ministers of this conference who have 
at various times served the church here were the following: 

A. Biddle, John McGaw, Jos. Paxson, E. Sluts, A. Brazee, John Todd, 

John Swihart, William Turner, Legget, George Fast, M. L. Spangler, 

and William Neville, The class is now in Allegheny Conference. Ministers : 
E. B. Kephart (now Bishop Kephart), John Stiner. B. F. Booth. W. R. 

Fimk, Zuck, William Truxal, Fulton, George Noden, James 

Shearer, George Raver, Bamhart, R. R. Funk, Miller. — 

948 History of Beaver County 

Fisher. Three of these were from the Indiastry class, viz., A. Biddle. 
John Todd and William Neville. They have labored eflfcctively in 
varioiis fields in Ohio and Indiana. 

The Presbyterian Church of Industry was organized Octo- 
ber 1 6, 1865, with seventeen members, by a conmiittee of the 
Presbytery of Allegheny. The membership was drawn prin- 
cipally from the Bethlehem Church of the south side. The first 
elders were John Jackman and J. W. Engle. In 1870 a frame 
church-building, 36 x 50 feet, was erected at a cost of $2600. 
The pastors from the beginning have been M. L. Wortman, 
M. A. Parkinson, P. J. Cummings, 1886; vacant, 1887-89; stated 
supply in 1890; Allan Krichbaum, 1891-93; vacant, 1894; 
T. Pliny Potts, 1895-1901 ; during 1903 the church at Industry is 
being served by M. M. Rogers, in connection with the congre- 
gations of Vanport and Bethlehem. 

Oak Grove Union Chapel is in the northwestern comer of 
Industry township. The history of this chapel is as follows. 
In 1899 a union Sunday-school was organized in Todd's school- 
house by A. E. Fox, who became its first superintendent. The 
school increased in numbers and interest until it was felt by the 
people that they should have a larger building and one suitable 
for church services. In March, 1900, a committee, consisting 
of Wm. Marx, M. F. Doughty, and Wm. Moore, was appointed 
to try to raise funds sufficient to build a chapel. About $950 
were raised, and at a meeting of the Sunday-school the members 
of the said committee were elected trustees and empowered to 
act as a building committee to erect a chapel. The ground for 
the building was donated by T. J. Knight and M. F. Doughty 
from a purchase which they had made for a cemetery. The 
work of building went forward with energy, the people doing all 
the excavating and hauling free of charge, and the chapel was 
completed the same year at a cost of about $1300. 

Sunday-school is held every Sunday, and preaching services 
whenever a minister can be secured. There have preached here 
since the chapel was erected the following ministers: Rev. 
Messrs. Funk, Miller, and Vondersmith of the United Brethren 
Church; Potts and Allen, of the Presbyterian; Young and 
Davis, of the United Presbyterian; Bates, Fields, and Dodds of 
the Christian; Smith and Grace of the Free Methodist; and 
Brownell, of the Covenanter. 

History of Beaver County 949 

John Rising is superintendent of the school at present, and 
George Burgetts, M. F. Doughty, and William Moore are the 
trustees. William Marx, one of the first trustees, died in the 
spring of 1 90 1. 

Oak Grove Cemetery was laid out by T. J. Knight and M. F. 
Doughty about the same time as the building of the above 
named chapel. 


The history of the organization of this township will be 
found in full in Chapter XXV. The township is very small, 
having, according to the Report of the Secretary of Internal 
Affairs, for 1900, 200 taxables, 416 acres of cleared land, loi 
acres of timber land, and a total value of real estate of $143,535. 
Of the latter, $135,535 was real estate taxable, and $8000 real 
estate exempt from taxation. 

The geology of this township is in};eresting, and will be found 
fully described in the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 
Report of Progress Q., pp. 247-251. 

The early settlers of this region were Quakers, who did much 
for the educational and social and business advancement of the 
whole surrounding country. The population of the township in 
1900 was, by the United States Census, 433. Patterson Heights 
borough was formed from a part of this township, June 19, 1899. 


This is one of the recently formed townships of Beaver 
County. It lies north of the center of the county, being bounded 
on the north by Big Beaver township, on the west by Chippewa, 
from which it was taken in 1887, on the south by Patterson, 
and on the east by College Hill borough. 

The township is very small, with the surface characteristics 
of the surrounding townships. No streams are fotmd within 
its limits, but Walnut Run flows along its southern border. 

This township, according to the report of the Secretary of 
Internal Affairs for 1900, had 180 taxables, 879 acres of cleared 
land, and a total value of real estate amounting to $180,708. 
Of the latter, $4750 represented real estate exempt from taxa- 
tion and $175,958 real estate taxable. Its population, as shown 
by the United States Census for 1900, was 491. 

VOL. II.— 22. 




New Sewickley Township: Unionville — Unionville Methodist Episcopal 
Church—Oakland United Presb5rterian Chxirch — ^The Knob Baptist 
Church — Oak Grove Lutheran Church — House of Mercy, Lutheran 
Church — St. John's United Evangelical Protestant Church — North 
Sewickley Township: Providence Baptist Church — North Sewickley 
Academy — North Sewickley Presbyterian Church— Concord Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Economy Township: Concord Presbyterian Church 
— Rehoboth Lutheran Church — St. John the Baptist's R. C. Church — 
Rochester Township: Gen. Abner Lacock — Dam No. 5 — National 
Glass Company — H. C. Fry Glass Company — ^The Free Methodist 
Church — Marion Township — Franklin Township : Lilly ville — St. 
Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church — Camp Run United Presby- 
terian Church — Harmony Township: Logstown, its History in 
Detail — Legion ville and Major-General Wayne, with full Historical 
Data, extracts from Orderly Books, Letters, etc. — General Victor 
Collot's Tour — Economy and the Harmony Society, their History 
in extenso — The Union Company — The Liberty Land Company — 
Ambridge and the American Bridge Company — Pulaski Township — 
Dougherty Township: Oak Grove Presbyterian Church — The Roman 
Catholic Cemetery. 


This township lies in the eastern part of the county, and 
is boiinded on the north by Marion and North Sewickley town- 
ships, on the west by Daugherty and Rochester townships, 
on the south by Economy township, all these in Beaver County, 
and on the east by Jackson and Cranberry townships in Butler 
County. It is the largest township east of the Beaver, and 
was formed in 1801 out of the territory of Sewickley township. 

Its streams are small. Brush Creek enters it from the east, 


History of Beaver County 951 

near the center of the county line, and, flowing diagonally across 
it, leaves the township in its northwestern comer. Crow's Run 
drains the southern portion of the township, and empties into 
the Ohio River near Conway Station. The soil of this town- 
ship is very good, and has been well cultivated by a class of 
thrifty German farmers. Good coal is found in some parts of 
the township, and there is abundance of limestone and sand- 
stone. Extensive quarries of the Mahoning sandstone have been 
operated by the Park Brothers on Crow's Run. This is here a 
fine building stone, and vast quantities of it have been shipped 
to Pittsburg and other places. The surface of this township is 
generally very hilly. 

The highest of the hills is *'Big Knob," near the center of 
the township. It is about 1450 feet above sea-level, and rises 
300 feet above the other high points around it. Geologically 
this knob is very interesting. A few feet below its dome-shaped 
summit it is capped with a massive stratum of sandstone, which 
has evidently been the means of preventing its being worn 
down by the same eroding agencies which have reduced the 
surrounding hills.' 

In 1900 New Sewickley township had 605 taxables; 16,268 
acres of cleared land; 30 11 acres of timber land; the value of 
all its real estate was $806,727; its real estate exempt from 
taxation was $11,750; and its real estate taxable, $794,977. 

By the United States Census for 1890 its population was 
1922 and by that for 1900 1592. 

Unionville is a small village in this township. The post- 
office in this place is called Brush Creek. It was established in 
1855, discontinued June 13, 1871; re-established. May 17, 1872; 
discontinued April 14, 1873; and re-established July 21, 1873. 
The following persons have served the people here : 

Robert Porter, January 30, 1855; Abraham Hunter, Dec. 13, 1855; 
George Rauscher, Feb. 14 1866; P. H. Baker, July 2, 1869; Samuel 
Bums, July 21, 1873; John Snyder, July 25, 1879; Henderson J. Neely, 
Sept. 17, 1894; Charles W. Bentel May, 18, 1897; John A. Auld, Nov. 
25, 1901. 

Unionville Methodist Episcopal Church. — This congregation 
sprung from a society which was first organized in what was 
then New Sewickley, but now Daugherty township. Services 

* See Second Geological Survey of Pen nsylvania. Report of Progress 0, pp. 97, 189. 

952 History of Beaver County 

were first held in the house of Allen Tucker, by the ministers 
who labored in the field about fifty years ago. The first of 
these were Rev. William Kerr and Rev. Charles Thorn ; and the 
first members were Allen Tucker and Martha Tucker, his wife ; 
George and Grace Champion; John Ferguson and his wife; and 
Adam Johnston and wife. Soon afterwards the place of meet- 
ing was changed to the house of Samuel Bums in New Sewickley 
township ; and still later, a log house, called Myser's meeting- 
house, was btiilt at a point about a mile south of Unionville. 
The charge was at this time connected with the New Brighton 
circuit. About the year 1842 a frame church was btiilt, which 
was burned down, March 4, 1883. The present building, also a 
frame structure, was almost immediately begim, the comer- 
stone being laid, July 7, 1883. The cost of this building was 
about $2500. It was dedicated, November 25, 1883, by Rev. 
Thomas N. Boyle, D.D., then presiding elder of the Allegheny 

The charge has been served by the pastors of the Freedom 
circuit, and the Unionville and Concord circuit. Rev. A. S. Hun- 
ter was the last regular pastor, and the church is now supplied 
by Rev. Alexander Steele. 

Oakland United Presbyterian Church. — ^This church was or- 
ganized, August 17, 1870, with twenty-seven members. In 
1872 a frame house of worship was erected at a cost of about 
$2000. The congregation has had but two pastors, Rev. J. C. 
Evans and Rev. J. Patterson. Its present membership is 
thirty-four. This church has never been incorporated. 

The Knob Baptist Church. — This church was first organized 
in Butler County, Pa., November 12, 1883, as the Mount Zion 
Baptist Church, where it was recognized as a regular Baptist 
church. May 20, 1884. There the congregation worshiped for 
about two years, when its organization was transferred to 
Beaver Cotmty and the name changed to the present one. The 
house of worship was built in the year 1885, and was dedicated 
May 16, 1886, The cost of the building was $1200. 

The charter members of this church were as follows: James 
Fezell, Sarah Fezell, Charity Cookson, Jane Cookson, Susan 
Cookson, Jane Daniels, Rachel Henry, Margaret Cochrane, Mrs. 

History of Beaver County 953 

Carroll, Catherine Cotton, James B. Collins, and J. T. Fezell. 
The deacons are Thomas H. Daniels and C. F. Fezell. 

The first pastor of the church was E. M. Probert, May, i886-Oct. 1888; 
followed by A. J. Adams, Nov., 1888-Jan., 1890; Aaron Wilson, supply 
from April, 1890 to Nov., 1890; John Burk, Nov., 1890 until his death in 
August, 1892; Aaron Wilson, supply from April, 1893 to Sept., 1893; 
D. C. White, Sept., 1893-Dec. 1897; J. Williams, supply from Jtme, 1898 

to Sept., 1898; Bamhart, Sept., 1898-Feb.. 1899; J. Williams, 

supply from June, 1899 to Nov., 1899; J. M. Patterson, supply from 
Nov., 1899 to Sept., 1900; E. T. Haddock, Sept., 1900 to July, 1901; 
G. M. Owens, supply from Oct., 1901 to March, 1902; F. Crawford, began 
to supply the church in July, 1902. 

The membership is thirty-eight. 

Oak Grove Lutheran Church stands in the valley of Brush 
Creek, about midway between Freedom and Zelienople. The 
early history of this church is the story of an effort, long con- 
tinued, to have the services of the Lutheran Church held in the 
English language. Among the early steps to this end were 
the services held in Bonzo's schoolhouse about, a mile from the 
present place of worship. These services were conducted at 
intervals by Rev. Mr. Bassler of Zelienople, who was one of the 
original organizers of the Pittsburg Synod of the General Coun- 
cil. The first regular services were conducted by Rev. M. L. 
Kunkleman. It was during this period, while the services were 
still being regularly held in the schoolhouse named, that the 
first officers of the congregation were elected. The election was 
held, March 15, 1873. From this time there was a strong de- 
sire to secure a church-building. Through the persevering 
efforts of the members, a few of whom remain and are still the 
devoted adherents of the church, a frame building was erected 
and dedicated during the pastorate of Mr. Kunkleman in 1874, 
thus crowning the strivings of ten to fifteen years. The present 
membership is 160. From the first Oak Grove has had a vital 
connection with Zelienople. The two congregations have until 
quite recently received the services of one pastor. August i, 
1902, the two parishes were separated. Oak Grove Church be- 
longs to the Pittsburg Synod of the General Council, and is now 
in a flourishing condition. 

Following is a list of its regular pastors: M. L. Kunkleman, 
1874-1878; J. A. Kribbs, 1878-80; V. B. Christy, 1880-92; 

954 History of Beaver County 

R. R. Durst, 1892-96 ; L. O. Benze, 1896-1902 ; E. H. Daugherty, 
190 2-. 

House of Mercy, Lutheran Church. — ^After the establishment 
of the Rehoboth Church, and in his devotion to the people whom 
he had gathered in, Dr. Passavant was obliged to travel through 
what is known as "Crow's Run." The needs of that locality 
impressed him deeply, and he determined to supply the com- 
munity with preaching services. Asking one of the deacons of 
the Baden Church to accompany him, they called upon a gentle- 
man, who entered into the spirit which prompted the Doctor 
and promised that a place suitable for preaching shotdd be pro- 
vided. An appointment was made, the day arrived, and on a 
level spot by the side of the hill where now stands the church, 
scats had been roughly constructed, and there services were held. 
Another appointment was made, and at that second service, 
under the open sky, the Doctor preached from the text, Hebrews 
xii., 1-2. The work thus begun slowly prospered, and on the 
second Sunday in October, 1878, the comer-stone of the ** House 
of Mercy'* was laid with appropriate ceremonies. 

The charitable work of Dr. Passavant assuming such great 
proportions, and the strain upon his advancing years becoming 
too severe, he called to his assistance in 1879, his son, the Rev. 
W. A. Passavant, Jr., who, though actually only assistant, was 
nominally pastor of the charge until 1885. The parish was then 
without a pastor for a period of two years, when the present 
pastor, the Rev. R. Morris Smith, assumed charge on the first 
day of July, 1887. 

United Evangelical Protestant St. John's Congregation. — In- 
corporated August 7, 1888. In 1835 about thirty Germans, who 
had immigrated from the old country during the previous years, 
in connection with a few of the older settlers, resolved to build 
a church for their own use. One acre of land was bought from 
Mr. F. Burry, upon which the church — a log structure — was 
built in the fall of 1835, and from this transaction the church 
derived the by-name "Burry's Church." 

Rev. E. F. Winter was called as the first pastor in January, 
1836, during whose pastorate the congregation made rapid prog- 
ress. In 1839 the first pipe-organ was bought for $572. In 


History of Beaver County 955 

1850 the congregation had grown to 150 paying members, which 
number increased from year to year, so that the log church 
became too small. In August, 1857, the members resolved to 
build a new brick church at an expense of about $3000, which 
resolution was effected, and the new church dedicated. May 29, 
1859. This church is standing to-day. 

Rev. E. F. Winter's pastorate lasted from January, 1836, 
till January, 1880, when old age compelled him to resign. After 
him were in office: Rev. F. L. Dietrich, from November, 1880, 
till December, 1885; Rev. Th. Kurz, from March, 1886, till Sep- 
tember, 1886; Rev. M. F. Dumstrey, from April, 1887, till 
October, 1891. 

Under Rev. Dumstrey's pastorate the congregation btiilt, in 

1887, ^ convenient parsonage, upon a piece of land bought from 
Mr. Phil. Steinbach, at a total expense of $2435.89, and valuable 
improvements were made in the interior of the church. Unfor- 
tunately this parsonage burned completely down in the fall of 

1888, but with the help of $1400 insurance money and the energy 
of the members, a new parsonage was erected in the spring of 1889. 
On November 30, 1891, Rev. C. Borchers entered the pastorate, 
which he is still holding. Since his services the Sunday-school 
bought a valuable library in 1896, and a large church bell in 
June, 1900. July 27, 1896, a severe storm blew off a part of the 
church roof and caused considerable damage to the interior, 
which necessitated a general renovation at an expense of over 
$800; and, August 30, 1901, the bam near the parsonage was 
struck by lightning and burned down; but the energy of the 
members was not broken, everything was reconstructed in a 
short time, and the property of the congregation, including a 
beautiful cemetery, stands now as a memorial of God's blessing 
and the energy of a German community. 

Following the demands of the time the services of the con- 
gregation and the instructions in the Sunday-school are now 
conducted in German and English. 

The congregation has at present as paying members 158 
heads of families and 28 single persons; while the Sunday-school 
numbers over 200 scholars and 26 officers and teachers. 

Knob post-office, in this township, was discontinued, Janu- 
ary 30, 1872, and re-established, April, 9 1872. Its postmasters 
have been as follows: 

956 History of Beaver County 

John McConnack, October i6. 187 1; Robert Snead, April 
9» 1872 ; James A. Campbell, April 2, 1873 » Andrew McCtdlough, 
September i, 1879; Mar\' J. Powell, November 5, 1880; James 
B. Peirsol, February 12, 1883 ; Henr>' G. Altstadt, July 11, 1892. 

Lovi post-office was established June 24, 1881. The post- 
masters, with the dates of their appointment, have been as fol- 

John Robinson, June 24, 1881; Maggie Cochran, October 
18, 1890; Annie J. Robinson, April 9, 1891; Charles Schweins- 
berg, April 23, 1892; Lewis J. Freshcom, May 10, 1894; Justin 
E. Boggs, May 3, 1895; Simon Otto, Februar\' 20, 1896; Daniel 
St. Clair, February 25, 1899; George H. Kirchner. October 10, 

Park Quarries post-office was established in 1890. Follow- 
ing are the postmasters: John H. Park, September 24, 1890; 
Thomas E. McCumpsey, October 31, 1900; WiUiam H. Park, 
May 23, 1902. 

Sunflower post-office, established July 28, 1900, has still its 
first postmaster, Charles A. Schlimmer. 


This township lies in the northern part of the coimty, and 
is botmded on the north by Lawrence Cotmty, on the east by 
Franklin and Marion townships, on the south by New Sewick- 
ley and Daugherty, and on the west by the Big Beaver River, 
with Chippewa and Big Beaver townships opposite. The Cono- 
quenessing Creek flows along its northeastern border. A small 
branch of Brush Creek heads in the southeastern comer, and 
the main stream enters the township from the east near the 
point at which the Conoquenessing touches its territory" and 
empties into the latter about one mile below. Bennett's Run, 
a small stream, rises in the southern part of the township and 
enters the Big Beaver from the east. 

While the streams heading within the township are all small, 
the Beaver and Conoquenessing valleys make a deep drainage 
all arotind it, and the surface of the country' is very much broken 
and hilly. The scenery on the streams of this region is very 
wild and picturesque. A good quality of coal is found in several 
parts of the township, with excellent limestone and sandstone, 
and the soil is in many portions ver\' rich. 

History of Beaver County 957 

This township was formed out of the territory of the original 
Sewickley township, which covered the greater portion of the 
cotinty lying east of the Big Beaver Creek.* In 1801 New Se- 
wickley township was formed out of Sewickley by the court of 
Allegheny County, and North Sewickley was probably the part 

In this township is the collection of houses, hardly large or 
compact enough to be called a village, but known as North 
Sewickley. The post-office, about a mile and a half to the 
north, was established in 1837. May 27, 1845, the name of the 
office was changed to Wurtemberg, but the old name was re- 
stored in 1849. I'he list of postmasters from the first and the 
dates of their appointments, are as follows: 

Absalom S. Sevems, Sr., Dec. 13, 1837; Absalom Sevems, July 19, 
1839; Nathaniel Hazen, May 10, 1842; Jonathan L. Leet, Nov. 8, 1849; 
James W. Taylor, March 19, 1851; Melvin Nye, April 2, 1856; James 
Patton, Jan. 26, i860; James M. Rimyon, Feb. i, 1866; Milton A. Clow, 
March 7, 1867; Archibald M. Mecklem, May 12, 1869; Millard F. Mecklem, 
April 9, 1874; Robert C. Criswell, Jan. 7, 1875; Nathan Hazen, Jime 14, 
1875; Edward W. Liebendorfer, Dec. 21, 1882; Marcus E. Caven, Jan. 10, 
1888; J. Ellis Ewing, July 23, 1897; Moses C. Swick, March 30, 1898. 

Providence Baptist Church. — ^This church is located at North 
Sewickley, and is the oldest one of this denomination in Beaver 
County. Previous to 1801, Ezekiel Jones and Hannah, his wife, 
came from New Jersey to this region and settled on the banks 
of the Conoquenessing, about four miles above its confluence 
with the Big Beaver. Their rude log cabin stood, according 
to tradition, where an old apple tree now stands at the south 
end of the present covered bridge, a few feet to the right. 
Here came to them in 1801 Elder Henry Spear, an itinerant 
Baptist preacher, who delivered in their house the first sermon 
ever preached in this part of the State by one of his faith, and 
here, on November 14, 1801, was constituted by him the first 
Baptist church ever organized in western Pennsylvania. The 
church had twenty-one members, and from these Ezekiel Jones 
was chosen deacon or lay elder. In his house the church con- 
tinued to meet for some time when it was decided to build a 

* At the last auction sale of Depreciation lands in X787. 6338 acres of the good land 
lying in what became Sewickley township, Beaver County, brought the paltry stun of 
$829.10 or about 3! cents per acre. Within the limits of the original Sewickley township 
lay the tract of 8560 acres belonging to Benjamin Chew, of Philadelphia, and generally 
known as the "Chew Tract." 

958 History of Beaver County 

house of worship, and a log church was erected on a hill about 
three quarters of a mile farther south. This stood until 1848, 
when a frame church was built near by, and the old building, 
by resolution, was torn down and the logs given to the pastor, 
Jacob Morris, who built out of them a bam, which is still stand- 
ing on the farm now owned by Godfrey Yahn. The new build- 
ing stood until 1856, when it was destroyed by a storm. The 
next year it was replaced by the present frame structure, 
which was, however, remodeled in 1898. 

This church has been served by twenty-four pastors. The 
first, Henry Spear, remained but one year. Henry Frazure was 
elected in 1802 and remained until 181 2. Then followed Thomas 
Rigdon, 1813-14; Andrew Clark, 1814-20; Henry Frazure, 
1820-24. The records at this point are no longer clear. They 
show Samuel McMillen's name as of one laboring in the field 
from 1824 to 1831, and that of John Winter from 1827 to 1828. 
This would indicate two pastors, or else a pastor and an assis- 
tant. Both ministers were delegates from the church to the 
Association in 1827. In July, 1832, William Stone became pas- 
tor and remained until 1834. Thomas Daniels served from 1836 
to 1844, and was succeeded by Daniel Daniels, 1844-46; Jacob 
Morris, 1846-55; John Trevitt, supply, six months; John 
Parker, 1856-59; A. G. Kirk, 1859-62; John Trevitt, 1862-66; 
D. W. C. Hervey, 1866-72; W. B. Skinner, 1872-75; R. B. 
Godfrey, April-October, 1875; C. H. Hervey, 1876-79; J. W. 
Snyder, 1879-82; H. H. Leamy, 1883-86; L. S. Colbom, 1887- 
91; H. C. Bond, 1892-95; W. H. McKinney, 1895-97; W. A. 
Grover, 1897-99; J. H. Lowe, 1899-. 

The records do not show the amount of salary the early 
ministers received, but we may be sure that salaries were small 
and partly paid in farm produce at that. 

In 1833 Mr. Dodd presented a petition asking the church 
to organize a branch on the "big bever.'* This was granted, and 
a log structure was begun at Bellton on the Beaver Creek, but 
it was never finished. 

The following were elders in this church in early days: 
Ezekiel Jones, Henry Kikendall, Oliver Jones, Isaac, Nathaniel, 
and John Hazen, John Robinson, Nathan Hazen, Benjamin 
Reno, William Gardner, Matthew Kelley, Daniel Main, Samuel 
Thomas, James B. Hazen, Joseph Hazen, and John Thomas. 

History of Beaver County 959 

October 23-24, 1901, the hundredth anniversary of the organiza- 
tion of this church was appropriately celebrated.* 


The date of the commencement of this academy is uncer- 
tain, but was probably about 1845 ^^ 1846. Previous to its 
establishment a select school had been taught in the old Provi- 
dence Baptist Church by a Mr. Herrington, Joseph S. Smith, 
Ethan Stewart, Oliver Smith, and others. 

The academy was started through the influence of Rev. 
James S. Henderson, who was ordained and installed pastor of 
Slippery Rock Presbyterian Church, October 22, 1845, and who 
was at the same time pastor at North Sewickley. The academy 
building was erected in 1850, but for several years previous the 
school had been held in a hewed log cabin. Mr. Henderson in 
this work was carrying out the suggestion of the General Assem- 
bly, which about that time was urging upon its ministers the 
need of founding schools and academies in order to raise up a 
supply of educated men for the gospel ministry. This academy 
was established under the control of the trustees of the Presby- 
terian Church of North Sewickley. It was not intended to be 
merely a school for teacher training, but to prepare boys and 
girls for college. The site for the location of church and school 

' The Record Book of this ancient chtirch contains an aknost unbroken record of its 
proceedings from its organization to the i>resent. We give a few extracts in the original 
form and spelling: 


November ye 14, 1801. 
Being collected together at the house of Brother Ezekiel Tones for the same purpose 
we was regularly constituted into a body by our beloved Brother Elder Spear Twentyonc 
In number. 

Aprile ye 24, 1802. 
Church met according to appointment and after prayer and singing procede to business. 
1st. Chose Bro. Spear moderator. 

and. Received Brother George Riddle and his wife by Letter from Union Church, 
Glade run buffelow township, 

March ye 27th, x8oa. 
Church met, etc. 

1st. Chose Brother Henry Spear Moderator. 

and. A door was opened for hearing Experiences and Receiving Letters. None 

4th. Chose Brethem Ezekiel Jones and Henry Kikendall Lay Elders. Here the 
fourth was set in the place of the third by mistake. 

3d. A door was opened for members to sign the Covinent and signed to the amount 
of fourteen. 

March ye a 7th, 1802. 
Church met etc. 

1st. Took into consideration the Second article of the Rules Regulations of the Church, 
That Everv Member's none Complyance Therewith must give satisfactory Reasons. 

and. Agreed that The last Sabbath in aprile Shall if God willing be Communication 
Season with us. 

^. A Collection to purchase the Eliments ss. 7jp. 
The Church dismiss by Reading a Portion of god's ' 

word. Singing and Prayer. 

960 History of Beaver County 

was donated by S. C. Clow, and is one of rare beauty overlook- 
ing the Conoquenessing and Brush Creek valleys. The school 
in its palmiest days was a young ladies* seminary, as well as an 
academy for boys. Some of the latter were city lads around 
whom this rural retreat threw a quiet and safe-guarding influ- 
ence supposed to be eminently conducive to diligent study. The 
principal's home, erected by Mr. Henderson, afforded accommo- 
dation for yotmg ladies. Miss Kiddoo was his assistant teacher. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Henry Webber, who served as 
pastor of the church and principal of the school for many years, 
and whose remains, with those of his wife, rest in the adjoining 
cemetery. His chief assistant at this time was a Mr. Osgood. 
Miss Kate McBeth, who afterwards succeeded her sister, Miss 
Sue McBeth, as instructor of the Nez Perces Indians at Lapwai, 
Idaho, was later his assistant teacher. 

The academy buildings were used for a time as a Soldiers' 
Orphan School, tmder the supervision of Mr. Webber, who built 
an addition of about forty feet to his house for the accommoda- 
tion of the pupils, who at one time numbered about 300. Many 
of the children could not be housed with him, and were boarded 
about in the families of the neighborhood. Later, Mr. James 
Jackson was in charge of the school, and employed as assistants 
Mr. Robert Brown and Miss Kate McBeth. Afterwards the school 
passed under the care of Rev. Elias Alexander, with Rev. James 
Mann, Miss McBeth, and Miss Smith as his assistants. It was 
soon disbanded, and the children were transferred to the care 
of Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D., of the Soldiers' Orphan School at 
Phillipsburg, now Monaca, Pa. 

It is impossible to give a full account of those who conducted 
the academy after this period, but the list of principals and 
teachers would include Rev. Robert C. Criswell, Rev. W. H. Mc- 

Kinney, Mr. Cheney, Rev. L. S. Colbom, Rev. R. C. Yates, 

Mr. Harrup, Mr. Houston, and Mr. James Bennett. 

Rev. George Sherman Rice, pastor at Slippery Rock, was active 
in sustaining the school. Rev. James E. Hutchinson of Irwin, 
Pa., and Rev. William McKee of Niles, Ohio, were its latest 
principals. The building is in good condition, having been re- 
fitted for use at considerable expense at a comparatively recent 
date, but of late no school has been conducted in it, the demand 
being supplied by other schools in the vicinity. 

History of Beaver County 961 

North Sewickley Presbyterian Church. — Sundry citizens of 
North Sewickley township having petitioned the Presbytery of 
Beaver to organize a congregation in their vicinity, the follow- 
ing committee was appointed by the presb)rtery. Wells Bush- 
well and J. S. Henderson, ministers; and William Morton, elder. 
The organization was effected by the abovenamed committee 
on the 6th day of August, 1846, when thirty-six persons pre- 
sented certificates and were received as members of the new 
organization. Their names follow: James B. Clow, Eliza J. 
Clow, Samuel C. Clow, Sophia H. Clow, Maria V. Clow, Ann 
Clark, Mary Clark, Nathan S. Clark, Isabella Clark, Mark Clark, 
Malvina Clark, Adam Kirk, Sr., Euphene Kirk, Hannah Kirk, 
Louisa Kirk, Mary McGregor, Donald McGregor, Duncan Mc- 
Gregor, Wm. McGregor, Robert McGregor, Elizabeth Bennett, 
Margaret Bennett, Alice Ann Kelly, James Bond, Mary E. Bond, 
Eliza Bond, Agnes Bond, William Motherall, Mrs. Motherall, 
Robert Caldwell, Rebecca Caldwell, Hannah Caldwell, James 
Jackson, Esther Jackson, Robert Jackson, Eliza Jackson. 

They then proceeded to elect two elders and two deacons: 
Robert Jackson and Mark Clark were elected and installed elders ; 
and S. C. Clow, and James Jackson the same as deacons. 

Rev. James S. Henderson became the first pastor and served 
the church until he was released in 1855. Rev. Henry Webber, 
D.D., was installed pastor, 1856, and released in 1867. Rev. 
John H. Aughey was installed 1870, and released 187 1. The 
church was without a pastor until 1882, when Rev. R. C. Yates 
was appointed stated supply. In 1889 Mr. Yates resigned, and 
Rev. M. A. Parkinson took charge in 1890, and remained with 
the church about three years. In 1895 Rev. Paul D. Gardner 
was ordained and installed pastor. After serving the church 
for about two and a half years he was released. 

Rev. D. V. Mays became pastor in 1898 and was released in 
1899, since which time the church has been without a settled 

The names of those who have been elected and installed as 
ruling elders of this church, with the dates of their election, 
are as follows: Robert Jackson, Mark Clark, 1846; Greer Mc- 
Williams, 1849; J- H. Cunningham, William Gibson, Robert 
Marshall, G. W. Taylor, 1853 ; Thomas J. Irwin, James Marshall, 
1857; Adam Rouser, John Baxter, Dr. John Withrow, 1870; 

962 History of Beaver County 

J. Thompson Jackson, William Caldwell, Eli J. Evans, 1882; 
John H. Lowry, J. A. Jackson, John W. Holland, 1894; R. L. 
Walker, John Collins, 1899. 

The present session is Robert Baird. A. G. Glenn, Robert 
Walker, and J. Thompson Jackson, and the membership is fifty. 

There is no record of the cost of the church-building, nor of 
the date of its erection. According to the testimony of one of 
the original members, it was built in 1845. 

Concord Methodist Episcopal Church. — ^This is one of the 
oldest churches of the Methodist type in the county, having been 
established about the year 1834. The first services were held 
in the house of Thomas B. Elliott; and among the early mem- 
bers of the society were Mr. Elliott, Nancy Elliott, Edmund 
Boat and wife, and the brothers John and Samuel Boat, with 
their wives. This church was early connected with the Union- 
ville circuit, and is so now. The last pastor was the Rev. A. S. 
Hunter and Rev. Alexander Steele is now (1904) supplying the 
pulpit. Among the first preachers for the society were Rev. 
Richard Armstrong and Rev. Joshua Monroe. 

The congregation erected a church-building in 185 1, under ^ 
the leadership of a local minister from New Brighton, named 
Joseph Alexander. This was a frame structure, which ultimately 
became too small for the needs of the people, and was replaced 
in 1887 by the present one during the pastorate of Rev. J. L. 
Stiffey. The building was dedicated, free of debt, October 2, 
1887. It is a frame structure, 32 by 44 feet, and cost about 
$1500. The pastors of this church have been generally the same 
as those who served in the Unionville society. 

Bellton post-office, in this township, was established March 
13, 1 89 1, at which date Bid well Main was appointed postmaster. 
His successors have been John Mederer, appointed August 30, 
1894; and Carrie Nimmo, appointed May 19, 1896. July 30, 
1900, the office was discontinued. 

Caylor*s Ferry was established, January 24, 189 1, with 
Charles A. Weeks as postmaster. He was followed by Martha 
A. Funkhouser, March 3, 1891; and March 30, 1901, the office 
was discontinued. 

Parkgate post-office was served by Thomas J. Rouser, April 
7, 1899, and Robert J. McKim, May 23, 1902; and was discon- 
tinued, October i, 1902. 

History of Beaver County 963 

Kimberly post-office. — Frank H. Douthitt was appointed May 
28, 1900. 

In 1900 North Sewickley had 431 taxables, 9671 acres of 
cleared land, and 2740 acres of timber land. The value of all 
its real estate in that year was $567,220, of its real estate exempt 
from taxation, $5824; and of its real estate taxable, $561,396. 
By the United States Census for 1890 its population was 11 54; 
by that of 1900 it was 1660. Daugherty township and East- 
vale borough were organized from parts of North Sewickley and 
Pulaski townships since 1890. 


This township is situated in the southeast comer of the 
county, and on the east side of the Ohio River. It is bounded 
on the north by New Sewickley township, west by the river and 
Harmony township, east by Butler and Allegheny counties, and 
south by Allegheny County and Harmony township. The 
township was formed at the April Sessions of the Court of Beaver 
Cotmty, 1827. 

This township is deficient in streams of importance, but has 
the Ohio on its western side and the Big Sewickley Creek on 
the south, a branch of the latter heading within the township. 
Tevebaugh Run flows through it and empties into the Ohio just 
below Baden station. The soil is good and is underlaid by rich 
deposits of coal, red clay, and building stone. There are several 
hamlets in the township, as Wall Rose in the southeastern part, 
and Remington on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road. The latter was until within a recent period a station of 
that road, but is so no longer. Wall Rose has a post-office, 
which was established in 1863. Following is a list of the post- 
masters: Jacob Breitenstein, April 27, 1863; Mary Breitenstein, 
November 2, 1871; J. C. McCormick, April 5, 1872; C. P. Mc- 
Kee, September 15, 1873; Henry Gross, November 25, 1884; 
Adam Stroble, May 27, 1898; William A. Stroble, August 26, 
1898; Getlie J. Emerick, January 31, 1900. 

There is here a German Evangelical church incorporated 
April 5, 1884, by Henry Gross, A. Haag, John Heil, B. Yeager, 
Andrew Rosenbaum, and Philip Eisenhuth. 

Brown's post-office is in the northern part of this township. 
It was established in 1878, and the postmasters have been 

964 History of Beaver County 

as follows: Roger McDonald, June 24, 1878; George Keenan, 
October 20, 1881; Hugh Reed, May 9, 1883; Ann Jane Reed, 
October 5, 1888; Anthony Boehm, December 7, 1898; John 
T. Williams, February i, 1902. 

Concord Presbyterian Church is in this township, a few ntiiles 
back of Freedom. It was incorporated, November 2, 1885, by 
James J. McElhaney, William H. Morgan, Henry Snyder, Enos 
Smith, and Robert Baker. In this year its old house of worship, 
a frame building which had stood many years, was replaced by 
a new structure, also frame. The date of the organization of 
this church is uncertain, but was probably about 1840. We 
have been unable to learn the names of the ministers who have 
served this congregation from the first, but one of the longest in 
the field was the Rev. John Brown, whose name occurs in the 
minutes of the session as early as 1862, and who was released 
from the charge in July, 1876. In the same month and year 
fifty-five members were transferred from Concord to Pleasant 
Hill Church. Rev. B. O. Junkin became supply in 1876, and in 
1889 Rev. Robert Laird Smith was called as pastor. He re- 
mained until April, 1901 ; and Rev. Percy H. Gordon assumed 
charge, September 26th of that year. December 21, 1902, Mr. 
Gordon was released in order to give full time to the church at 

Rehoboth Lutheran Church. — ^This church is in Economy 
township, about three miles back of Freedom. At the urgent 
request of Mr. G. Cochran Minis, now deceased. Dr. W. A. Passa- 
vant was prevailed upon to preach in the Rehoboth Church, which 
had been abandoned by reason of the division of the United 
Presbyterian congregation to which the church belonged. Once 
dedicated to the service of God, the building had fallen into 
disuse as a shelter for the sheep of the Lord's pasture and had 
been turned into a shelter for the sheep of man. Kind and 
willing hands thoroughly cleansed the old structure, and some- 
time during the year 1875 Dr. Passavant again restored it to its 
normal uses, and the sound of the gospel was again heard 
within its walls. In 1876 the church and cemetery were bought 
from the United Presbyterians for the sum of $200, and a con- 
gregation organized, the date not having been preserved. Doc- 
tor Passavant was followed in the charge by his son William, 
and he by R. Morris Smith, the present pastor. 

History of Beaver County 965 

St. John the Baptist's Roman Catholic Church. — This little 
church is in Economy township, about three miles back of 
Baden. It was built in 187 1 by about a dozen farmers, who 
had formerly heard Mass at Rochester, and is a neat frame 
• structure about 25 x 50 feet. The pastor of the church at 
Rochester has always had charge of the congregation. The 
people are all farmers. 

Conway, formerly Agnew, post-office is at Conway station. 
For reference to this office and to the great Conway freight 
yards, see Conway borough. 

In 1900 Economy township, as shown by the United States 

Census, had a population of 1062. According to the report of 

the Secretary of Internal Afifairs, it had 383 taxables, 8558 

acres of cleared land, and 2961 acres of timber land. The total 

value of its real estate was $542,889. Of this amotmt $10,700 

was real estate exempt from taxation, and $532,189 was real 

estate taxable. 


This township is of small area, surrounding the borough of 
Rochester. It was formed from New Sewickley township by an 
Act of the Legislature, approved April 14, 1840 ^ (see page 885). 
It borders on the Ohio and Big Beaver rivers, and all the streams 
passing through it are small, rising in the hills, and descending 
with a rapid fall to the rivers. 

In 1900 it had 337 taxables, 2302 acres of cleared land; and 
the total value of all its real estate was $591,220, of which 
$32,970 was exempt from taxation, and $558,250 was taxable. 
Its poptilation by the United States Census of 1900 was 1661. 

Previously within this township, but now just within the 
borough limits of Freedom, on the bank of the Ohio River, is 
the old residence of General Abner Lacock, who was so long a 
leading citizen of the county. In the great flood of 1832 a large 
part of the valuable library in this house belonging to that 
gentleman was destroyed, together with many papers of im- 
portance, including autograph letters from Madison, Monroe, 
Jackson, John C. Calhoun, and other prominent men of the 
nation. This house was built about 181 2, and was occupied by 
Abner P. Lacock, the youngest son of General Lacock, all his 
life. Abner P. Lacock died here, April 20, 1888. This property 

*P.L.. 34X. 
VOL. II.— 33. 

966 History of Beaver County 

has been bought by the United States Government from the 
Lacock heirs, the Ohio River Dam No. 5 being in course of con- 
struction at this point. The old homestead is now temporarily 
occupied by engineers for office purposes, and will ultimately 
be torn down and replaced by fine buildings with electric power 
plant, etc., for the operation of the dam. 

A large part of the great plant of the National Glass Com- 
pany, described in the chapter on Rochester borough, is within 
this township. Here, about half-way between Rochester and 
Freedom, the Rochester Tumbler Company bored for gas some- 
time before 1878 and got a good well, the gas from which is used 
for the manufacture of tumblers. The well also produced from 
seven to eight barrels of a dark green oil per week. 

The plant of the H. C. Fry Glass Company at North Roches- 
ter, also described under Rochester borough, is within the 
limits of this township. 

The Free Methodist Church in Pleasant Valley, now Roches- 
ter township, was organized January 5, 1890, in Bogg*s school- 
house, New Sewickley township, by Rev. S. Portman, then pastor 
of the Rochester Free Methodist Church. At the close of a six 
weeks' revival meeting fifteen persons united with the church, 
who elected Frederick Brandt as their class leader. At the 
same meeting it was also decided to build a house of worship, 
and a committee on location was appointed, consisting of the 
following persons: Abner Majors, William Grossman, Thomas 
Nannah, John Nonan, Jackson Boggs, Frederick Brandt. Janu- 
ary 21, 1890, this committee reported to a meeting of the society 
held at the home of Frederick Brandt, recommending that the 
church be built on the ground donated by William Grossman, 
at the crossing of Rochester, Harmony, and Freedom roads. 
The report was accepted, and the following persons were at the 
same meeting elected trustees: Frederick Brandt, John Brandt, 
Thomas Nannah, James Brewer, John Nonan. The trustees, 
with other persons, also formed the building committee. The 
supervision of the work was given to John Musser, carpenter. 
Among others interested in the work were Camillus Miller, 
Richard Cable, Mr. McPherson, and Mr. Drushel. 

The church was dedicated, June 22, 1890, by Rev. W. B. 
XJmstead, of the Ohio conference. Following is a list of the 
ministers who have served the church in the pastorate to the 

History of Beaver County 967 

present time: S. Portman, S. Sager, S. Wellington, L. P. Lewis, 
J. P. Broadhead, A. T. Sager, Miss Mary J. Elliott with Lydia 
Pearce, L. C. Andre, J. W. Howard, and D. G. Shirer. 


Marion township is in the northeastern part of the county. 
It is boiinded on the north by Franklin township, with the 
Conoquenessing separating the two, on the east by Jackson town- 
ship in Butler County, on the south by New Sewickley , and on the 
west by North Sewickley in Beaver County. Brush Creek flows 
through it just within its western boundary. There are no other 
streams of importance in the township. In soil and geological 
characteristics it is much like its neighboring townships; good 
coal is mined in various places, and there are the usual lime- 
stone, sandstone, and slate formations common to the region 
round about. 

In 1900 Marion township had 131 taxables; 4911 acres of 
cleared land; 1596 acres of timber land; a total value of real 
estate amounting to $235,608; real estate exempt from taxa- 
tion, $1910; real estate taxable, $233,698. 

This township was formed, February 6, 1845, out of the 
territory of North Sewickley township. Its population by the 
United States Census of 1890 was 413 ; by that of 1900, 380. 

There is no town or village in this small division of the 
county. Barrisville post-office was established in 1872. The 
following persons have held it: 

Enoch W. Barns, July 3, 1872; Mrs. Anna Phillips, Nov. 3, 1882; 
it was discontinued Sept. 12, 1883, and re-established March 11, 1884, 
with John S. Vanarsdale in charge; Eli U. McDanel, March 24, 1885; 
Mary E. McDanel, June 26, 1889; Jane E. Homer, Feb. 25, 1896; Robert 
D. Caldwell, July i, 1897; discontinued March 28, 1901. 

This township is situated in the extreme northeastern comer 
of the county, and is bounded on the north by Perry township 
in Lawrence County, on the east by Lancaster and Jackson 
townships in Butler County, and on the south and west by 
Marion and North Sewickley townships, Beaver County, respec- 
tively. This township was formed by an Act of the Legislature, 
approved February 28, 1850.' 

» p. L., 107. 

968 History of, Beaver County 

The streams in this township are small, those rising within 
its limits draining into the Conoquenessing, which flows along 
its southern and western boundaries ; and Camp Run cuts through 
it from Lawrence County. The soil of the township is of aver- 
age quality, and there is throughout a fair distribution of lime- 
stone, sandstone, slate, and shale. A fine grade of Darlington 
coal is found in some sections. The report of the Secretary of 
Internal Affairs for 1900 shows in the township 310 taxables, 
9296 acres of cleared land; 2196 timber land; value of all real 
estate, $408,473; value of real estate exempt from taxation, 
$6120; and value of real estate taxable, $402,353. 

At Lillyville, in this township, is a congregation of the 
Church of God. It is known as Conoquenessing Chapel. 

St. Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church, also at Lillyville, 
was organized about the year 1875. Services were held in the 
neighborhood before the organization was effected, by the Rev. 
M. L. Kunkleman, there being records of baptisms as early as 
the beginning of 1873. In 1877 the Rev. P. Riffer was called as 
pastor. From the first this congregation has been connected 
with the Pittsburg Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
and is united with the EUwood City parish. There is no record 
of the incorporation of the church. The following are the 
names of heads of families belonging to the congregation from 
the beginning: Andrew Nagle, William Nagle, John E. Nagle, 
Paul Koch, William Koch, John Doutt, Thomas Doutt, Matthias 
Strawhecker, Jeremiah Fisher, Joseph Zimmerman, Philip Fox, 
Samuel Parker, F. P. Houk, Henry Knepp, Jacob Drushel, 
Frederick Hartzel, Albert Knepp, M. E. Ruby, Frederick Knepp, 
G. E. Ruby. Names of heads of families who are members at 
the present time are: Andrew, George, John, and Joseph Nagle, 
Henry Knepp, Edwin Goehring, Charles Goehring, Matthias 
Strawhecker, R. H. Koch, and Frank Stamm. There are in 
all forty members in full communion with the church. 

Few dates of pastoral service are recorded. The first pastor. 
Rev. P. Riffer, remained several years, and was followed by the 
Revs. G. J. Diener and H. K. Shanor. In 1895 Mr. Riffer again 
took charge and served until August, 1901. The present pastor. 
Rev. A. P. Lentz, was called in February, 1902, and began his 
labors on Easter Sunday, the same year. 

In this township, near Fombell station on the Pittsburg & 

History of Beaver County 969 

Western Railroad, is the United Presbyterian congregation of 
Camp Run. This church was organized September 28, 1872. 
On June 8, 1880, it was incorporated by J. C. White, Abraham 
Thomas, Henry Bradford, William J. Wright, and John F, 
Scott. Rev. J. Patterson served the church as pastor from 
1872 until 1879. There was then a vacancy until 1889, when 
Rev. M. S. Telford asstmied the pastoral charge. He remained 
until October, 1895. The church was again without a regular 
pastor until June 28, 1898, when Rev. J. J. Sharp was installed. 
The membership is about 115. 


Lillyville post-office was, until January 20, 1890, called Lillie. 
It was established in 1883, and the persons serving in it, with 
the dates of their appointments, are as follows: Henry Steffler, 
June 27, 1883; Matilda M. Steffler, April 23, 1887; Lizzie 
Hamilton, April 12, 1889; Lizzie Hamilton, January 20, 1890; 
Edward W. Liebensdorfer, January 13, 1896; Agnes Nagle 
December 8, 1896. 

Frisco. — ^This office was established in 1882, through the 
eflEort of Simon P. Fisher, its first incumbent, who was appointed, 
December 20, 1882. He was succeeded by John W. Irwin, 
October 13, 1894; Benjamin Nye, February 2, 1895; ^^^ Samuel 
M. Humphreys, November 23, 1896. Mr. Fisher was again 
appointed, January 23, 1901. 

Celia. — Established 1892. Postmasters: J. Osgood Hazen, 
April 25, 1892; Newton S. Leyda, April 10, 1900. 

Shiner post-office was discontinued, September 29, 1891. Its 
incumbents were Joseph G. Marshall, January 14, 1887; and 
Levi C. Brinton, May 12, 1890. 

Fombell. — ^Joseph Phillips, January 13, 1882: Omar G. Phil- 
lis, March 23, 1894. 

The population of Franklin township was by the United 
States Census of 1890, 734; by that of 1900, it was 810. 


This township was formed, April 3, 1851, from Economy 

township. It lies in the southeastern part of the cotmty, being 

bounded on the north and east by Economy township, on the 

south by Allegheny County, and on the west by the Ohio River. 

970 History of Beaver County 

One small stream flows through the northern part of the 
township and empties into the Ohio River just below Legion- 
ville. On Daniel Leet's map of surveys in 1785, referred to on 
page 974, this stream is marked " Logs Town Rtm." The soil of 
the township is very good and well cultivated. The population 
of Harmony township, as shown by the United States Census 
for 1900, was 650. In the same year it had 187 taxables, 1593 
acres of cleared land, and 1196 acres of timber land. Its total 
value of real estate was $650,301, of which $21,900 was exempt 
from taxation, and $628,401 was taxable. This township is very 
small, but is of peculiar interest from its association with the 
Harmony Society, from which it derived its name. The whole 
of this township was until recently the property of that Society. 
Three places within its limits are of great interest historically ; 
Logstown, which was a center of activity in the period when the 
French and English were contending for supremacy in the Ohio 
valley; Legionville, which, diuing the winter of 1792-93, was 
the camping-ground of the army organized by Major-General 
Anthony Wayne for the overthrow of the Miami Confederation 
of Indians; and Economy, since 1825 the home of the noted 
communistic association called the Harmony Society. 


We have briefly referred to this ancient Indian village in 
previous chapters, but its great importance in the early affairs 
of this country calls for a more extended notice. Even before 
the arrival of the French on the Ohio, there was an Indian town 
here, which was located on the river bottom, on the east bank of 
that stream near the present Legionville. Above this village, 
on the second terrace, either where the town of Economy now 
stands, or, as indicated on General Victor Collot's map of 1796, 
just below the mouth of Logstown Run on what was afterwards 
the site of Wayne's encampment, the French sometime before 
1753 built for the Indians a new town, consisting of substantial 
log cabins, with stone chimneys. The Logtown which figures so 
largely in the early journals and documents' probably included 
both of these places. 

^ The French called Logstown Chiningu6 (Shenango in English). A note by Parkman 
on Celeron's manuscript says: 

"There appear to have been at different times, three distinct \nllages of Shenango, — 
one at the junction of the Chautauqtia and the Allegheny (Mitchell's map), the one men- 

History of Beaver County 971 

We have already referred to the controversy concerning the 
question as to which side of the Ohio River the location of Logs- 
town belongs, whether the north (more exactly east) side or the 
south side, and we may here more fully discuss it. We think 
that the case is clear for the former, the north side or the right- 
hand bank as one goes down the river. The evidence for this 
view is as follows : 

1. The Indian name for the town, **Maugh-wa-wa-me/' 
meaning broad plains or plateaus, corresponds with the position 
assigned by it. 

2. The north side of the river was recognized as the ** In- 
dian side,'* and respected as such by the military authorities, 
who, imder instructions, forbade any attempt at settlement on 
it until after Wayne*s victory and the treaty of Fort Greenville 
(see General Irvine's order vol. i., page 168). The Indians only 
came over to the south side on marauding incursions, having no 
villages on that side at the time in which Logstown was visited 
by the first English who have spoken of it in journals, etc. 

3. Washington, in a letter to William Fairfax, dated August 
II, 1754, says: '*It is known we must pass the French fort and 
the Ohio to get to Logstown.'* By the Ohio is here meant the 
Allegheny, which at that date was not distinguished from the 
main stream, but called Ohio. Now, if it was necessary to cross 
the Allegheny to get to Logstown, that town must have been 
on the north side. 

4. Christian Frederick Post relates in his journal a visit to 
Logstown, as follows: '*The Beaver creek being very high, it 
was almost two o'clock in the afternoon before we came over the 
creek; this land seems to be very rich. I, with my companion, 
Ketiuskund's son, came to Logstown, situated on a hill. On the 
east end is a great piece of low land, where the old Logstown 

tioned above some way below, and the third some way up the Big Beaver, near Kuskuski, 
the Kaskaske of this journal." 

See also Th§ Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, vol. bcix., p. 298, note: 

"The Chiningu^ of Bonnecamps (Shenango in English accounts) was later known as 
Logstown. It stood on the north side of the Ohio river immediately below the present 
town of Economy." 

The statement is made in Hildreth's Pioneer History (page 34) and frequently repeated 
by other writers, that in 1753 the French had destroyed a trading house which the Ohio 
Company had built at Logstown "seizing their goods and skins to the amotmtof 
and killing all the traders but two who made their escape." There is no reason to believe 
that the Ohio Company ever had a trading house at Logstown, and the statement referred 
to probably confuses the history of Logstown with the destruction of the fort of the Eng- 
lish traders on the Great Miami by the French and Indians in 1759. 

972 History of Beaver County 

used to stand. In the new Logstown the French have btiilt 
about thirty houses for the Indians. They have a large com 
field on the south side, where the com stands ungathered." ' 
This in itself should be conclusive; Logstown, he says, was on a 
hill, therefore the low meadow land of the south side cannot be 
the site. The belief of our early settlers that this was its loca- 
tion may be explained by the fact that the corn-field was there, 
arid also some cabins as noted below. 

5. The Historical Account of Bouquet* s Expedition against 
the Ohio Indians clearly locates Logstown on the hill on the 
north bank in the following passage: 

Friday, October 5th. In this day's march the army passed through 
Logstown, situated seventeen miles and a half, fifty-seven pexx;hes, by 
the path, from Fort Pitt. This place was noted before the last war for 
the great trade carried on there by the English and French; but its 
inhabitants, the Shawanese and Delawares, abandoned it in the year 1750 
[i 758] . The lower town extended about sixty perches over a rich bottom 
to the foot of a low steep ridge, on the siunmit of which, near the declivity, 
stood the upper town, commanding a most agreeable prospect over the 
lower, and qtiite across the Ohio. 

Dr. Celeron's journal would seem to indicate this "upper 
town," where he speaks of the landing place at Logstown, 
"being at the base of a cliff more than thirty feet high." (See 
Fort Pitt, Darlington, p. 29.) 

6. With the above agrees what is said by the Rev. Charles 
Beatty in his journal of a visit to the Ohio Indians in 1766.* 
Of his journey from Fort Pitt he says: 

We crossed the AUegh-geny river in a canoe, swimming our horses 
alongside of it. We then proceeded on our journey down the Ohio 
about five miles, having on our right hand a high hill, and encamped 
upon the bank of the river about eight or nine o'clock, where we had 
plenty of herbage for our horses, — the night cloudy and dark. 

* Christian Frederick Post's second journal of 1758, Dec. ad. 

■ The Journal of a Two Months* Tour, with a view of Promoting Religion among the Fron- 
tier Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, etc. By Charles Beatty, A.M. London, 176S. Pages 

The author of this rare and interesting little book, the Rev. Charies Beatty, was the 
father of Erkuries Beatty and the grandfather of Rev. C. C. Beatty, D.D., the founder of 
the Steubenville, Ohio, Female Seminary. He was appointed by the S>Tiod of New York 
and Pennsylvania to visit the frontier inhabitants as a missionary of the gospel, and if 
deemed prudent to \'isit also the Indian tribes to the west of Fort Pitt. He arrived from 
the east at Fort Pitt September 5, 1766, and after five days' stay there set out down the 
Ohio as above related. He was accompanied on this mission to Fort Pitt and beyond by the 
Rev. George DufHeld. Mr. Beatty died at Bridgetown, N. J., Aug. 13, 179a. 

History of Beaver County 


1 1 th Thiirsday. Sat out in the morning, the weather dull and gloomy, 
and after travelling nine or ten miles, most part along the river side, we 
came to an old Indian town now deserted, called by the traders Log-Town, 
situated on a fine rich high bank, covered with fine grass, commanding 
a most beautiful prospect both up and down the river Ohio. We halted 
about noon to let our horses feed, then proceeded to Great Beaver creek, 
about ten miles. 

The aboi^e /s an extract from a genera f draft of t43 /ots s/fuatecf 

/n tJeprec/affon O/stnct N^ 2 on the Ohto ana Beayer Ft'yers ^howPffo 

fhe /oca ft on of Ofct Lo^s Town*- rematnina on fife 7n the Depart" 

menf of /rjfemaf /Affairs. 

3uryeyea in the months of ^prif. May. Jane ana Jufy /73S try 

£?anie/ lee/.as. 

7. In harmony with these arguments is the witness of all 
the old maps. One of these is a map (not later than 1753), of 
the British and French Dominions in North America, showing 
the encroachments of the French upon the British plantations, on 
which Logstown is marked as being on the north side of the 
Ohio. A similar map in M. Robert's Atlas Universel (Paris, 

974 History of Beaver County 

1755) puts it there.* The same is true of a map made by Lewis 
Evans in 1755; of the map in a book published in London in 
1769 by a Captain Knox, a British officer in command in Amer- 
ica during the years 1757-60; of Thomas Hutchin's map (1764) ; 
of Mitcheirs map ; of that in De Kahn's travels, and of the gen- 
eral draft in the Land Office of Pennsylvania of the surveys 
made by Daniel Leet in 1785 of the Second District of Deprecia- 
tion lands. This district was on the north side of the Ohio 
and extended from the Big Beaver to Little Sewickley Creek; 
and on the map of Leet's surveys of it **01d Logstown" is 
marked down on the lots ntunbered 18 and 19, being land now 
owned by the Harmony Society at Economy.' Other maps 
which place Logstown on the right-hand bank are: the map 
accompanying Washington's Journal of 1754 ^ ; the Fry and Jef- 
ferson map of 1755; one in the British Museum entitled "West 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, 1753 ** ; the Nuremberg map of 1756 ; 

' This map puts a town mark ^ opposite on the south side also. This may bear out the 
idea that there were some cabins on that side and Arthur Lee in his journal of 1784 men* 
tions Logstown as "formerly a settlement on both sides of the Ohio." (Ltfe of Let^ vol. ii., 
p. 384). Even if this be true it does not affect the point in question, which is as to the 
position of the principal village — the town identified with noted historical incidents. 

• In the Magazine of Western History (Cleveland, Ohio) for October, 1886, p. 861, is 
the following letter referring to the same facts: 

" Dbpartmbnt op Internal Affairs, 

Harrisburg, April xo, 1870. 
"Isaac Craig, Esq. 

"Dear Sir; — I am now able to locate Logstown beyond all question. Daniel Leet's map 
of surveys made from April to July, 1785, embraces all the tracts along the north ade of 
the Ohio from Little Sewickley creek to and below the mouth of Beaver. * Logs Town 
Run' is marked as entering the east side of the Ohio about one mile above the upper 
point of Crow's Island, on tract No. 20. 'Old Logs Town* is marked as covering the 
ends of tracts No. 19 and 18 — above the mouth of the nm. The distance from the upper 
point of Crow's Island to the center of the town is about 430 perches. From the center 
of the town up the Ohio to the mouth of Big Sewickley, is about aj miles. The road from 
Fort Mcintosh to Fort Pitt nms near the nver in tracts ao, iQi 18 and 17. and is marked 
as passing through the town. In tract i8, near the town, is marked 'Good Situation.' 

•* I am truly yours. 
" J. Simpson Africa, 

Dep. Scc'y Internal Affairs." 
An extract from this map of Leet's kindly made for us by Mr. J. Sutton Wall, Chief 
Draftsman at Harrisburg, Pa., is given on page 973. On this extract arc shown the following 
named lots or tracts of land situated in Depreciation District No. a, on the Ohio River, 
in the county of Beaver, which were surveyed in the month of May, 1785. on order of the 
Surveyor-General, dated January 2 a, 1785, in pursuance of the Act of Assembly of March 
12, 1783, by Daniel Lebt, D. S. 
No. 13, 
" 14, Joseph Harrison, containing aa? Acres & allowance patented to Joseph Harrison, 
August 30, 1787. 
i5i Isaac Melchior, containing 22;^ As. & All. ] 

16, " " '* 213 " " " Patented to 

17, " " " aos " " " \ Isaac Melchior 

18, " " " ao3 " " " Jany a, 1786. 

19, " " " ao6 " " " J 

ao, Matthias Slough, containing 2o6As.& all. patented to Matthias Slough, April 10,1 786. 

*The Journal of Major Washington of 1754. Williamsburg, Printed; London, Re- 
printed for T. Jcflfcry's the comer of St. Martin's Lane: MDCCLIV. This map is called 
"Map of the Western Parts of the Colony of Virginia as far as the Mississippi." 

History of Beaver County 975 

and a ** Map of a Voyage on the Beautiftil River in New France, 
MDCCXLIX, by the Rev. Father Bonnecamps, Jesuit Mathema- 
tician." Bonnecamps was Celeron's chaplain. His account of 
the voyage is in vol. Ixix of The Jesuit Relations and Allied Docu- 
ments, Still other maps might be cited in agreement with these, 
as General Victor CoUot's **Map of the Ohio River, 1796**; *'A 
New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries in 
1763," in The London Magazine, vol. xxxii. for 1763 ; J. Russell's 
**Map of the Middle States of America"; and one in the Causes 
of the Alienation of the Delawares and Shawanese front the British 
Interest, by Charles Thomson, London, 1769. 

As against all this combined and concordant testimony, 
later opinions of old settlers, no matter how respectable and 
veracious their characters, are of no weight.' The description of 
Montmorin, a town which was laid out on the site of Logstown, 
September 5, 1787, by Isaac Melcher (or Melchior) of Philadel- 
phia, is in harmony with all the foregoing. The following is 

* Except Lee's jotxmal referred to in a note on page 974, the only early authority for 
the other view which we have seen is the journal of George Croghan. He says: 

" May 15, 1765 — I set off from Fort Pitt with two batteaux, and encamped at Chartier's 
island, in the Ohio, three miles below Fort Pitt. i6th. — Being joined by the deputies of 
the Senecas, Shawanese and Delawares that were to accompany me, we set off at seven 
o'clock in the morning, and at ten arrived at Logstown, an old settlement of the Shawanese, 
about seventeen miles from Fort Pitt, where we put ashore and viewed the remains of 
that village, which was sittaated on a high bank on the south side of the Ohio river, a fine 
fertile cotmtry arotmd it." 

But it is known that there is here a misprint of "south" for "north"; the manuscript 
of the journal says north. (See Gist*s Journals, Darlington, p. 97.) 

We may add that the deposition of Major Edward Ward {Calendar of Virginia State 
Papers and Other Manuscripts, 1659 to 1781, etc., vol. i., 1876) contains a passage that 
seems to be also an exception. It is as follows: 

"This deponent fxirther saith that in the year 175a, and before his stirrender to the 
French, there was a small Village, Inhabited by the Delawares, on the South East side of 
the Allegheny River, in the neighborhood of that place, and that Old Kit tanning, on the 
same side of the said River, was then Inhabited by the Delawares; that about one-third 
of the Shawanese Inhabited Loggs Town on the West Side of the Ohio, and tended Com 
on the East Side of the River — and the other part of the nation lived on the Scioto River." 

That this is a slip either of memory or printing is evident from the fact that he puts 
the corn-field on the east or north side while every other writer says that it was on the west 
or south. We repeat here the remark previously made that the course of the Ohio at 
this point is almost due north, making the banks east and west; but they are generally 
Qnken of as north and south. A careful early writer, referring to the letters of Major 
Craig to Samuel Hodgdon Q.M. and General Knox, from which we give extracts on page 
986, says: 

"From all these expressions it seems evident that the tmderstanding sixty yntrs ago 
was that Logstown was on the same side of the Ohio river, where, we uiow, Legionville 
was, that is the north side. Had Logstown been on the opposite ade of the river, the 
three words 'below,' 'near,' and 'at,' would not have been thus used, and the proper 
words 'opposite' or nearly 'opposite,' entirely omitted. This understanding of the 
matter is entirely in agreement with all the old authorities, Croghan excepted. Logstown, 
I am satisfied, stood on the bank of the Ohio immediately above the run below which it is 
well known Legionville stood." The History of Pittsburgh^ by Neville B. Craig. Pittsburgh, 
1851., p. 215. 

976 History of Beaver County 

the advertisement of Montmorin which appeared in the Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette, No. 3005, March 12, 1788 ': 

This town, laid out at the solicitation of several gentlemen, is de- 
lightfully situated on the north bank of the Ohio river, on a beautif til plain 
that is not liable to be overflowed, in a healthy and fertile cotintry, about 
eighteen miles below Fort Pitt, on the road to Fort Mcintosh, in West- 
moreland County, in the state of Pennsylvania, and at the ancient settle^ 
ment formerly called Logstown, which was abandoned previous to the peace 
of 1763, where an extensive trade was carried on many years. 

The plans for this town were never carried out, but it re- 
mained for the Harmony Society to partially realize them in 
the building of Economy. 

A full account of the many important transactions of which 
Logstown was the scene would exceed the limits of space im- 
posed upon us, but we cannot alBEord not to give an epitome of 
this history. 

Its beginnings with the Indian occupancy of the place are 
unrecorded; but in 1749 Captain Louis Bienville de Celeron, a 
French officer, in command of three hundred men, came to the 
Ohio, took possession of the coimtry in the name of his king, 
Louis XV., and deposited at different points on the river and 
its tributaries leaden plates inscribed with the royal title.' Cel- 
eron describes Logstown as **one of the largest villages on the 
river, consisting of fifty cabins of Iroquois, Shawanese, and 
Loups ; also Iroquois from the Sault St. Louis and Lake of the 

^ We give in the text above the first paragraph of this advertisement. Our readers 
may care to see the following paragraphs: 

" Montmorin commands an extensive view of the river; the soil is equal to any on the 
Ohio, and abounds in coal; the navigation from thence down the river is superior to that 
from Port Pitt, as the water is at all seasons much deeper at this place, and where pro- 
visions, boats etc., may in a little time be as well furnished. It is on the ^reat communi- 
cation or route from the eastern and middle states to the Muskingum Miami and Kentucky 
settlements, as well as the Illinois, Mississippi, etc., and will probably become the new 
county seat ; the rapid emigrations to the western country render it a very desirable spot, 
and afford a flattering prospect of its speedy establishment. The streets are spacious, 
being sixty-six feet wide, except Great George, Washington, Hancock, and Clinton Streets, 
which are ninety-nine feet; the squares are divided into twenty lots, each from forty-four 
to forty-seven feet front, and two hundred and twenty feet in depth, and all the lots are 
accommodated with lanes — five squares or one hundred lots, as distinguished on the plan, 
will be vested in trustees for public use, and to accommodate schools and religious sooeties 
of every denomination. The town contains seven hundred and forty lots, which will be 
numbered and arranged by draught to prevent any kind of preference, and to facilitate 
the settlement they will be sold at the moderate price of ten dollars each, to be paid on the 
delivery of the certificates of purchase. Those who buy ten town lots will be entitled to a 
five-acre out lot gratis. 

'* The appropriation of the lots will be made tmder the superintendence or direction of the 
Honorable Thomas McKean, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, Generals Muhlenberg and 
Hiester, Matthew Clarkson and Richard Bache, esqs., on or before the first of May next; 
after which, on application, indisputable titles in tee simple, agreeably to the said appro- 
priation, will be aelivered gratis to the purchasers, their agents or attorneys. Certificates 
for lots sold, and the plan of the town to be seen at the house of Mr. Levy Hollingsworth. 
Mr. Marsh Wilcox, and Mr. Thomas Bradford, Philadelphia; Mr. John Delafield. New 
York* Major Isaac Craig, Port Pitt; and Colonel Stephen Bayard, Elizabeth -town. 
Philadelphia, February sth, 1787. Isaac Mblchbr." 

■ See vol. i., p. 41. 

History of Beaver County 977 

Two Mountains, with some Nippissinques, Abenakis, and Otta- 
was." The arrival of the French was viewed with alarm by 
the English authorities, and in the year 1748 the Colonial 
Council had sent Conrad Weiser, with Andrew Montour as in- 
terpreter, and a large present of goods under convoy of George 
Croghan, the celebrated Indian trader, with instructions to 
examine the situation, and to seek to draw the Indians away 
from the French to the English. This Conrad Weiser was a 
truly great man, who rendered for over a quarter of a century 
inestimable services to Pennsylvania and the country. His de- 
scendants, such as the Muhlenbergs, have been among the most 
useful and distinguished people in the State. He was bom in 
Germany, November 2, 1696, was brought by his father to 
America in 17 10, and settled with his wife and five children in 
Berks County, Pa., in 1729. His story of adventure, priva- 
tions, and hardships in his many missions to the Indians is one 
of the most interesting in the early history of the country. 
Fitted by nature and training for peculiarly delicate and diffi- 
cult undertakings which he carried out with the utmost fidelity, 
he well deserves to be esteemed one of the makers of the nation. 

Weiser arrived at Logstown, August 27, 1748, and was 
greeted with cordiality by the Indians. His account of the con- 
ference which followed is very full, and makes interesting 
reading, but we can only summarize it here. Following his in- 
structions he ascertained from the Deputies in Coimcil the num- 
ber of the fighting men of all the nations settled on the Ohio, 
which was done by each deputy giving him **so many little 
sticks tied up in a bundle.** The count showed, he says: Sene- 
cas, 163; Shawanese, 162; Owandats, 100; Tisagechroan, 40; 
Mohawks, 74; Mohicans, 15; Onondagas, 35; Cayugas, 20; 
Oneidas, 15; Delawares, 165 — in all, 789. We remark in pass- 
ing that this nimiber will seem small to those who have enter- 
tained exaggerated ideas concerning the strength of the Indians 
in this country, but it is in harmony with the views upon the 
subject which we have previously expressed (see vol. i., pp. 21- 
22 and notes thereon). 

Some of Weiser*s party went from Logstown to Kuskuskee,' a 

* This name is variotisly spelled. It is placed on Hutchin's map on the west side of the 
Big Beaver, about one mile below where the Mahoning and the Shenango unite, and on 
M. Robert's Atlas Universel, Paris, i75Sf at the same ixnnt, but on the east side of the 
Big Beaver. See also note vol. i, p. 15. 

978 History of Beaver County 

large Indian town thirty miles oflE, and he says of his own move- 

August 30th. — I went to Beaver Creek, an Indian town, eight miles 
off; chiefly Delawares; the rest Mohawks, to have some belts of wampum 
made. This afternoon rainy weather set in, which lasted above a week. 
Andrew Montour came back from Coscosky, with a message from the 
Indians there, to desire of me, that the ensuing council might be held at 
their town. We both lodged at this town, at George Croghan*s Trading 

Weiser felt himself bound by his instructions to Logstown, 
and the council was accordingly held there. The goods under 
convoy of Croghan were delayed, but finally arrived and were 
distributed to the tribes, which, through their deputies, Weiser 
addressed separately in the name of the president and council 
of Pennsylvania. The result was what was designed by his 
visit and the presents: the Indians were bound more closely 
to the English. As some of their chiefs expressed it in an ad- 
dress to Weiser: 

We have heard what you have said to us. . . . Our brethren 
have indeed tied our hearts to theirs. We at present can but return 
thanks with an empty hand, till another opportunity serves to do it 
sufficiently. We must call a great coimcil, and do everything regularly; 
in the mean time, look upon us as yottr true brothers. 

Weiser*s journal says: **The same day I set out for Penn- 
sylvania, in rainy weather, and arrived at George Croghan's on 
the 28th instant" (September, 1748). The reader will remem- 
ber that this region was then considered by many to be Virginia 

Another important council was held at Logstown, and a 
treaty made between George Croghan and the Indians on the 
28th of May, 1 75 1. Deputies of the Six Nations, Delawares, 
Shawanese, Wyandots, and Twightwees were present, Andrew 
Montour was interpreter for the province of Pennsylvania, 
Toanohiscoe for the Six Nations. The following English traders 
were also present: Thomas Kinton, Samuel Cuzzens, Jacob 
Pyatt, John Owens, Thomas Ward, Joseph Nellson, James 
Brown, Dennis Sullivan, Paul Pearce, and Caleb Lamb. The 
customary speech-making, exchange of wampum belts, etc., were 
gone through with, and then the present from the English was 

* Sec note on George Croghan, vol. i., p. 38. 

History of Beaver County 979 

given. Monsieur Joncoeur (Joncaire), the representative of the 
Canadian government, was in Logstown at this time, but was 
told plainly by the Indians that they would have nothing to do 
with the French. 

Logstown had also an interesting connection with the first 
public service of George Washington. Intelligence having been 
received from time to time by the Virginia authorities of the 
encroachments of the French upon the territory of the Ohio, 
which was supposed to be within the limits of Virginia, various 
efforts had been made to get reliable reports of the strength and 
plans of the invaders, but without success. Finally Governor 
Robert Dinwiddie determined to send one in whom trust could 
be placed to secure definite information, and for this difl&cult and 
dangerous task he selected Washington, whose knowledge of 
forest life, acquired during his experience as a surveyor, thor- 
ough understanding of the Indian character, and strong per- 
sonal traits specially fitted him for the undertaking. 

Washington's journal is full of interest. He relates his set- 
ting out and taking up Jacob Vanbraam at Fredericksburg to 
be his French interpreter, and Mr. Gist at Winchester with four 
servitors. At the forks of the Ohio (Pittsburg) he carefully 
noted the lay of the land, and thought it ** extremely well situ- 
ated for a fort.*' At the mouth of Chartiers Creek he visited 
Shingiss, the King of the Delawares, and invited him to attend 
the council at Logstown, and, accompanied by the latter, he 
arrived at Logstown ** between sunsetting and dark the twenty- 
fifth day after he had left Williamsburg." He sometimes speaks 
of this place as "the Logstown." Washington's business here 
was to learn what he could of the movements of the French, 
and to arrange for his journey through the wilderness to their 
nearest fort. His journal says: 

As soon as I came into towTi, I went to Monakatoocha (as the Half- 
King was out at his hunting cabin on the Little Beaver creek, about 
fifteen miles off) , and informed him by John Davidson, my Indian inter- 
preter, that I was sent a messenger to the French general; and was 
ordered to call upon the sachems of the Six Nations to acquaint them 
with it. I gave him a string of wampum and a twist of tobacco, and de- 
sired him to send for the Half-King, which he promised to by a nmner 
in the morning, and for other sachems. I invited him and the other great 
men present, to my tent, where they stayed about an hour and 

980 History of Beaver County 

The next day the Half-King arrived. This was Tanacharison, 
a faithful friend of the English, whose death, October 4, 1754, 
was a great loss to them. From him Washington learned the 
best route to the French forts, and was told of his encotmter 
with the late commandant there, who had received the Half- 
King very roughly. After several days' conferences and delay, 
Washington, with the Half-King, Jeskakake, White Thunder, 
and the Hunter, left Logstown for Venango, about seventy 
miles distant by the route they followed, and for Fort Le Bceuf , 
on the present site of Waterford, Erie County, Pa. We need 
not speak of his mission further, but so much as we have given 
is, we think, pertinent to our history as showing the importance 
of Logstown as a place of trade and for holding coimdls with 
the strong Indian tribes. It is to be remembered that at this 
time the forks of the Ohio were still an undisturbed wilderness. 
Fort Du Quesne not being built until the next year, 1754. The 
decline of Logstown's importance began with the construction 
of that fort. 

Two visits to Logstown were made by Christian Frederick 
Post in 1758, on missions to the Ohio River Indians. We have 
already made slight references to these. His journals contain 
interesting notices of Logstown. We gave in a former chapter 
and in the early part of this some account of Bouquet's passage 
through the place. The last mention of Logstown which pos- 
sesses any interest is that made by Washington, who, in 1770, 
again passed down the river and stopped there for breakfast. 
As the Indians had abandoned Logstown in 1758, the inhabi- 
tants at that time must have been whites. 


The importance of this place belongs wholly to its past; it 
being now only a small flag-station and post-office on the Pitts- 
burg & Fort Wayne Railroad, about twenty-two miles from 
Pittsburg. It is in the extreme northwestern comer of Harmony 
township, on the right bank of the Ohio River, and in a beauti- 
ful location. As stated in the eariy part of this history, the 
name Legionville has its origin in the fact that on this grotind 
was the site of the encampment, during the winter of 1792-93, 
of **Mad Anthony" Wayne's army, known as "The Legion of the 

History of Beaver County 981 

United States.** ' Here he went into winter quarters, and until 
the following spring was engaged in disciplining the force with 
which he won his brilliant and epoch-making victory over the 
Indians of the Miami Confederation in the battle of Fallen 
Timbers, August 20, 1794. The camp at Legionville was 
strongly fortified, and the most vigorous watchfulness was con- 
stantly maintained; and although General Wayne had thor- 
oughly drilled his troops before he left Pittsburg, he kept up 
the same severe discipline here. 

So far as we are aware, no detailed account of Wayne's stay 
at Legionville has ever been written. We do not possess all the 
materials necessary for the task, but having lately had access 
to the original manuscript letters and orderly books of Wayne 
owned by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and, through 
the courtesy of Mr. John W. Jordan, the librarian of that society, 
having been permitted to copy some of them, in whole or in 
part, we are much gratified to be able, by means of these excerpts, 
to give to our readers some glimpses at least into that interesting 

The Legion, as previously stated, was assembled at Pitts- 
burg during the summer » and fall of 1792, at Fort Fayette,^ 

' In Tks Ptnnsylvania Magaxint of History^ vol. xvi., will be found a full roster of the 
officers of the Legion. 

Like many other great commanders. Wayne was fond of neatness in dress, and had 
earnestly advocated a brilliant uniform for the officers and men of the Revolutionary 
army. One of the nicknames which were affectionately bestowed upon him by his soldiers 
was " Dandy. " This love of brilliancy in military dress is shown in the distinctive marks 
which he ordered for the Sub-Legions. His directions for these marks are given in the 
following, which we have copied from his Orderly Book 

" Hbad Ouartbrs 
Pittsburgh nth Sept., 1702. 

"General Orders 

Parole Johnson C. Sign KnowUs 

" The officers bein^ arranged to the four Sub Legions, it now becomes expedient to give 
those Legions distinctive Marks, which are to be as follows . . . vis't . . . 

" The first Sub Legion — white binding upon their caps, with white pltunes, and Black 
Hair — 

" The second Sub Legion — Red binding to their caps, red pltmies with White Hair — 

" The third Sub Legion — Yellow binding to their caps, yellow plumes and Black Hair — 

•• The fourth Sub-Legion — Green binding to their caps, with green plumes & white hair." 

A later order says: 

"The officers will wear plain cock'd Hatts with no other Distinctive marks but the 
pltxmes of their respective Sub Legions, except in actual Service or action when they will 
wear the same caps with the non Commissioned officers and Privates of the resp^rtive 
Sub Legions." 

• A letter from Major Isaac Craig to Gen. Knox, Secretary of War, dated June is, X79a» 
says: "Gen. Wayne arrived here yesterday." 

* May 18, 179a. Craig wrote to Knox: "Capt. Hughes, with his detachment, has oc- 
cupied the barracks in the new fort since the xst instant. Two of the six-pounders are 
very well mounted in the second story of one of the block-houses. The others will be 
mounted in a few days. The work, if you have no objections, I will name Fort La Fayettg,*' 
This name was approved by the Secretary. See History of Pittsburgh, Craig, p. 214. 

VOL. 11—24. 

982 History of Beaver County 

the erection of which was begun in the winter of 1791, and 
which stood within about one hundred yards of the Allegheny 
River and about a quarter of a mile higher up than old Fort 
Pitt. This fort, the last of the three built at the ** forks of the 
Ohio/* was, we may note, purely American, as Fort Pitt was 
British and Fort Duquesne French. While still at Pittsburg 
Wayne began the measures of strict discipline which he always 
maintained, and constant practice in the use of arms and in 
manoeuvring was given to the troops. From his manuscript 
orderly book (signed by Henry De Butts, aide-de-camp) we ex- 
tract the following order for one of these manceuvers, which will 
serve to illustrate the manner in which they were in general 

Hbad Quartbrs 
Pittsburgh Aug. zsth. xto^* 
Order of March 

The army will inarch in one column by the centre in half platoons, 
flanked by Ensign Lee's Riflemen, one half on the Right, the other 
half on the left column, which is to be preceded by a Van Guard two 
himdred yards in front, the Dragoons will be formed into eight squads 
four with the column i.e., one in front between the Head of the column 
and Pioneers — one on each flank between the Rifle flankers and column 
and one in the rear — two pieces of artillery will move at the head of the 
column — 

Lieut. Price's Infantry with the other fottr squads of Dragoons and 
one piece of artillery will form the reserve, and move two htmdred yards 
in the rear of the column — ^always preserx'ing that distance, the dragoons 
will march in front, flanks, and rear as directed for those with the column 
— the piece of artillery between the Infantry and rear squad of Dragoons. 

In case of an attack in front, the column will display — upon beating 
the retreat the Dragoons will wheel to the right and left and form in 
the rear of the line — the front Guard and flankers will also fall back and 
form in the rear, the artillery will take post on the right and left of the 
line — the pioneers will throw up a fletch to cover them. 

In case of an attack in front and right flank (the left being covered by 
the river) the head of the column will stand fast — the left will form to the 
left fronting up the river, the right will wheel by platoons to the right 
in which posture they will be ready for action. 

The flankers and Van Guard must sustain the force of the Enemies 
fire until called in by beating the Retreat — the horse will form in the 
rear of the line of the front and right flank, one piece of artillery on the 
front, the other to the right of the right flank. 

On beating the General the firing will commence from the line and 
will cease upon beating the retreat — the officers will take care that the 
men form in open order and level well. 

Should the Infantry or horse be ordered to charge they mvist be very 

History of Beaver County 983 

careful not to do any injury or pursue one foot fiuther upon the signal 
of retreat. 

The Troops must preserve the utmost order and coolness — ^The reserve 
will halt upon having the first fire & wait eventual orders. — ^The savages 
ceasing to resist are to be spared and no insult or injury offered them — 
A General from the Fort will be the signal for moving forward. 

Henry De Butts 
Aid de Camp.^ 

There is nothing in the original manuscript to indicate 
whether this was merely a sham battle, or was a movement 
made in anticipation of an actual attack of the enemy. That 
there were, in fact, alarms at this time and place is shown by a 
letter from Wayne to the Secretary of War, General Knox, 
written five days before this order was issued, in which he says: 

Desertions have been frequent and alarming. Two nights since, 
upon a report that a large body of Indians were close in our front, I 
ordered the troops to form for action, and rode along the line to inspire 
them with confidence. I then gave a charge to those in the redoubts, 
which I had recently thrown up in our front, and on the right flank, to 
maintain their posts at any expense of blood, imtil I could gain the 
enemy's rear with the dragoons. 

So great was the power of the Indian name to strike terror 
to the hearts of the men, however, that one third deserted 
from their posts, leaving the most important points exposed. 
But as will be seen from the correspondence which immediately 
follows, Wayne himself seemed incredulous of Indians being in 
his neighborhood, while at the same time he took no chances of 
a surprise, and made his position strong enough to resist any 
force that might come against him. He was never caught nap- 
ping.* From the blockhouse on the Beaver Creek, at what is 
now New Brighton, which was at this time commanded by 

* Wayne's Orderly Book, in library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

■ He was called '*Mad Anthony," but there was always method in his madness: no 
commander exceeded him in apparently reckless bravery (thence the epithet "mad**), 
nor did any exceed him in caution. A good illtistration of his wariness (strikingly stigges- 
tive also of the dangers attending the navigation of the Ohio in that day) is the following 
order to Lieut. W. A. Lee, dated " Head Quarters, Pittsburgh. 7th Nov., 179a ": 

"You are to descend the Ohio tomorrow morning at 7 o'clock, with the Detachment 
of Dragoons imder your command for Fort Washington, your boat bein^ light, & your 
men bemg well armedft provided with a liberal supply of ammtmition & provisions, you must 
make your way through every Obstacle — 

"Snou'd you have occasion to land during your passage let it be on the south side of the 
river & then but for a short space of time, & not without having first well reconnoitred 
the spot, nor will you suffer any man to leave the boat ao yds. upon any pretext whatever — 
You will always anchor in the middle of the river, shou'd it be dangerous to proceed by 
night, but never attempt to touch the shore after sun down." Extract from manuscript 
letter in the Wayne collection owned by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

984 History of Beaver County 

Ensign John Steele, there had gone to Vfayne at Pittsburg the 
report which called forth the following letter: 


PiTTSBURGB a6th Nov. 179a. 

I am favour'd with yours of the 24th Instant, in which you inform 
me that there have some Indians been discovered in the vicinity of the 
Block House — ^it may possihly be the case, hut I rather think it is a false 
alarm— or tricks play*d by some of the hunters, or designing people 
for some sinister views, — ^be that as it may, I have order'd a Detachment, 
imder the conmiand of Major Clark, to examine into this business, & 
whose orders you are to obey. 

Shou'd they turn out to be Indians, he is directed to pursue & chastise 
them, shou'd it be a false alarm, he is instructed to punish in the mo6t 
exemplary manner, those who occasioned it, or to bring them under guard 
to L^on Ville. 

You will therefore use your utmost endeavors to assist in the discovery, 
— ^to the end that they nwiy be punished — whether Indians or White 
Villains. I am Sir 

Your must Humbl Ser't 
Ensign Steele. Ant'y Wayne.* 

The letter to Clark is as follow: 

Hbad Quartbrs, 
Pittsburgh, a6th Nov. 1703. 

You will immediately Embark the Detachment of Riflemen, now 
drawn out, taking with you four days' provisions, & land at Legion 
Ville, from thence (without attempting to exchange or to take any men 
from the detachment now there) you will proceed to big beaver block 
house taking along with you from this place two soldiers belonging to 
that Garrison who will serve as guides. Upon your arrival at the block 
house, if upon due enqtiiry you find that there have actually been Indians 
recently discovered in that vicinity you will order Ensign Steele to join 
you with one half his Garrison, & all the spies or scouts that may then 
be there, & endeavor to come up with & pimish the savages for daring to 
come upon our frontiers, for which purpose you will proceed as far out 
as the salt licks — you can be supplied with provisions at the Block house. 

If you meet with Capt. Sparks you will order him to join you. Should 
you not be able to make any discoveries of Indians — and that you find 
it has been a false alarm you will ptinish in the most exemplary manner 
those persons who occasioned it, or bring them prisoners to Legion Ville, 
to which place you will return in the course of a week with yotu* own 
detachment, leaving Ensign Steele with his people at the Block house. 
* You will inform Capt. Sparks that it is my positive orders that he 

* From the collection of manuscript letters of Wayne in possession of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

History of Beaver County 985 

shall return with you, & render an account to me of his conduct & 


Wishing you success & happiness 
I am Sir 
Your most 
Humbl Ser't 
Major John Clark. Ant'y Wayne. » 

The position selected by General Wayne for his winter camp 
on the Ohio below Pittsburg was, as may be seen by the passing 
traveler to-day, a perfectly ideal one. He himself, in a letter 
to General Knox, dated ^'Pittsburgh, Nov. 14, 1792,*' writes of it 
as follows: 

. . . I have made choice of an encampment on the bank of the 
river (from which all the Indians in the wilderness could not Dislodge us) 
with a fine level creek on the right flank which forms a sectu-e harbotir for 
otir boats & an easy water commimication, (provided we have water 
in the river) in fact it is the only spot in which the boats could possibly 
be secured from inevitable destruction by the ice for a considerable 
distance above Pittsbtirgh to that place, not a boat cou'd be saved at 
Pittsburgh or in its vicinity, such an idea was never contemplated at 
this place, the construction of the Kentucky boats being only calculated 
for the purpose of descending the river the same season they are built, & 
after the landing the families, sent adrift; those of the army are broke 
up for the use of the fort & Garrison so that this may be considered 
as the first attempt that has been made to save or secure one of those 
kind of boats over winter, in order to be \ised the next season. This 

*■ Aa our knowledge of this early period is, at best, but scanty, every fragment that can 
be rescued from the past is of value: we have therefore copied from the collection of Wa5me 
letters in the possession of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania the following which are 
of local interest: 

" Bio bbavbr Crbbk Block Housb, 
Aug't 15, 02. 

** Aa we have not more than three Days' Provisions at this Post — I have sent A Corp'l 
ft four men up with a Canoe To bring down whatever Quantity of provisions you shotild 

"The spys are twice a week out have never made any Discoveries of any Indians on 
the frontiers since I came down So I Remane 

*• Your sincere friend 
& Htmible Servant 
John Stbblb, Ensign. 

"To A. Waynb, Command. 
In chief of the 
Troops of the U. S." 

"Hbad Ouartbrs, 
Pittsburgh 3d Nov. 1792. 

*' I have received your letter of the ad instant, and am pleased to learn the good state 
of yotir command with regard to health, and with your conduct in practicing your men 
to nre at marks. 

** There is herewith sent you fifty pounds weight of rifle powder, and half that quan- 
tity of lead, together with the paper you require. 

*' I am Sir 
Your hunh'l Sen''t 
Ensign Stbblb, Amth'y Wav^"!. 

Big Beaver." 

986 History of Beaver County 

we shall effect but with a gcxxl deal of labour & some expense in repairing 
them, however this shall be done & everjrthing in readiness to descend 
the Ohio at an early period in the spring, by which time I most ardently 
hope the Legion will be compleated to its full compliment * 

In November he broke camp at Pittsbtirg and transferred 
the army to Legionville, and the animated scenes in connection 
with his departure are indicated in the two following extracts 
from letters written by Major Craig.* In a letter to Samuel 
Hodgdon, Q.-M.-General, dated November 9, 1792, he writes: 

This morning a detachment of the troops and the artificers, with 
the necessary tools for building, set off for the winter ground below 
Logstown, on the Ohio; in a few days the whole army will follow. 

On the 30th of the same month he writes to General Knox: 

This morning, at an early hour, the artillery, infantry and rifle corps, 
except a small garrison left in Fort Fayette, embarked and descended 
the Ohio to Legionville, the cavalry crossed the Allegheny at the same 
time and will reach the winter ground as soon as the boats. As soon as 
the troops had embarked, the General [Wayne] went on board his barge, 
under a salute from the militia artillery corps of this place, and all have, 
no doubt, before this time, reached their winter quarters. 

In his new camp at Legionville, as at Pittsburg, Wayne con- 
tinued the work of turning his raw recruits into a compact and 
efficient army. His labors were unceasing by day and by night, 
for his men were totally inexperienced, and even his officers 
were for the most part without military training. The frightful 
defeats of Harmar and St. Clair had unnerved the soldiers, and 
the very bravest could not look forward to an encounter with 
the savages without foreboding; the commander had therefore 
not only to give his troops the training of soldiers, but he had 
also to lift them from despondency and inspire them with the 
confidence of victory against a capable and ruthless enemy. 
He had, moreover, to perform all these arduous duties while 
suffering from a malady that seriously threatened to cut him 
off at any moment. That he faced death in his tent as calmly 
as ever he did on the field of battle, and that in the midst of 

* From the Ferdinand J. Dreer collection of manuscripts in the possession of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. The creek mentioned in this letter is marked on Leet's 
survey of 1785 as Logstown Run (see map p. 973)*. about 1840 it is called "General 
Wayne's Run" (Road Docket No. i, p. 433)- 

■ Craig's History of Pittsburgh, page 215. 

History of Beaver County 987 

his military preparations he found leisure to think of his loved 
ones at home and provide for their future, will appear from the 
following letter, written from Legionville, December 28, 1792, to 
his brother-in-law, Captain William Hayman of Chester County, 
an officer of the Revolutionary navy, who married Wayne's 

Dear Sir: — 

It*s now seven months since I left Waynesborough without having 
received a single line, either from my own family or you — you may 
reply that this is the first from me — true, but that's not the case with 
Mrs. Wayne — ^besides, every moment of my time is absorbed in public 
business. The defence of a portion of upwards of one thousand miles, 
and in providing for and disciplining a new army who have yet to learn 
the dreadful trade of Death. 

You have imdoubtedly had rumors of a general peace with the In- 
dians, but the contrary is the fact; in the western country it is serious 

However, neither war nor politics were the motives of this letter. I 
will therefore come to the point. When I parted with you you had the 
goodness to promise to see that satisfaction was entered upon all judg- 
ments obtained in the Supreme or other courts against me. Is that 
business done? I have very recently had a serious caution to be prepared 
for an awful change, and my monster still continues to visit and warn 
me of its approach. 

I have had a most serious and an alarming attack from a violent 
lax and bilious vomiting, nor has it been in the power of the physicians 
to check it, but as I have some knowledge of my own constitution I have 
peremptorily insisted upon taking an emetic which they assured me was 
both improper and dangerous to the last degree in my present weak 
condition. However, I have found considerable relief from it, and by 
the aid of barks, which I have also taken contrary to their opinion, I 
have the tone of my stomach altered for the better, yet I am very weak 
and rather more reduced than when I first arrived with the army from 
Georgia in 1783. 

Notwithstanding, I have almost every fair day been able to ride 
for one or two hours at a time to direct our redoubts and chain of defences 
which are so far perfected that all the Indians in the wilderness could 
not force them.' 

But as life *s uncertain and mine at this time rather more so than 
usual, I wish to settle the property I may leave behind me so as to pre- 
vent any litigation after I am gone hence, for should I survive this attack, 
my breast is not bullet-proof, nor can I step a single foot aside to shield 
it. Therefore, I pray you let me know what you have done in the pre- 
mises as soon as possible. 

' See on page 1003 plan showing remaining intrenchments of this camp; also note on 
page jooa. 

988 History of Beaver County 

My best — perhaps last — and kindest love and wishes to my dear 
old mother, sisters and friends, and believe me to be with sincere esteem 

Your affectionate htmible servant 
Captain William Hayman Anthony Waynb. 


Captain William Hayman 


Willistown, Chester Coimty. 

Per favour of Sharp Delany, Esq.* 

Despite his physical weakness and suffering, Wayne kept at 
work, and soon had his camp so strongly fortified,' and the 
morale of both officers and men so much improved, that the 
soldiers began to look forward with exultation instead of dread 
to meeting the savages. This result was not attained without 
an exercise of the sternest discipline, as will be seen by any one 
who reads his orderly books, the greater portion of which is 
taken up with the record of courts-martial.* Much criticism 
was directed against the commander for this severity, especially 
for the execution of Sergeant Trotter at Pittsburg before the 
army was moved down to Legionville, but when the character 
of the material with which he had to work is considered, the 
men being as a rule of the same sort as those who had served 
under Harmar and St. Clair, and the defeats of those generals 
being largely due to the want of just such discipline in their 
forces as Wayne insisted upon, his course seems to be justified. 
Though severe, he was kind, and the devotion shown toward 
him by the troops during the campaign which followed proves 
that they finally realized that he was their friend. 

Life at Legionville was not all dull routine, but was enliv- 
ened by sham fights and reviews, and the exercise, among the 
officers at least, of the graces of hospitality and the arts of 
oratory. In illustration of this we cannot forbear to quote from 
Craig, though it is rather long, a graphic description by an 
eye-witness of a general review and jollification held there on 

' From the Philadelphia Inquirer, Feb. 27, 189s: original owned by Mr. Francis M. 

• The lash was freely used in punishment of wrong-doing. We have read in the orderly 
books of many sentences in which it was prescribed in allopathic doses. The following 
note foimd among the papers of Major Craig is significant : 

"Legionville, Feb. 22d, 1793. 

" Maior Craig, please send down some whip cord for cats,— they have no cats to whip 
men witn. 

John Finlbv." 

History of Pittsburgh, p. 216, The writer was Captain Finley, a soldier in the Revolu- 
tion and at that time Assistant Quartermaster. 

History of Beaver County 989 

Washington's birthday in 1793, the order for which we have 
recently seen in the Orderly Book * of Justus Gibbs, an officer in 
the Legion, and which reads as follows: 

Hbad Ouartbrs, 
Lboionvillb. the 19th February 93. 

. . . Fryday the 2 2d instant being the anaversary of the Pres- 
ident of the U. States birth Day the Review of the Legion is further 
Postponed ontil 10 o'Clock of that morning when it is expected that 
every individual will appear in the true Caracter of a Soldier which is in 
Sepperable of that of Gentleman 

We now give the account of the display referred to, written 
by one who signed himself ** Spectator": 

Lboionvillb. February 24. 

The 2 2d instant, being the anniversary birth day of the president 

of the United States, Major-General Wayne, commander-in-chief of the 

American army, issued the following orders for a general review in 

honor of the day. The Legionary corps consisting of cavalry, artillery, 

infantry and corps of riflemen. 

Hbadquartbrs, Lboionvillb. Feb. ao, 1793. 

The Legion will be reviewed the day after to-morrow, at 10 o'clock 
A.M., when every soldier capable of doing duty, must appear as a soldier 
otight to do, and for which the respective officers will be accoimtable. 

The cavalry, artillery and infantry will march in two coltimns; the 
right platoon in front of the right and the left platoon in front of the left. 
The artillery and cavalry equally divided in front and rear of each 
column. The guards for the redoubts No. i and 2, will form the van 
and rear-guards of the right coltunn. Those of No. 3 and 4 will be the 
van and rear-guards of the left colimm. When the columns display, 
the cavalry, artillery, van and rear-guards attached to the right coltunn 
will form on the right, those attached to the left coliunn will form on 
the left. The right wing of rifle corps will march in open files, forming a 
coltmin of flankers to the right — the left wing of rifle corps will march 
in the same order, forming a coltunn of flankers on the left, and will 
form to the left. The signal for marching will be a gtm from the park 
of artillery. 

The Legion were drawn up on their ustial parade, and took up the 
line of march as directed in the orders for the day, strongly flanked 
by the rifle companies, and gained a commanding eminence some dis- 
tance in front of the grand cantonment, drew up in form, and preserved 
the utmost regularity throughout the whole of their manoeuvres. Each 
officer and soldier appearing in perfect military dress. 

* This book from which we give several extracts in the text is in the possession of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The first page is thus inscribed *' Justus gibbs — his 
ordbrly book, commbncing JANUARY 1ST, I7Q3, LBOIONVILLB." This officer was neither 
a good scribe, nor a good speller, and his sins in grammar and orthography when tran- 
scribing orders must not be laid to the charge of Wayne, who was generally pretty accurate 
and always strong as a writer of English. 

990 History of Beaver County 

Considerable time took place in going through the various evolutions 
and firings, highly pleasing to every spectator. 

The legion formed in two colimms as before, with the artillery and 
ammunition wagons in the centre, continuing their march to the left, 
previous to which, a considerable nimiber of infantry and rifle-men were 
detached, with orders to possess certain strong grotmds, in front of the 
line of march, when, on the approach of the columns, a brisk engagement 
took place, and soon became general, bearing with it much the ap- 
pearance of a real action for upwards of 20 minutes, owing to the inces- 
sant peals of cannon and musketry. 

The columns having formed a hollow square, the cavalry in the 
centre, whence they sallied forth, and with the light troops made a 
brisk charge and terminated the engagement, which was obstinately 
maintained in every direction. 

The firings having ceased, the legion regained the grand parade, 
and ha\4ng formed the line in front discharged three times with their 
usual regularity. The artillery were then advanced in front of the line 
and commenced the federal salute of three times fifteen shells from 
howitzers, highly delightful to behold in their ranges, and explosions 
in the air, each re-echoing the day so estimable in the remembrance of 
each patriot citizen and soldier. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon the legion returned to their 
cantonment in the same manner they marched off in the morning, and 
on being drawn up on their accustomed parade the commander-in-chief 
passed in review and received the salute of the line. The troops being 
dismissed, the General gave all the officers off duty the polite invitation 
of dining with him, at w^hich agreeable interview hospitality presided, 
and brotherly love pervaded the whole. The dinner being ended, the 
following patriotic toasts were given : 

1. The PRESIDENT, and the day — May he see many happy returns of it. 

2. May our meeting with the savages produce conviction to the world, 
that the American Legion are the only troops proper to oppose them. 

3. The American Fair. — May the legion at all times merit their smiles. 

4. The memory of those heroes who fell in defense of American liberty. 

5. The American Legislatures — May their laws be founded in wisdom, 
and obeyed with promptitude. 

6. The non-commissioned officers and privates of the late army and 
of the present legion. 

7. The nation of France — May her arms be triumphant and her liberty 

8. Our friend and brother La Fayette — May a generous nation for- 
give his errors (if any) and receive him to her bosom. 

9. The land we live in — May America prove a secure asylum to the 
im fortunate. 

Thus ended the day with the most hilarity and good order through 
out the whole army, and in the evening brilliant fire-works were exhibited 
in the artillery park.' 

* History of Pittsburgh, pp. 217-20. 

History of Beaver County 991 

We shall now give a number of extracts from Gibbs's Orderly 
Book. The strict order that was maintained in and around the 
camp at Legionville will appear from these extracts, and it will 
be seen also that Wayne had, for his day, a most remarkable 
hatred for intemperance, confining the use of intoxicating 
liquors to the smallest possible allowance. Thanks to the les- 
sons of sobriety and self-control and the steady drill in marks- 
manship which he gave them, his men, at first unpromising 
enough, developed into as fine an army as any general could 
wish to command." In his own fashion Gibbs enters an order 
as follows: 

Lbgionvillb the 4th of March 93. 

The Dangerous and fatal Consequences that may result from so fre- 
quent and Disorderly practice of firing in the Vicinity of Camp can no 
longer pass with impimity as it has a Direck tendency to Ltd the Guard 
and Sentery in a State of Security in the very arms of Danger and of 
Which an artful and Savage Enemy will most Certainly avail themselves 
when lest expected nor Should any non commissioned officer or Soldier 
be suffered to pas the guards or Sentinals or over the river with fire arms 
in their hands upon any Pretence what ever without a written permit 
from Headqrs. The Respective officers of the Day & Guards will be 
held Responsible for the Due Execution of this order. 

But if ** disorderly firing" was prohibited, the greatest im- 
portance was attached to regular practice in shooting. Another 
order reads: 

Lbgionvillb March 7th, 1 793* 

. . . an Object which the Commander in chief has much at hart 
is to teach the Soldiers to become expert marksmen so that on all occa- 
tions they may Be Enabled to place their Shot In a Deadly Direction 
and to convince the world that they are superior in action than all the 
Savages in the Wilderness — he therefore Directs and Orders that the 
first and Second Best Shot at Each Days Practice of the Guards shall 
Receive the following premiums (Viz.) the first one pint and the Second 
one half Pint Whisky aGreable to the Principles mentioned in orders of 
the 25 August 1792. All and every Discription of Daily Guards are to 
assemble on the Grand Parade Immediately after being Relieved their 

> In The Winning of the West (Part V., p. 203) Mr. Roosevelt says : 

"The perfection of fighting capacity to which he had btxwght his forces catxsed much 
talk among the frontiersmen themselves. One of the contingent of Tennessee militia 
wrote home in the highest praise of the horsemanship and swordsmanship of the cavalry, 
who galloped their horses at speed over any ground, and leaped them over formidable 
obstacles, and of the bayonet practice and especially of the marksmanship of the infantry. 
He remarked that hunters were apt to tmdervalue the soldiers as marksmen, but that 
Wayne's riflemen were as good shots as any hunters he had ever seen at any of the many 
matches he had attended in the backwoods." 

992 History of Beaver County 

to form and march under the officer of the Day with the musick of the 
Legion to the Stimmit of the Hill in front and Practice tmder his Enspec- 
tion and to march back in the same order to the Grand Parade and then 
to be Dismissed which is to be Considered as a standing order. 

Wayne was of Irish descent, and was a member of the Friendly 
Sons of St. Patrick (an Irish- American, not a Catholic society), 
and he gave due respect to the day sacred to the memory of 
the saint, as appears from the following order of March i6th: 

as our Continuance upon this Grotmd will be for a Short period it 
will be only Lost Labour to proseed in Gardening and fencing — ^the 
Officers will turn their whole attention to the Disapline and manover the 
troops and to the Immediate Repiration of the Clothing armes and ac- 
cuterments of the Respective Companies or Detachments wich they are 
hereby most pointedly Enjoined to attend to with out Remission — on 
the twenty fourth Inst, that is to-morrow a week every non Commis- 
sioned officer and private Soldier must appear on parade with Blue 
[clothes?] the Respective officers will Be Responsable for the Compliance 
of this Order the commissary will Issue one Gill Whisky to Every non 
Commissioned officer and Soldier actually on Perade or Guard to-morrow 
in honor of Saint patrick who being a holy and a Good man the Com- 
mander in chief hopes and trusts that his sons will not disgrace his mem- 
ory by any unsoldierly or Disorderly Conduct . . . 

That the commander's wishes were gratified we learn from 
another source. Towards the close of March he writes: 

The progress that the troops have made both in manoeuvreing and 
as marksmen astonished the savages on St. Patricks day; and I am 
happy to inform you that the sons of that Saint were perfectly sober 
and orderly, being out of the reach of whiskey, which baneful poison 
is prohibited from entering this camp except as the component part of a 
ration,, or a little for fatigue duty or on some extraordinary occasion.' 

Continuing our quotations from Gibbs*s Orderly Book we have 
the following: 

Hbad Quartbrs, Lbgion Villb, nth Feb. 1793. 
. . Drunkenness is Considered by the Commander in Chief as 
the Cardinal Crime which introduces almost every other Vice which is 
the Common Cause that Intimates and Induces the soldiers to violate the 
rules and articles of War which is always attended with every Disagree- 
able & often fatal Consequences and as there is nothing so repugnant 
and distressing to the feelings of the Gen'l as to be reduced to the neces- 
sity of punishing a soldier he therefore calls seriously upon every Indi- 
vidual belonging to the U. S. Legions to be Guarded against that Vice 

* Major jGeneral Anthony Wayne, by Charles J. Stills, p. 324. 

History of Beaver County 993 

which both from Duty as well as inclination to check & punish without 

favour or partiality to any — and as a first step to Guard against it 

The Q. M. and officers Commanding Companies and Detachments 
will not permit any Man to receive more than a single ration per Day 
which they are to receive regularly in future on parade every morning 
after revelee. All and every soldier who does not appear in parade in 
one time imless on Guard or whose arms or amimition are not in perfect 
order shall forfeit that part of the Dayly Ration for each & every neglect 
or Default in Addition to such other pimishment as may be inflicted upon 
them to be disolved from the Comp'y or Detachment fatigue. And fur- 
thermore for the more thorough preservation of order & Discipline no 
Merchant or Storekeeper shall furnish any non commissioned officer or 
soldier or follower of the army any article whatever after tatoo in the 
evening, or before twelve in the morning.* 

There is a tradition that on one occasion, when a distiller on 
Crow's Island, opposite the camp, had sold liquor to some of the 
soldiers, Wayne sent a solid shot dangerously near the distillery 
as a warning of what ptmishment a repetition of the offense 
wotdd bring to the culprit, and in the old orderly book from 
which we have been quoting we find the following instance of 
the enforcement of the order in question: 

Hbad Ouartbrs, Lbgionvillb Jan. zoth, 1793 
Officer of the day to-morrow from the Infantry Agt. Vance. 

At a Genl Court martial held the 17 th Inst, whereof Capt'n Eaton is 
pres't Sam'l Wilson a carpenter in the employment of the U. S. was tryed 
upon a Charge exhibited against him by Capt'n Miss Campbell ^ for pur- 
chasing spirituous Liquor & supplying the soldiery of the U. S. contrary 
to Gen'l Order, the Court after hearing the evidence & the Defence of 
the prisoner are of opinion he is Guilty of the Charge Exhibited against 
him being a breach of the 23 Art. and 13 th Sect, of the rules and articles 
of war and do sentence him to be drumed out of the Cantonement from 
the Grand parade with two bottles of Whisky to be Expended about his 

In the order of March i6th, quoted above, the intimation 
was given that the stay of the legion at their then present camp 

' In the maniiscript letters of Wayne belonging to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
is one from him dated *' Pittsburgh Nov. 24, 179a." in which (evidently in answer to a peti- 
tion from the parties named) permission is given Oliver Ormsby, James C. Heron, and 
Samuel Duncan to establish a store at Legionville on condition that they do not allow "any 
ardent spirits to be sold to — or furnished the soldiery — either directly or indirectly." 

* The officer named above had really this singular name. Miss Campbell; he is frequently 
mentioned in old doctmients, sometimes as Mis Campbell. 

The Grand Parade is spoken of in another place by Gibbs as being "on the summit of 
the hiU." 

994 History of Beaver County 

ground would be short, and as will be seen from the following 
letter, preparations for the journey down the river to Fort Wash- 
ington (now Cincinnati) had for some time been making : 

Hbad Ouartbrs, Lbgionvillb. 
February la, 1793. 
Sir: — I have been Favor*d with your letter of the 5th instant, en- 
closing a general statement of forage purchased, a statement of cash, 
with an Estimate of boats wanted for the ensuing campaign; and have 
received a general return of Quarter-master's stores on hand the 20th of 
July, 1792, received since, issued and on hand up to the ist of February, 
1793. If you have not already done it, I have to request that you will 
transmit a copy of it to the Secretary of War the soonest possible. I 
have examined yotu" Estimate of boats, out of the twelve that you have 
calculated for the transportation of 2,000 men with their Arms, baggage 
and provisions sufficient ; we ought not to calculate upon a greater num- 
ber of men than fifty to each boat, and I have seen it demonstrated that 
yotu" large ferry-boat would not carry more than twenty horses and men 
across the Allegheny at one trip, with the men and horses all standing up 
and without forage. I should rather suppose it would require twelve 
boats to transport 160 horses and cattle, with the riders, drivers and 
necessary forage, so as not to crowd or injure the horses or cattle, and 
it will certainly require at least eight boats for the Artillery department. 
By the best calculation that I can make, it will require at least sixty 
boats independent of those necessary for the Quarter-master's depart- 
ment — what niunber that may require, you are the best judge. The 
whole amotmt of the grain part of the forage ought most certainly to be 
procured, and the deficiency in hay to be made up by an additional 
quantity of grain, in the proportion of one thousand bushels of Com for 
every ton of Hay, which is upon the very lowest scale of allowance per 
ration, i. e., 14 poxmds of hay and 7 quarts of com. Enclosed is a return 
of articles immediately wanted, and which must be forwarded, if pos- 
sible, tomorrow. All our smiths and armourers are idle for want of coal ; 
the consumption is, at least, equal to five bushels per diem; we have 
made and used upwards of 150 bushels of charcoal besides the stone coal; 
the whole is now exhausted. We shall want 150 bushels per month. 
What will be the best mode of forwarding the troops under Captain 
Slough ? Their tents, if any, may be stored at Pittsburgh ; their other 
baggage may be sent by water, and the Detachment to be ferried over 
the Allegheny to-morrow and march the next morning early for this 
place, where they will be immediately under cover. You will, therefore, 
give the necessary orders, in addition to those enclosed for Captain 

I am. Sir, your most obedient, humble servant. 

To James O'Hara, Q.M.G., Pittsburgh.' 

* Fort Pitt (Darlington), p. 256. 

History of Beaver County 995 

Nearly a month before the actual departure of the troops 
took place, instructions for the embarkment and for the regula- 
tion of the fleet in its movement down stream were issued in 
the following order: 

Hbad Quarters. Lboionvillb April ad, 1793. 

Officer of the day tomorrow Major Burbank adj't Devin the General 
will Beat tomorrow morning in place the revelee which will be a signal to 
load the baggage on board the Boats a gim from the park will be a signal 
for the legion to Embark a second Gxm will be a signal for Casting oft 
and Droping Down in the following order which must be Strictly ob- 
served during the whole passage viz 

The right wing of Rifle Corps 2d ist Division of Dragoons 3d Capt. 
Pierce Hoet with i 6 pounder with fifty rounds fixed amunition for Each 
4th the ist & 4 S. L. of Infantry 5th the q. m. forage & Stores 6 the Mili- 
tary stores 7 the General Staf 8th the hospital & Stores 9th 2d & 3d S. L. 
of Infantry 10 Capt. Porter with i [ ? ] i 6 poimd'r & 50 Rounds 
of Amimition for Each 12 th the left wing of Rifle corps the Guard on 
board fast rowing Boats a 3 Gim will be a signal for their Embarkation 
which must upon all occasions be effected with the utmost order an 
Coolness it must be an invincible rule for each boat to observe a distance 
of 100 yards in the rear & to follow Exactly the wake of its van lead- 
ing boat the Guard boats will Observe a distance of 300 yards in the rear 
of the whole and a proper Distance between Each other nor shall they 
pass any boat in Distress or otherwise must afford every assistance to 
relieve and bring them on The Guard will be relieved every evening 
if Circimistances will permit. 


ist for landing the retreat to beat to be repeted by Each S. L. & Corps 
The Landing boat ist the field to put on Shore on the Indian Side of the 
river the other boats to Drop below Successively & form in ord'r the 
riflemen will Jump on Shore as the Boats Come to and advance with 
rapidity & Occupy the Strong Ground for half a mile in front, forming a 
Chain to cover the whole line which protection they must maintain at 
every Expense of blood until called in the men at the oars will remain 
on board in the interim the new Guard will be Employed in throwing up 
four temporary breast Works under the Direction of the officer of the 
day and the officer of their respective Guard at Such intermediate Dis- 
tances as to Cover the whole line from insults. 

2. the General will be the Signal for casting oft in the order first men- 
tioned again will be the Signal for the army to embark 3. the leading 
boat of each sub Division will Carry a flag in her Stem in the day time 
and Ian thorn [in] her Stem at night The field boat will keep 200 yards 
in front of the whole fleet with a flag in her Stem in the day and a lan- 
thom at night the loading [leading?] boat of the Rifle will follow in her 

996 History of Beaver County 

wake and so in Succession as already mentioned 5th for the van to 
move first after the long march 6. to move Slow on the taps these two 
Signals always to come from the rear it is to be Clearly imderstood that 
Should the boats Continue to Descend in the night the Guards to drop 
down with the Current without making use of Oars without for the ptir- 
pose of Steering or to preserve the proper Distances.' 

The start was made on the last day of April, 1793, and an 
account of the movement is given us by a contemporary, Major 
Isaac Craig, who, under date of May 3d of that year, writes to 
General Knox as follows: 

On the 30th ultimo, Major Gen. Wayne, with the troops under his 
command at Legionville, embarked in good order and set off for Fort 
Washington ; the troops were in high spirits. The boats being well fitted 
for transportation made a fine appearance. As the river was consider- 
ably swelled by the late rains, it is probable the troops will reach Fort 
Washington in six days.^ 

The transformation which Wayne had wrought in these 
troops is noteworthy. When he took charge of them they 
shared the feelings of the whole country after the bloody suc- 
cesses of the Indians against Harmar and St. Clair, the general 
impression being that another engagement with the savages 
meant only another defeat and slaughter. It is said by the his- 
torian of the times that ''a perfect horror seemed to seize the 
soldiers when marched from the places of enlistment and their 
faces turned towards the Indian country," 3 — now, after their 
long-continued discipline under a stem but capable and brave 
commander, they are said to have embarked upon their expedi- 
tion to that country "tn high spirits,'* and the end justified their 
confidence in him and in themselves. 

Reaching Fort Washington, Wayne established his camp near 
that post. The soldiers called the camp "Hobson*s Choice," 
because owing to high water it was the only suitable spot. Here 
he had to remain for some time, for the timid and hesitating 

* From Gibbs's Orderly Book, MS. 

• History of Pittsburgh, p. aao. 

■ History of Western Pennsylvania, p. 2R7. 

Writing from PittsburR, July so, 1792, to the Secretary of War, Wa>'ne says: 
"The detachment imder Major Ashton arrived at this place on Monday. Lieutenant 
Campbell ^nth Stokes dragoons, and Captain Faulkner's riflemen on Tuesday. — I am. how- 
ever, sorry to inform you »>f the alarming desertion that prevails — not less than fifty of Major 
Ashton's detachment, and seven of Stoke's dragoons having deserted on their march between 
Carlisle and Pittsburgh." 

History of Beaver County 997 

policy of the National Government compelled him to wait until 
the vain hope of peace through the mediation of the commis- 
sioners who had been appointed to negotiate with the savages 
should be abandoned, and he be left free to proceed to the arbi- 
trament of the sword, which was, in fact, the only effectual 
remedy for the then existing troubles. The authorities had all 
along been extremely reluctant to come to actual war; and, 
even while he was still at Legionville, Wayne had been instructed 
to invite Complanter and New Arrow, the principal chiefs of 
the Six Nations, to visit him there in the interests of peace. In 
March, 1793, these chiefs arrived at his camp, bringing with 
them Big Tree and old Guyasutha. Cornplanter afterwards 
went on a peace mission to the hostile tribes, but failed to accom- 
plish any good result.^ During all the parleyings that followed, 
Wayne patiently bided his time, knowing that sooner or later 
the Government would have to accept his commissioners, the 
troops who had now learned what he called '*the dreadful trade 
of Death," and who were able to conclude a peace that would 

Of the progress and the restdts of Wayne's expedition after 
his army was withdrawn from its camping ground within the 
limits of what is now Beaver County, we need not add here 
anything beyond what is briefly stated in our third chapter, but 
so great is the debt which our county, as well as the whole of 
western Pennsylvania and the Union, owes to the services of 
that illustrious soldier, that we may appropriately give some 
further account of his career, which is a splendid example of 
pure patriotism and lofty courage. 

Anthony Wayne was bom, January i, 1745, near the village 
of Paoli, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, in the house of his 
parents, known as Waynesborough. Isaac Wayne, his father, 
owned here five hundred acres of land, on which a substantial 
stone house was erected in 1722 and enlarged in 1724. It is 
built from the dark gray stones common to the neighborhood 
and known as "hard heads'* or ** nigger heads," with very heavy 
pointing, and is a beautiful old mansion. The estate is one of 

* History of Western Pennsylvania, p. a 88. 

• When the Secretary of War wrote to Wayne proposing the appointment of commis- 
sioners to treat with the savages, the latter replied that he would like to be present at the 
convention with twenty-five hundred of his commissioners, " with not a Quaker amona 

VOL. 11.-25. 

looo History of Beaver County 

held sacred, but the fame will grow of how he bore this responsi- 
bility and redeemed the trust reposed in him by his country and 
his chief. 

After the treaty at Greeneville. Wayne paid a brief visit to 
Pennsylvania, receiving everywhere along his route, and espe- 
cially in Philadelphia, the enthusiastic plaudits of his country- 
men, but the condition of affairs in the Northwest requiring an 
able manager, he was sent back as sole commissioner to settle 
them, returning in June of 1796. His main task there was to 
take possession of the forts, which, as we have said, were still 
held by the British. He had performed his mission in regard to 
all of these posts except Presqu' Isle (now Erie), toward which 
he sailed from Detroit in the sloop Detroit in November. While 
nearing this post he was stricken with gout. In the block- 
house at Presqu' Isle the great soldier lingered in agony xintil 
December 15, 1796, when he was relieved by death. By his own 
desire he was buried "at the foot of the flag-staff on a high hill 
called * Garrison Hill,' north of the present Soldiers* Home." « 
In 1809 his only son, Isaac Wayne, removed his remains to the 
family burial plot in the cemetery of St. David's Church in 
Radnor township, Chester County, Pa., where, on July 4th of 
that year, a monimient was erected in his honor by his com- 
rades of the Revolution of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. On a pleasant pilgrimage to the home and grave of 
Wayne in the fall of 1903 we copied the inscription on this monu- 
ment, which is as follows: 

* Wayne and tlie Pcnna. Line, Stillc, p. 343. 

In the Pmtnsylvania Magazine of History, vol. xix., are several letters from officers at 
Presqu' Isle to Major Isaac Craig at Pittsburg relating to the death of General Wayne, 
from which we make the following extracts; 

"Presqu* Islb, 14 Dec^, 1796. 
" Dbar Sir: — I have received your favor of the 7th this morning. 

'* The Gout lias fixeil itself m the General's stomack about a week since & continues with 
unabated violence — how long he can continue to suffer such tortures is hard to say — ^but 
it appears to me that nature must soon sink under such acute affliction. . . . 

[Signed] " S'. Db Butts." 

From the same to the same: 

" 15th Decf, 1796. 
*' Dbar Sir: — 

" General Wayne died this morning at ten minutes past two. Col. Kirkpatrick has said 
he would write you on the melancholy occasion, which will spare me the i>ain of saying 
any further on the subject. — I pray you to forward by immediate express the enclosed 
letters to the Secretary of War — they bear him an account of the unhappy event, and it 
is important that they should reach him as quickly as possible." 

1, Waynesborough. 

2. Wayne's Monument. 

3. Waynesborough — P'ront View. 

4, Interior of St. David's Church, Radnor. 

5. Exterior of St. David's Church. 


History of Beaver County icx)i 

[north front] 

Major General 

Anthony Wayne 

was bom at Waynesborough 

in Chester County 

State of Pennsylvania 

a.d. 1745 

After a life of 

Honor and usefulness 

He died 

In December 1796 

On the shore of Lake Erie 

Commander in Chief of 

the Armv of 

The United 'States 

His military achievements 

are consecrated 

In the History of his Country 

and in 

The hearts of his Countrymen 

His remains 

are here deposited. 

[south front] 

In honor of the distinguished 

Military services of 

Major General 

Anthony Wayne 

And as an affectionate tribute 

of respect to his memory 

This stone was erected 

by his companions in arms 

The Pennsylvania 

State Society 

of the Cincinnati 

July 4th 1809 

Thirty fourth anniversary 


The Independence of 

The United 

States of America 

an event 

which constitutes 

the most 

Appropriate Eulogitun 

of an American 

Soldier & patriot. 

The monument thus inscribed is of white marble, small but 
symmetrical, and the old churchyard in which it stands, the 
church itself, and the surrounding country are quaintly beauti- 
ful, forming a picture of peace and repose, and a fitting resting- 
place for the dust of one whose life had been so ftdl of stonn 

I002 History of Beaver County 

and stress. Musing amid these scenes, Longfellow was inspired 
to write the poem entitled Old St David* s at Radnor, beginning: 

What an image of peace and rest 

Is this little chiirch among its graves! 
All is so qxiiet : the troubled breast, 
The woimded spirit, the heart oppressed, 

Here may find the repose it craves.' 

Three years after Wayne had left Legionville a distinguished 
European, General Victor CoUot, made a tour of the Ohio by 
boat, and in his account of the journey occurs the following 
reference to this locaUty: 

On accoimt of the winding of the river one travels five miles without 
encoimtering any obstruction, and arrives at Legion* s-ville, old head- 
quarters of General Wayne, when, in 1795, he was sent against the Miami : 
here are to be seen some old ruins, remains of an ancient camp; opposite 
which is a very pretty farm called Hill's Farm. 

After having passed Legion 's-ville and descended a mile Crow's Island 
is seen. This island is perhaps a mile long; one leaves it to the left. 
The hills on the right bank retire more and more, while those on the left 
remain near the river. The water in this part is six feet deep.^ 

Thus this Uttle section of territory between Legionville and 
Economy, which hundreds of travellers daily cross and recross 

* The page of illustrations of Waynesborough and St. David's Church, herewith given, 
are from photographs kindly furnished by Hon. William Wayne specially for this work. 

* The original of which the above is a free translation reads as follows: 

"A compter du coude de la rivifere, on fait cinq milles sans rencontrer d'obstacles 
et on arrive k Legion' s-vilk, ancien qiiartier-g^eral qu'occupait le g^^ral Waine. 
lorsqu'il fut en 179S. envoye centre les Miami: on y trouve des vieilles masures, restes 
d'un ancien camp; vis-k-vis, est une trfes jolie ferme appel6e Hiil's Farm.* 

" Aprfes avoir pass^ Legion's-xalle et descendu im mille, on trouve Crow*s Island ou He 
des Corbeaux. Cette tie peut avoir un mille de lonj^rueur; on la laisse k gauche. Les 
montagnes de la rive droite s'eloignent de plus en plus, tandis que celles de la ri\'e gauche, 
bordent toujours les rivieres. L'eau en cet endroit a six pieds de h&nteuT."— Voyage 
Dans UAmeriquc Septentrionalc. p. 72. 

2^doc Cramer's Navigator, for 181 8 (page 70) says: "Some of the cabins built by Gen- 
eral Wayne are still standing on the ground which is an extensive flat, high and timberless, 
except a thick growth of young scrub oaks." 

Mr. John S. Duss. formerly chief trustee of the Harmony Society, has told us that in 
his boyhood one of these cabins, thought to have been Wayne's headquarters, was still 
standing as were also some chimneys of other cabins. The field in which they stood was 
known then among his people as "the chimney field." In this field several coins of the 
Continental period were recently found. The visitor to the site of Wayne's encamp- 
ment at Legionville will be surprised to find how clearly the lines of trenches and position 
of the redoubts can still be seen. The plan of the camp given on page 1003 was drawn 
by Mr. James P. Leaf, C.E., of Rochester, Pa. The ground between the points marked on 
the plan A and B is now a cultivated field. We suppose that the intrenchments originally 
extended across this space, and from B to C, as well as along the face of the bluff or second 
terrace above the Ohio River. The trenches around the redoubt marked B are still about six 
feet deep. These and the others which are well preserved are in the woods, where there has 
never been any cultivation of the ground. We give also two half-tone pictures of this redoubt. 

♦ See map facing page 627. 

History of Beaver County 


unheeding, has a history which belongs not to Beaver County 
alone, but to the nation as well. 

At LegionviUe a post-office was established, December, 31, 
1889, of which the present incumbent, George Brown, has been 

(aup . Oeci/Fia}Jt Maj Genl ffNTMONy ^^nc^ RffMv 
f>9Z /fND t703 Ot LB9iOH\mj,c DcAv^ff Co . r/l 

-^ J,F.L£AF.C.e, 

Onto ff/VCR 

postmaster from the beginning. Mr. Brown served four years 
in the War of the Rebellion as a member of Company B, 4th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, and was a prisoner for fifteen months at 

Hardly second in interest to the history of old LegionviUe 

I004 History of Beaver County 

and Logstown is that or the vill^c of Economy and its people, 
which we now give. 


The home of the qtxaint and now historic German commxm- 
ity, known legally and properly as the Harmony Society and 
popularly as the Economite Society, is a village beantifally 
situated on the right or eastern bank of the Ohio River and the 
Pittsburg, Port Wayne & Chicago Railroad, about eighteen miles 
from Pittsburg. It is built on the second terrace of the river, 
occupying an extensive level that stretches back for neariy a 
mile to the wooded hills beyond, with broad streets laid out, 
some parallel and some at right angles to the river. The log 
houses originally erected have been replaced by neat frame or 
brick houses, much of one size, and with the main entrances on 
the side. Each one has a garden, with shade or frtdt tre e s and 
grape arbors, or grape vines attached to its walls. Old-fashioned 
flowers grow in the yards, and when the original members still 
survived, the most old-fashioned of people were the occupants 
of the dwellings. These all are gone to the better Fatherland 
above, and of the present (1904) members, three in number, 
none has been connected with the Society for more than thirty- 
five years. 

The town was once a busy hive of industry, with massive 
mills and factories, storehouses and public halls and school, with 
a vast, bam-like church, and the *' Great House" where lived 
Father Rapp, the founder, and which is now occupied by Mr. 
John S. Duss. These buildings are all still standing. Our illus- 
trations show a few of them. From the looms, the mills, the 
vineyards, the stills, and the broad acres of this Society flowed 
streams of wealth, until the organization was worth several 
millions of dollars. This wealth flowed out again in the pro- 
motion of many public enterprises, resulting in vast good to all 
of western Pennsylvania. From one to two hundred thousand 
dollars were expended yearly during a long period in all manner 
of worthy projects.' Its wealth was also drained by designing 

' " 'Ditry w<r»- al«v, intensely jjatriotic. Tho-jj^h taking no part in political contests, 
tbf y U/f t}i#-ir full <hATf in sustaining the G'lvemment in its terrible stru^le with rebel- 
luin. Pfir rfi'»nr loyal than thousamls r.f native American citizens, and most of them 
\>('}UH Un, i}]i] X't rntcr t>ie army in iwiry»n, thry contributed lavishly for the e(iuipment of 




^^^^^^^^c- ^^^^^r 

^^^tri ' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^11 

RemairM of Easitem Redoabc, Wayne's Camp at Leg;ioavil1e. 
Is iif9cr pKtare dM cvnch arvMrnd R^Awhr /jffcm aaarfiac dMraa* » aov 
fix foec is <l«pdi : ia lover p icn mt aadbor'a ifove iho^'t ccaacr of R»> 
d«mbc,aad ahadows ol cnca oMBcaWK dbfc aw aBnoaadi 

• Ral f w aw ftiHB pfcnaiyiplif kf Jaacs F. Lol, CE.) 

History of Beaver County 1005 

men and unfortunate investments and by litigation forced upon 
the Society. 

The Economy of to-day is quite unlike the Economy of the 
past, when only the members of the Harmony Society compoied 
the population of the town. Only three of the old residents, as 
we have said, remain, and a new element is in the ascendancy 
in the social life of the community, there being now a large 
ntunber of outsiders making homes in the place. There are 
to-day 208 houses in the town and all are occupied. Some of 
these are modem and in striking contrast to the old buildings 
erected by the Society. The town is also supplied with a good 
quality of water from the Society's own works. A good school 
is free to all the children of the town, supported by the funds of 
the Society; and in the old church union services — church and 
Sabbath-school — are held every Sabbath afternoon, with preach- 
ing by the various ministers of the surrounding towns and cities. 
These services are in the English language, and services in Ger- 
man are held Sabbath mornings. 

The traditions of the old Harmony Society are still in force 
in the conmiunity, its ancient buildings, many of them closed 
and bearing the sign Einiritt vetboien C'No admission"), and 
the old furniture and household treasures being carefully pre- 

The po5tK)ffioe at Economy was established in 18^6, and has 
had but four postmasters, who were appointed as follows: Wil- 
liam Smith. January 12, 1826; Romelius L. Baker, April 10, 
1832; Jacob Henrid, April 16, 1868; John S. Duss, May jo, 


Germany, especiaUy Wiirtemberg, in which George Rapp, the 
founder of this Society was bom. has been the fertile soiJ for 
the growth of religious sects holding peciaJiar tenets in regard to 
the social relations and property rights . The name is legi<-MQ of the 
ertravagant and mysticaJ coteries which have sprung up in the 

-vuhmteerB. iur ajMnnal Umnliets fur ttic- susfport of c<m: ioiiulw:^ of aUiMit iokUbrfc. lor tUt 
ChnsuBH. Sanitary, and Subnaveovx- CottunkMioiifi, fur tlM: turtitk«uufi of PiiiAlmrKr- 
for tjae tbIm^ of the- irvednnm. fur tnt- nuwAfrt of toldierg' widuwt. awe tU.* «cluu«tiufi of tl*eir 
urjnBic chiidren* Tfaeir cunirt'cnttkrik^. fur ftifn^t f»t«d k»rHif«<i ob^-Ui wuu«d aiKuuiit 
to ToaDv tbutiaands of uoljare.'' T'm Hoftntm^ Svoiei^. uy Aaruti Wilfutfiti), if.V , \»\ j^-4 

* b*»t vo! 1.. y 4Vf 

ioz/> Historj- of Beaver Count>- 

Gem:ian lands, to flourish for a little time and perish obscurely. 
ar. i/jf others not so erratic which had a longer term of life. The 
caa^es of this tendency were various. The philosophical spirit 
of the Germans was partly responsible for it — sl spirit which, 
althouj^h "cabin'd. cribb'd. confin'd" by laws of church and 
State, broke through all bars and hindrances and sought for the 
naked truth in politics and in religion. The sorrowful condition 
of the people in the period following the Thirty Years' War had 
much to do in furthering these developments which held out to 
the [/y>r the hope of betterment; and the wide-spread indifferent- 
i~.m and formalism in religious matters which characterized the 
times led to a reaction among the thoughtful and earnest, pro- 
ducing a desire for something more strenuous and satisf\ing. 
something demanding more devotion and self-sacrifice. In the 
Palatinate and Wurtemberg especially (the regions from which 
came the greatest number of emigrants to America), the social 
and economic conditions were intolerable, the people being 
taxed to death to support the luxur\' of petty principalities 
always striving to ape the magnificence of the court of the 
Grand Monarch. Thus on every hand were influences tending 
to create erratic and extravagant socialistic and religious move- 
ments. Pennsylvania became a favorite land of promise and 
asylum to these persecuted or restless sects. German '* Friends" 
or mystics came here in large numbers through the influence of 
William Penn; Hermhuters or Moravians, the Mennonites, the 
S^hwenkenfelder, the Tunkers or Dunkers. and others arriving at 
different times through a period of over two hundred years. Like 
these in some respects, ver\' unlike in others, was the little colony 
of George Rapp, which came from Wurtemberg in 1804, and 
first '-ettled in Butler County the following year, later coming to 

Xo part of the history of Beaver County possesses more 
human interest than that pertaining to this singular society, an 
interest at once romantic, religious, and sociological, and we 
shall therefore devote as much space as possible to an account 
of its origin and growth and its peculiarities. The following 
article, by Agnew Hice, Esq., of the firm of Hice & Hice, the 
senior member of which, the Hon. Henr\' Hice, has for years 
been C(mnsel for the Society, was written specially for this work 
and gives an outline of its history: 


History of Beaver County 1007 

**Like all organizations of its class, the Harmony Society 
had its origin in the hardness and oppression of the conditions 
which surrounded its founders and which developed in them 
those qualities of character which made possible its successful 
formation and continuation. 

** In the latter part of the eighteenth century there was in 
many parts of Germany much dissatisfaction with the condi- 
tions existing in the church, and in a portion of Wurtemberg 
this dissatisfaction seems to have taken a strong hold on many 
persons, and manifested itself by the gathering of people about 
various leaders who presented to them a more devout and pious 
life, and among these leaders were Michael Hahn and George Rapp. 

** George Rapp, bom October 28, 1757, was the son of Adam 
Rapp, a vine-dresser of moderate means, residing at Iptengen, 
Oberamt Matilbronn, Kingdom of Wurtemberg, and had such 
limited education as his means could afford. In 1783 he was 
married to Christina Benzinger, who bore him a son, John Rapp,' 
the father of Miss Gertrude Rapp, who died at Economy in 
1889; and a daughter, Rosina, who died in 1849. 

**When about thirty years of age George Rapp began to 
speak to a number of friends who assembled at his house for 
religious instruction; and the number of his hearers increasing 
and his influence becoming broader, caused a decided opposition 
from the clergy, and this opposition became a violent persecu- 
tion, which caused the Separatists, as they were called, to look 
abroad for a refuge; and after the selection of a site for his 
followers at Zelienople, Butler County, Pennsylvania, a large 
number left Germany to find a home in the American wilderness. 

**0n July 4, 1804, the ship Aurora landed three hundred of 
his followers at Baltimore, and soon after the ship Atlantic 
landed a similar number at Philadelphia, and in February of 
1805 these persons gathered at what is now Harmony, in Butler 
County, and the Harmony Society was formally organized by 
entering into a written contract, which, although since modified 
in a few partictilars, is and always has been essentially the basis 
of the Harmony Society. 

^ A foolish story of John Rapp having been killed for refusing to separate from his wife 
when the practice of celibacy was adopted by the Society was published at an early date in 
the Philadelphia North American and in the Atlantic Monthly. He was an affectionate 
and well-beloved son, and died in i8ia. five yean after the adoption of celibacy by the 
community. His death was due to consumption. — Editor. 

icx>8 History of Beaver County 

"This contract does not establish a religious organization, but 
is strictly a contract establishing property rights and the correl- 
ative rights and obligations of its members in the community. 
The Harmony Society has no established creed and is not a 

'*As a contract regulating property rights, the peculiarities 
of the contract are these: 

'* First: Community of Goods maintained by the vesting of 
the title to all property in the Society or trustees for it, so that 
the enjoyment thereof is had by virtue of membership in the 
Society and not by virtue of ownership of the property. 

** Second: The control of the property and regulation of the 
conduct of the members by a system of Superintendence or 
government, supposed to be modeled after that existing in the 
days of the Hebrew Patriarchs. 

"The Society from a very meager beginning in 1805 acquired 
considerable means, and in 18 14 determined to go to Indiana, 
where the greater fertility of the soil attracted them, and in that 
year they bought twenty-five thousand acres of land in Posey 
County, Indiana, and established the town of New Harmony, 
to which place they removed, being at that time about seven 
hundred in number. At New Harmony the surroundings 
brought upon them a scourge of malaria which caused the death 
of many, so that in 1825 they returned to Beaver Coimty and 
established the town of Economy, where they have ever since 

"The town of Economy was built soon after the purchase of 
the lands (which now constitute Harmony township, in Beaver 
County), and improvements in the way of orchards, vineyards, 
and factories had been made. 

"The first successful manufacture of silk and silk velvet 
west of the Allegheny Mountains was conducted by the Har- 
mony Society at Economy. The manufacture of cotton and 
woolen goods was also pursued at Economy as well as the mak- 
ing of wine, whisky, and lumber. 

"The lands purchased by the Society at Economy and now 
owned by it were purchased from the estate of Ephraim Blaine,* 

* This was Ephraim Lyon Blaine, the son of James Blaine and grandson of Colonel 
Ephraim Blaine famous in the Western annals during the Revolutionary period. He was 
the father of the celebrated Maine statesman James G, Blaine. In one of our illustrations 
is a picture of the house in which James and Ephraim Lyon Blaine lived on the Sewickley 

Street Scenes in Economv. 

History of Beaver County 1009 

William Vicary, James McCulloch, William Bryan, William 
Scott, and the Bank of United States, and are included in tracts 
ntmibered eleven to twenty-one of the Second District of De- 
preciation lands. 

** The business dealings of the Society have been conducted by 
Frederick Rapp, who died July 5, 1834; George Rapp, who died 
August 7, 1847; R. L. Baker, who died January 11, 1868; Jacob 
Henrici, who died December 25, 1892 ; and John S. Duss, the wife 
of the last named being now the sole trustee of the Society. 

** The business operations of the Society have extended over 
much of western Pennsylvania. In Warren, Venango, and 
Forest Counties, they produced oil and lumber. In the northern 
part of Beaver County they mined coal, and one time produced 
oil by the distillation of coal and shale. 

'*In 1859 the Society purchased the tracts of land now em- 
braced in the borough of Beaver Falls, and at that place car- 
ried on and aided various manufacturing and other interests. 

**The extent of their operations in Beaver County may be 
measured from the fact that the records show over twenty-five 
hundred conveyances from them. 

**In Allegheny County the Society engaged in the coal busi- 
ness; they aided in the construction of bridges and railroads, 
taking a special interest in the building of the Pittsburg & Lake 
Erie Railroad. 

"For those who may wish to look into the history of this 
Society, the following references are given: 

** The Harmony Society at Economy, Pa., by Aaron Williams, 
D.D., 1866. 

''Communistic Societies of United States. By Charles Nord- 
hoff, 1875. 

"Much information, historically, may also be gathered from 
the litigation of the Society, as shown by the reported cases. 

"Numerous magazine articles have also been written, with 
about the usual proportion of truth and fiction contained in 
such articles.** 

So far Mr. Hice. We may add to his sketch some further 
particulars that are of interest. 

Bottom. The house was removed to its present position in Economy after the sale above 
noted. See interesting refermce in Gail Hamilton's Biography of James G. Btauie, pp. 
40-59— J. H. B. 

loio History of Beaver County 

The Society has had six written contracts or articles of agree- 
ment drawn up. The first, the substance of which has been 
retained in all the others, was made at Harmony, Butler County, 
Pa., February 15, 1805; the second in 182 1 at New Harmony, 
Posey County, Ind. ; the third in 1827 at Economy, Pa. ; and the 
others at the same place in 1836, 1847, ^^^ 1890. It is not now 
known who were the legal counsel who drew up the first two 
contracts. That of 1827 was prepared by John H. Hopkins, 
Esq., an attorney who afterwards entered the ministry of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and who rose to be its senior 
bishop. The contract of 1836 was possibly drawn up by Hon. 
Daniel Agnew, though it is not certainly known. The next, that 
of 1847, was one of the most important, being rendered neces- 
sary by the death of George Rapp, the founder.' He having 
held the whole property of the Society in trust for it, an adjust- 
ment of the affairs of the Society to the new conditions created 
had to be made. The reorganization was made under the legal 
advice and assistance of Daniel Agnew of Beaver, and Walter 
Forward of Pittsburg. The contract of 1890 was the work of 
Hon. Henry Hice of the law firm of Hice & Hice of Beaver. 
For some time previous to 1863 Richard P. Roberts, Esq., of 
Beaver, had been counsel for the Harmony Society; and Mr. 
Hice, a former student of his and then his partner, assisted him 
in many matters of business pertaining to the Society. On the 
death of Roberts, who was killed in the battle of Gettysburg, 
Mr. Hice, knowing the affairs of the Society intimately, was con- 
tinued as its legal adviser in Beaver County. N. P. Fetterman, 
Esq., of the Allegheny County bar, held the same position rela- 

* On the death of George Rapp, August 7th, 1847, the whole Society signed again the 
Articles of Association adopted March 9, 1827,* putting in two Trustees and seven Elders 
to manage and regulate all matters as had been done by George Rapp. The Trustees 
from that date to the present have been the following: 

R. L, Baker I ,0^^ ,0^5, 

Jacob Henrici ) i»47-i»f)». r l. Baker died January 11, 1868. 

Jacob Henrici ( ,Q6g_,goo 

Jonathan Lenz S ^ Jonathan Lenz died January ai, 1890. 

Jacob Henrici t ,n„^ 

Ernest Woelfel f ^^^°~ Ernest Woclfel died July — , 1890. 

Jacob Henrici i n^^ o^. 

John S. Duss f i»9o-i»92. Jacob Henrici died December 25, 1892. 

John S. Duss t .q„,_.o„, 

Samuel Seibcr f '°^^ ^°^^- Samuel Seiber resigned July 6, 1893. 

Gottlieb Riethmuller I ^ 893-1 897. Gottlieb Riethmuller died February — , 1897. 
John S. Duss, Sole Trustee 1 807-1 Q03. John S. Duss, resigned May 12, 1903. 
Susie C. Duss, Sole Trustee. May 12, 1903 — . 

* For these articles in full see The Harmony Society at Economy, Pa., by Aaron Wil- 
liams, D.D., Appendix D. 

History of Beaver County loii 

tive to its business in that county. Mr. Hice was also em- 
ployed in the business of the Society in Warren County, Pa., 
where it had important interests. Hice & Hice are still the 
legal advisers of this body. 

The property of the Society at Harmony in Butler County 
was about four thousand acres. The town was about one mile 
from Zelienople, and a contest arose between the two places 
over the location of the proposed post-office and the post-road to 
be laid out from Pittsburg to Lake Erie. This contest resulted 
in favor of Harmony. 

It is of interest to note that the lands of the Society at New 
Harmony, Ind., were bought by Robert Owen, the foimder of 
English socialism. He paid for the whole property $150,000, a 
very low price, and immediately undertook to establish at New 
Harmony a socialistic commtmity, which failed in 1827. 

The original purchase of land made by the Harmony Society 
at Economy amotmted to three thousand acres, and after sev- 
eral additional purchases and sales made at different periods the 
acreage remains to-day about what it was at the start. A writer 
of about the year 1843 has this to say of their industrial enter- 

They have a large woolen and cotton manufactory, and purchase 
from sixty to seventy thousand dollars worth of wool and from twenty 
to thirty thousand dollars worth of other articles from the surrotmding 
cotmtry, for manufacture and consumption. . . . Their manufacturing 
machinery is all propelled by steam. They commenced the culture of 
the mulberry and the manufacture of silk in 1828, with no other instruc- 
tion or experience than what they could gather from the publications of 
that day. The white Italian mulberry and morus multicatdis were both 
used with success. They have now brought this manufacture to a point 
not surpassed in this country In 1840 the product of silk was 2,389 
lbs. cocoons, yielding 218 lbs. reeled silk; which they wrought into beau- 
tiful handkerchiefs, vestings, and a variety of other fabrics. They have 
spared neither trouble nor expense in importing the best machinery 
from England and France, and in obtaining instruction from foreign 

Although, as stated above, Harmony is in Butler County, 
and therefore does not properly belong to our history, its story 
is a part of that of the Harmony Society, and the author ven- 
tures to reprint here an extract from an article which was pub- 
lished by him a few years ago after a visit to that town: 

rsr2 History of Beaver Coanty 

^,-.1* s.wrr„i ^-. ha.-* ^.rjt '^acic in tine Tr-sil-nizr. a. oes." jr;i . 

--. r. -: -. ir:»iri •;- ..i _i V, : --r btr* in : •■; 5 -s-ia irr: sec ^ n * -r*.»— .-^ 

HirTr.'',r.v ?»::*-. v 0*f>r;p* Ftip-p Pa tier' Ranp ad : 

irJvo Srvi^jh*. •-h«trr. :r.Vj trjc'r lan<i --.f pryrv. as«i orytr-^ird, 'vi'^. iis 
afc«^x.:iVK trjt o'-rr.n::2r.:tT v':zizz, fi-rp- has had so Lic^ ard bsicrxclif 
a h:iv>r;/ :r* Ecr..-:mv :r. Beav*r 

A fifrar of tr>* landrr-arics of the cotnsi'sritv ar» stiZ tij ^< 3»ec her- 
'■ Rap^ I .>%•. a !:•.♦> charr.r>tr like an anchorite's ecu, aotLcw^d rcr :f 
*.he r'r-k which cro^ v-st on v^p of a bltx5 hy the cre e k -side, where "ihe 
rAd ^^\r.;tT^,h ^he •araA a nonager^arian -arfaen be died) t£sed to sit widh his 
B;r/>: '4,rA >x,k o'^t over the peaceftxi valley and tip ward to the heav^Es 
wai'.;r.;f V-» ^fr-iet the coming of h:s Lord, -"iiich he fuIlT expected to be in 
h:.i tirr.e: the o!d church, n-odemized ftome-arhat in its interi'^r arrarg*- 
mer.*,s ; a few qttaint old hcr,i5ei5, with ctxriatxs stone work and carving :c 
fonf otter, meaning: massively const meted stone wine- vaults, empty nirw. 
— these are all interesting to the curious "visitor or the serious stu-ieit. 
If the <ttrjT*^ fjr/Mld cry out of the wall and the beam out of the timher 
aa'iwer it. there is no doubt ?^ut that we should learn some tender and 
pathetic stones of the lives of the people who dwelt in these old faoases. 
Who that knows the human heart can doubt that there were hearts which 
broke in this "Brotherhood of Perpetual Separation." Even leH^ioGS 
enthusiasm cannot always cure the homesick soul. Memory would oftes 
seek in vain to forget the pleasant. \'ine-clad hills of the Fatherland, and 
the many waters of the wide ocean even could not quench the love that 
was felt for sr^meone left behind. 

As we tried Xf} gather information from the present occupants of the dwrllir.^s of the Harmonists, we fotmd but little agreement as to 
Ih'; fa^;»s of th':ir hiaUjry, and -A'cre impressed anew \^-ith the thought of 
tJi*; rra>/: with which the world puts out of mind those who have passed 
out of its*sight. We realized afresh that 

Our years are like the shadows 

On sunny hills that lie. 
Or grasses in the meadows 

That blossom but to die; 
A sleep, a dream, a story. 

By strangers quickly told, 
An unremaining glory 

Of things that soon are old. 

If anything had been needed to deepen such pensive reflections our 
visit, to thtr old Harmony Society burying ground on the edge of the town 
woul'l Jjave supplied it. This is a large rectangular space enclosed by a 
lii^jli w.'iU (>f cut stone with an arched gateway of the same material and 

Oe>o>r;ge fd^'j.-; 


History of Beaver County 1013 

a gate such as we never saw before. It is an immense monolith, pivoted 
at the center at top and bottom, so as to swing out or in at any angle 
to the footstep of the gateway. 

An inscription in German on the arch tells that a himdred members of 
the Society rest here in the earth in the hope of a joyful resurrection, and 
many other texts of faith and hope in the strong Saxon of Luther's Bible 
are cut upon the stone. As you swing open the ponderous gate and pass 
within the enclosure you look in vain for any headstone or mark that 
you stand among the dead. The ground is sodded and of a uniform 
level from wall to wall. But there is one exception. Yonder is a large 
headstone with inscriptions, placed against the left wall and Ijring on its 
side. And thereby hangs a tale. 

When John, the only son of George ("Father") Rapp, died in 1812, 
it was felt that the rule of the Society, not to place any mark above the 
dead, should be set aside in his case, and this stone, with appropriate 
inscriptions, was made. The old leader at first gave his consent to have 
it set in place above the body of his well-beloved son, but at length his 
sense of duty triumphed and he refused to have the rule of the Society 
broken. Some one has since made the severe enactment so far void at 
least as to set the stone within the enclosure, and lean it up against the 
wall, but still, apart from the official register, no man knoweth of his 
sepulcher until this day. 

Whether or not the saints who sleep here were lovely and pleasant in 
their lives, at least it is true that in death they were not divided, for as 
in life the custom of their order made all things common, so, too, they 
share now the grave and the narrow house, and the curious stranger can 
find nothing to distinguish their places of interment. 

As we stood there in the long grass, under the blue sky and the whis- 
pering pines, we gave these humble dead the "passing tribute of a sigh," 
and felt the spot more eloquent than it would have been if crowded with 
trophies decked with "storied um and animated bust." 

The same rule obtains in the mode of burial in the cemetery 
at Economy, where the burial-ground is a part of the orchard 

The Duke of Saxe-Weimar visited the town of Economy 
about the year 1826, shortly after the Society had removed 
from Indiana, and wrote interestingly of his impressions of it. 
We quote a few words from his description : 

At the inn, a fine large frame house, we were received by Mr. Rapp, 
the principal, at the head of the community. The elder Rapp is a large 
man of seventy years old, whose powers age seems not to have dimin- 
ished ; his hair is gray, but his blue eyes, overshadowed by strong brows, 
are full of life and fire. . . . What is most striking and wonderful of 
all is. that so plain a man as Rapp can so successfully bring and keep 
together a society of nearly seven hundred persons, who, in a manner, 

VOL. 11.— 26. 

IOI4 History of Beaver County 

honor him as a prophet. Equally so for example is his power of govern- 
ment, which can suspend the intercourse of the sexes. However, some 
marriages constantly occur, and children are bom every year, for whom 
there is provided a school and a teacher. . . . The warehouse was 
shown to us, where the articles made here for sale or use are preserved, 
and I admired the excellence of all. The articles for the use of the society 
are kept by themselves, as the members have no private possessions, and 
everything is in common; so must they in relation to all their personal 
wants be supplied from the common stock. The clothing and food they 
make use of is of the best quality. Of the latter, flour, salt meat and all 
long keeping articles are served out monthly; fresh meat, on the con- 
trary, and whatever spoils readily, is distributed whenever it is killed, 
according to the size of the family, &c. 

As every house has a garden, each family raises its own vegetables, 
and some poultry, and each family has its own bake oven. For such 
things as are not raised in Economy there is a store provided, from which 
the members, with the knowledge of the directors, may purchase what is 
necessary, and the people of the x-icinity may do the same. 

Mr. Rapp finally conducted us into the factory again, and said that 
the girls had especially requested this visit that I might hear them sing. 
When their work is done they collect in one of the factory rooms, to the 
number of sixty or seventy, to sing spiritual and other songs. They 
have a pectiliar hymn-book, containing hymns from the Wurtemberg 
psalm-book, and others written by the elder Rapp. A chair was placed 
for the old patriarch, who sat amidst the girls, and they commenced a 
hymn in a very delightful manner. It was naturally symphonious, and 
exceedingly well arranged. The girls sang four pieces, at first sacred, 
but afterwards, by Mr. Rapp's desire, of a gay character. With real 
emotion I witnessed this interesting scene. The factories and work- 
shops are warmed during winter by means of pipes connected with the 
steam-engine. All the workmen, and especially the females, had very 
healthy complexions, and moved me deeply by the warm-hearted friend- 
liness with which they saluted the elder Rapp. I was also much grati- 
fied to see vessels containing fresh, sweet-smelling flowers standing on 
all the machines. The neatness which universally reigns here, is in every 
respect worthy of praise. ' 

Not so pleasing is the picture of Rapp and his people drawn 
for us by the celebrated English writer, Harriet Martineau, who 
visited Economy in the early thirties and writes very frankly 
of her observations as follows : 

The followers of Mr. Rapp are settled at Economy, on the Ohio, 
eighteen miles below Pittsburgh. Their number was five hundred when 
I was there: and they owned three thousand acres of land. Much of 
their attention seems to be given to manufactures. They rear silkworms, 
and were the earliest silk-weavers in the United States. At my first 

* Historical Collections of Pennsylvania, by Sherman Day. Philadelphia, 1843, p. 11 2. 

Jacob Henrici, 
Trustee of the Harmony Society, 1804-1892. 


History of Beaver County 1015 

visit they were weaving only a flimsy kind of silk handkerchief: last sum- 
mer I brought away a piece of substantial handsome black satin. They 
have sheep-walks, and a large woolen mantifactory. Their factory was 
burnt down in 1834; the fire occasioning a loss of sixty thousand dollars, 
a mere trifle to this wealthy commimity. Their Wneyards, cornfields, 
orchards, and gardens gladden the eye. There is an abundance so much 
beyond their need that it is surprising that they work, except for want 
of something else to do. The Dutch love of flowers was visible in the 
plants that were to be seen in the windows, and the rich carnations and 
other sweets that bloomed in the garden and green-house. The whole 
place has a superior air to that of either of the Shaker "families" that 
I saw. The women are better dressed; more lively, less paHd; but, I 
fear, not much wiser. Mr. Rapp exercises an unbounded influence over 
his people. They are prevented learning any language but German, and 
are not allowed to converse with strangers. The superintendent keeps a 
close watch over them in this respect. Probationers must serve a year 
before they can be admitted, and the managers own that they dread the 
entrance of yoimg people who might be "unsettled"; that is, not suffi- 
ciently subservient. 

I was curiotis to learn how five hundred persons could be kept in the 
necessary subjection by one. Mr. Rapp's means are such that his task 
is not very diffictilt. He keeps his people ignorant ; and he makes them 
vain. He preaches to them their own superiority over the rest of the 
world so incessantly that they fully believe it; and are persuaded that 
their salvation is in his hands. At first I felt, with regard to both them 
and the Shakers, a strong respect for the self-conquest which could enable 
them to endure the singularity, — the one commimity, of its non-inter- 
course with strangers; the other, of its dancing exhibitions; but I soon 
fotmd that my respect was misplaced. One and all, they glory in the 
singularity. They feel no awkwardness in it. from first to last. This 
vanity is the handle by which they are worked. 

Mr. Rapp is now very old. His son is dead. It remains to be seen 
what will become of his commimity with its immense acctunulation of 
wealth, when it has lost its dictator. It does not appear that they can 
go on in their present state without a dictator. They smile superciUously 
upon Mr. Owen's plan, as admitting '*a wrong principle" — ^marriage. 
The best hope for them is that they will change their minds on this point, 
admitting the educational improvements which will arise out of the 
change, and remaining in commimity with regard to property. This is 
the process now in action among the seceders from their body, settled on 
the opposite bank of the river, a short distance below Economy. These 
seceders were beguiled by Count Leon, a stranger who told the people a 
great deal that was true about Mr. Rapp. and a great deal that was false 
about himself. It is a great pity that Coimt Leon was a swindler, for he 
certainly opened the eyes of the Economy people to many truths, and 
might have done all that was wanted, if he had himself been honest.' 

' Society m America, London, 18371 voL tL, pp. 6»-6s. 

ioi6 History of Beaver County 

While we are at the business of quotation, let us hear a word 
from Rudyard Kipling, written while on a visit to Beaver County, 
when he was still unknown to fame: 

But there be many pictures on my mind. ... Of Musquash [his 
disguise for Beaver — Ed.] itself lighted by the same mysterious agency, 
flares of gas eight feet long, roaring day and night at the comers of the 
grass-grown streets because it was n*t worth while to turn them out; of 
fleets of coal-flats being hauled down the river on an interminable jour- 
ney to St. Louis; of factories nestling in woods where all the axe-handles 
and shovels in the world seemed to be manufactured daily; and last, of 
that quaint forgotten German community, the Brotherhood of Perpetual 
Separation, who founded themselves when the State was yet young and 
land cheap, and are now dying out because they will neither marry nor 
give in marriage and their recruits are very few. The advance in the 
value of land has almost smothered these poor old people in a golden 
affluence that they never desired. They live in a little village where the 
hotises are built old Dutch fashion, with their front doors away from the 
road, and cobbled paths all about. The cloistered peace of Mtisquash is 
a metropolitan riot beside the hush of that village. And there is, too, a 
love-tale tucked away among the flowers. It has taken seventy years 
in the telling, for the brother and sister loved each other well, but they 
loved their duty to the brotherhood more. So they have lived and still 
do live, seeing each other daily, and separated for all time. Any trouble 
that might have been is altogether wiped out of their faces, which are as 
calm as those of very little children. To the uninitiated those constant 
ones resemble extremely old people in garments of absurd cut. But they 
love each other. 

The rule prohibiting marriage was never made a part of the 
Society's legal agreement, but was rather brought about by 
common consent. Strange to say, the younger members of the 
Society were those most in favor of it. Its adoption took place 
a few years after the organization of the Society in this country-, 
and grew out of the views of the leaders pertaining to the second 
coming of Christ and their general religious attitude, which 
shows a singular mixture of asceticism and practical common 

The philosophy of this subject is interesting. The founders 
of great religious movements have, it seems, found their strength 
in the appeal, either to or away from the flesh. Mohammedan- 
ism and Mormonism are illustrations of the former — the appeal 
to man's sensual nature. Without their doctrine and practice 
of polygamy it is doubtful if they could have obtained such com- 




History of Beaver County 1017 

manding influence as they have had over their devotees. But 
the prevalence of ascetic systems in all ages and countries of the 
world' shows that man can as well be taught to despise the 
attractions of the flesh. Pagan, as well Christian Rome, had 
its orders devoted to chastity; Buddhism and other Oriental 
religions also. Htmdreds of sects have preached salvation 
through the contemning of the bodily appetites, — ^the absolute 
suppression of the whole sensual side of our nature; and this 
doctrine has perhaps gained more currency and acceptance than 
its opposite which would seem to have the advantage over it 
in the very nature of things. The strange power of this ideal 
of chastity is well illustrated in the history of the Harmony 
Society, where it maintained its hold to the last over the major- 
ity of the members. The secret of that Society's success, how- 
ever, was not found in this ascetic rule, but rather in that saving 
practical common sense, which, as we have said, so contradic- 
torily manifested itself in their organization, leading them to 
pool their efforts in a very systematic pursuit and management 
of this world's goods. 

The acceptance of the celibate life was not at any time con- 
genial to all of the members of the community, however, and, as 
will presently appear, the rule became at last, under the influ- 
ence of a new-comer, the source of dissension and of disruption. 
Of this crisis in the life of the Society we now give some account. 

the coming of ** count maximilian de leon " and his 
** secession" 

We first hear of this somewhat mysterious and problematical 
character as living in Frankfort-on-the-Main, one of the free 
cities of Germany, where about the year 1830 he had gathered 
about him some followers in adherence to a religious cult at 
variance with the prevailing faith and forms of the churches of 
the Fatherland. Meeting there with opposition to his projects of 
religious reform, he began to cast about for a new and freer 
home for his people, and learning of the existence in this coim- 
tr>^ of the Harmony Society, which he conceived to be congenial 
in its beliefs and practices with his own ideas, he entered into 
correspondence with the leaders of that Society with a view to 

' See Lecky's History of Euro/Han Morals, vol. ii., p. loi following. 

ioi8 History of Beaver County 

becoming, with his followers, identified with it. In 183 1 it was 
decided that he should join the Harmony Society, and in that 
year he arrived, with his family and company at Economy, 
where they were cordially welcomed. 

For a brief time all went smoothly, but it soon appeared 
that union between these two societies was impossible ; the ele- 
ments of which they were composed, in the leaders and in the 
people, being too diverse. Rapp, though a man of great nattiral 
ability and executive power, was distinctly of the peasant class, 
and of limited education. He had long enjoyed a quite auto- 
cratic position in the community of which he was the head, and 
could ill brook any division of his powers and prestige. His 
people were also of the peasant class, honest and thrifty folk 
from Wurtemberg in the province of Swabia, bauerleuie for 
the most part, simple in manners, and with not much more 
education than had been afforded them in the village schools of 
Germany, and what they had gained from a close and constant 
study of Luther's Bible. 

De Leon and his adherents were, on the other hand, from 
the middle class of one of the most brilliant cities of Europe, 
the birthplace of Goethe and the home of many famous men 
and women. They were generally well educated and cultivated, 
and accustomed to the refinements of wealth and fashion. Many 
of the ladies who came over seas with the leader brought their 
maids with them, to assist them in the cares of the toilet and to 
have charge of their wardrobes, which, as we know from the 
mouth of some of their descendants, were large and expensive. 
Such dames could not easily fall in with the customs of a com- 
munity like that at Economy, where the women of the Society 
took their part and lot with the men, working side by side with 
them in the fields and factories. Their efforts to do so were 
heroic enough, though often pitiful, and sometimes amusing, as 
in one case of which we have heard, when a lady who had been 
told that she must go out and help gather stones from a field 
stood in perplexity before a row of twenty pairs of shoes which 
she had brought with her, wondering which of the dainty things 
would be best suited for this unwonted use. 

The personality of the leader was one still less adapted to 
meet the conditions of this environment. What was this man — 
a self-deceived fanatic or an impostor ? It is hard to answer 





History of Beaver County 1019 

the query. We incline to think that he was a mixture of both 
characters. He is as difficult to analyse as John Alexander 
Dowie of Chicago, Elijah II. That he was to some extent a 
deceiver is evident from the fact that his claim to be a scion of 
the royal house of Austria, of the tribe of Judah, and the family 
of David was not made until he was safely out of Germany and 
on board ship nearing America. Previous to this he was known 
to his followers by the name of Broli,* and on shipboard informed 
them of the change in title, justifying it by the assurance that 
it was necessary in order to more thoroughly impress the people 
of the Harmony Society with the importance of the per- 
sonages they were to receive. The ** Count" and ** Countess 
Maximilian de Leon" would sound much better than plain 
Herr and Frau Broli! Though even here the singular genealogi- 
cal jumble by which the heir of the house of Hapsburg is made 
to be of Jewish descent would argue either ignorance or fanati- 
cal simplicity. And ** Count" de Leon was not ignorant; all 
who knew him admit that he was highly educated. It is even 
suggested that Rapp sought alliance with him because he recog- 
nized his need in the Economite settlement of just such intellec- 
tual qualities as those which De Leon possessed and which he 
himself lacked. Personally the count was a man of command- 
ing and august presence, with pleasing, even handsome features, 
courtly manners and persuasive address. He was possessed of 
great personal magnetism, and could win almost all hearts. 
With a head full of crotchets and a company of ardent disciples 
hanging on his word, such a man, we may be sure, would not be 
willing to play second fiddle anywhere. That he and the equally 
self-assertive and assured Harmonist leader would not long 
agree was a foregone conclusion. 

The adoption of the celibate life in the Harmony Society was 
one of the factors leading to disagreement between these two 
men, and deserves a word or two of comment. Strictly the 
Harmony Society was not a church, but nevertheless the re- 
ligious element in the thought and life of the people was very 
dominant. They held premillenial views regarding the second 
coming of Christ, which they believed to be imminent. There is 
no accounting, of course, for the inconsistencies of religious va- 
gary, and here we have a people who were ever>' day expecting 

* His real name was Bernard Muller. 

1020 History of Beaver County 

the advent of the Lord when the whole existing scheme of 
worldly affairs should be done away with, making every day the 
most canny and indiistrious use of the world's opportimities, 
engaging in various manufactures and agriculture, and exercis- 
ing an economy whose scrutiny extended to the minutest detail 
of the farm, the shop, and the house. Very unlike, indeed, were 
they in this respect to the enthusiastic chiliasts of other periods, 
who abandoned all earthly tasks in order to be ready to meet 
the Lord at his coming, such as those of the first century after 
Christ, whom the apostle rebukes in the Thessalonian letters 
and calls idlers and busy-bodies, and those of the strange and 
gloomy tenth century. But while their hands never slackened 
in daily toil, these simple-minded believers began to question 
among themselves whether it were well to continue to propagate 
the human species when the end of all things was at hand. 
Much debate went on in their assemblies and houses over this 
momentous question, and first they arrived at the conclusion 
that there should be no more marriages among them, and fin- 
ally agreed upon the separation of those already married. In 
conformity with this resolve the strictest rules were adopted 
looking towards the keeping apart of the sexes. They who had 
wives were now as those who had none; husbands and wives 
occupying separate sleeping apartments, the sexes being re- 
quired to sit on opposite sides of the church during public wor- 
ship, and divided as much as possible in the performance of the 
labors of the shops and the fields. Every device was employed 
to lessen the chance of social intimacy between males and fe- 
males. To show how far this rigid discipline was carried, take 
the following illustration. It was a custom among them to have 
some one bring to the workers in the fields a luncheon of bread 
and wine at stated hours of the morning and afternoon — Vesper- 
brod — and at these times the people sat down under trees which 
were purposely allowed to remain at certain points in the cul- 
tivated lands. Here in the shade they enjoyed their refection 
and took needed rest from labor, but even here the men sat on 
one side of the tree, and the women on the other back to back, 
and freedom of social conversation was under well-defined 

But did all this monkish and conventual discipline avail to 
thwart the behests of nature? By no means. Put nature out 

History of Beaver County 102 1 

at the door and she comes in at the window. The Christ him- 
self said that even until his coming there should be marrying 
and giving in marriage, and no rules were ever framed that could 
successfully change the facts of sex. Love laughs at laws and 
locksmiths. The young people of this community found ways 
and means to whisper those accents of affection which are the 
only truly universal language — the heart's Volapuk. We do not 
mean to intimate that many, perhaps the majority, did not re- 
main faithful to the requirement of celibacy; they unquestion- 
ably did so. But there were constant defections from the ranks, 
married pairs reuniting, and others leaving for the world and 
pledging matrimonial vows. And within the fold there were 
dissatisfied members, kicking against the goads. When Count 
Leon arrived he found this true, and there was ready at his 
hand the fuel for the fires of dissension which he soon set ablaze. 
At any rate things were at such a pass that there seems reason 
to believe, what is strongly asserted by many, that even if the 
count had never appeared there would have been a considerable 
secession from the Harmony Society as a result of internal dis- 
sensions already existing. However this may be, there was no 
longer any possibility of maintaining the two leaders and their 
partisans in one corporate body. The parties at length deter- 
mined upon a separation, and March 6, 1832, an amicable com- 
promise was effected. Articles were then signed by which it 
was agreed that the Harmony Society should pay to the seceders 
the sum of $105,000 in three installments within a year, the 
first third to be paid cash, deducting $1800 due the Society from 
Count de Leon and his family ; and that the latter should leave 
Economy, the count and his family in six weeks, and his adherents 
in three months. The seceders were to take all their belongings, 
and were to release forever all claims beside upon the Society. 

In the chapter on the borough of Monaca we relate the fur- 
ther movements of this ** extravagant and wheeling stranger*' 
whose advent in Economy had wrought so much controversy, but 
it may be of interest to give here an account of an exciting 
incident which followed the removal of the seceders from the Har- 
mony Society, and their settlement at Phillipsburg (now Mon- 
aca). The outlay in founding their new venture had been very 
great, the money derived from the parent society was soon ex- 
hausted, and dissatisfaction arose. In order to allay the feeling 

1022 History of Beaver County 

cf disappointment among his followers. Count de Leon persuaded 
them to make an additional demand upon the Harmony Society, 
under the plea that they had not received a just amount in 
settlement of their rights, and that he himself had never sanc- 
tioned the compromise. What followed we relate in the language 
of another: 

Having little hope of extorting anything more by p roces s of law, 
and being in need of the ready cash, they determined to adopt a simunary 
process. On the second of April. 1833. a mob of about eighty persons 
entered the town of Economy, took forcible possession of the hotel, and 
then laid their demands before the anthorities in a long and offensive 
document, which ended in terms similar to a declaration of war. This 
ultimatum was formally considered and promptly rejected, with the 
reply that the terms of the compromise which bad been accepted by 
both parties had been fully complied with, and nothing more could be 
yielded. The members of the Society, meanwhile, all remained quietly 
in their houses, as they had been advised, so that there might be no col- 
lision. The mob then threatened loudly to enter Mr. Rapp's house by 
force, in order, as they alleged, to get possession of certain papers which 
would sustain their claims. But finding the house barricaded, and well 
guarded from within, they desisted from the attempt. They gathered 
again around the hotel, and helped themselves freely to whatever pro- 
visions, liquors, &c., they could find. 

In the meantime, many of the neighbors and friends of the Econo- 
mites, hearing of the proceedings, had gathered in to see what was going 
on; and after ha\'ing learned the xmreasonable demands of the mob, 
they sent for further assistance, and towards evening they rose up in a 
bold American way, under a dauntless leader, and drove the invaders 
from the town before drum and fife, and to the time of the Rogue's March. 
During the whole day, however, not a drop of blood was shed, nor even 
a blow was struck.^ 

On the following day complaint was made at Beaver, the 
county-seat, against all who had taken part in the disturbance, 
and they were bound over as conspirators to answer at the June 
term of court. Indictments were presented to the grand jur\', 
and true bills were found against all of them. The trial of the 
cases was put off until the September term, and by that time 
feeling having subsided, and De Leon having left the country, by 
the advice of their counsel, the Harmony Society withdrew the 
suits against their former brethren, they paying the costs. 

Contemporary notices of the dissensions previously described, 
which we have copied from several issues of the Pittsburgh Gazette 

' T/w IlarmoKy Society, by Aaron Wi'liarr.s, D D., pp. 7^-9. 

7: ' 
s ai 

-r ^ - 


History of Beaver County 


of the month of February, 1832, will be of interest and value. 
In the issue of February ist there appeared the following: 

We have not heretofore referred to the schism which exists in the 
society at Economy, still entertaining the hope that some arrangement, 
satisfactory to all parties, might be made. From the following adver- 
tisement it may be inferred that the prospect of a satisfactory adjust- 
ment of difficulties is by no means encotiraging: — 


The undersigned, Members of the Harmony Society, at Economy, in 
the county of Beaver, Pennsylvania, deem it their duty thus publicly to 
make known, that all the authority or power which has heretofore been 
given, granted to, or exercised by Gborgb Rapp, or by his adopted son, 
Frbdbrick Rapp, has ceased and determined, and has been revoked; 
and that their, or either of their acts, under such authority, in all transac- 
tions entered into by said George or Frederick Rapp, are without the 
knowledge, assent, or agreement of the undersigned, whose interests, as 
members of the Society are equally involved, and as much entitled to 
protection as those of any other portion of the community. 

All Banks and other Corporations and Individuals, who have hereto- 
fore transacted btisiness with said George and Frederick Rapp, as the 
agents, or on behalf of the Society, will take notice that all such connec- 
tion between the undersigned and said George and Frederick Rapp has 
ceased, and the funds of the Society can no longer be resorted to for the 
satisfaction of debts which may have been, or shall be thus contracted 
by said Rapps: February i, 1832. 

William Schmid 
Israel Bentel 
Adam Schule 

iohn George Wagner 
latthew Klein 
Anthony Knapper 
Jacob Wagner 
Michael Forstner 
Christian Schmid 
Jacob Durr 
Benotus Zvmdel 
August Schmid 
George Reiff 
John Trompeter 
Jacob Zunael 
Christopher Hohr 
Au^^t Schmid 
Reimond Gann 
Jacob Welhaf 
George Adam Jung 

Jacob Klingenstein 
ohn Bauer 
acob Krail 
'rederick Fisher 
John Luz 

George Vogt 
Jacob Kurz 
Christoph Martin 
Adam Keller 
George Adam Fischer 
Christian Martin 
George Schaal 
Jacob Schafer 
Conrad Knodel 
Henry Gayer 
Christian Autrieth 
Matthew Schule 
Henry Laubscher 
Adam Marquardt 
Tobias Schmid 
Christoph Killinger 

Jacob Streit 
ohn Hurz 
Arnold Bentel 
David Wagner 
Lewis Epple 
George Fischer 
Carl Hopfinger 
Martin Erb 
Michael Fegert 

Jacob Marquardt 
T. Hubert Delhas 
Christiana Klein 
Maria Forstner 
Katharina Kurz 
Wilhelmina Krauss 
Regina Bentel 
Margarette Jung 
Sara Stahl . 
Dorothy Klein 
Ernestine Bockle 
Jacobina Klein 
Magdalena Ehmann 
Maria Forstner 
Wilhelmina Fischer 
Barbara Killinger 
Anna Katharine Fischer 
Katharina Laubscher 
Catharina Schmidt 
Marg*t Barbara Martin 
Fredericka Schmid 
Katharina Erb 
Eva Fruh 
Verona Weinberg 
Olena Killinger 


History of Beaver County 

Conrad Bockle 
Henry Zeltmann 
George Forstner 
Jacob Strohekcr 
Jacob Konig 
Andrew Widmayer 
Jacob Vaihinger 
Reinhold Frank 
Jacob Diem 
Jacob Stahl 
David Konig 
George Boger 
Samuel Schreiber 
Nahum Staiger 
George Heinle 
Tr>'phemae Vo^ 
Margaret Schmidt 
Margaret Zundel 
Frederika Fnih 
Maria Schmidt 
Magdalcna Schmidt 
Magdalena Vogt 
Frederika Schmidt 
Maria Fnih 
Wilhelmina Bendel 
Elizabeth Stahl 
Christiana Schnaiifer 
Deborah Laupple 
Thecla Weissert 
Elizabeth Zanger 
Elizabeth Fauth 
Katharina Gerhard 
Jacobina Fauth 
Juliana Martin 
Christina Schmid 
Leade Schule 
Margaret Fritscher 
Barbara Fauth 
Julianna Ziegler 
Julia Ziegler 
Judith Palmbach 
Christiana Gerhardt 
Barbara Laubscher 
Lora Wolfer 
Maria Wolfer 
Katharina Bockle 
Louise Bockle 
Jacob Bockle 
Jeremias Bentel 
Christina Fauth 
Christina Fauth 
Johanna Fischer 
Christian Fischer 
Henry Fischer 
Phocben Fischer 

George Weissert 
Yost Gerhard 
Andrew Fauth 
Michael Baimiann 
Jacob Sander 
George Schnaufer 
Philippe Bentel 
Simon Wagner 
Christoph Yost 
Christoph Lichtenberger 
John Schnaufer 
Matthew Fauth 
Jacob Maienknecht 
Frederick Wolfer 
Conrad Gann 
Angelie Knapper 
Mathilda Widomeyer 
Caroline Weinberg 
Ulric Weinberg 
William Weinberg 
Joseph Weinberg 
Elizabeth Lais 
Louisa Lais 
Jacobina Lais 
George Fischer 
Katharina Fischer 
Matthew Fischer 
Hosea Fischer 
Melchior Fischer 
Barbara Martin 
Margaret Barbara Martin 
Wilhelmina Schmidt 
Frederika Kant 
Eugena Bauer 
Margaret Trautwein 
Regina Schafer 
Salome Erb 
WiUiam Erb 
Lewis Erb 
Frederik Zeltmann 
Jeremias Stag 
Peter Stag 
William Stag 
Margaret Kraus 
Elizabeth Fruh 
Caroline Erb 
Marzellus Heinle 
Jacobina Fauth 
Elizabeth Fauth 
Georg Ziegler 
Franz Ziegler 
Leonard Ziegler 
Philippe Laubscher 
Jacob Laubscher 
Katharina Killinger 

Margaret Martin 
Barbara Fischer 
Jacobina Schmid 
Wilhelmina Durwachter 
Fredericka Schmid 
Christiana Konig 
Henricka Ztmdel 
Fredericka Aigner 
Agatha Wolfer 
Katharina Schmidt 
Katharina Staiger 
Katharina Zundel 
Sirena Leucht 
Salome Authrieth 
Sara Forstner 
Elizabeth Frank 
Jacob Stahl, ad 
Gottlieb Bentel 

John Fritscher 
acob Fritscher 
George Fritscher 
Christoph Martin 
GottUeb Bentel, 2d 
David Lais 
Rudolph Wolfer 
Christian Martin, ad 
Henry Knapper 
Christian Martin, 3d 
Rudolph Keller 
Jonathan Wagner 
John Rocher 
Eva Jung. 

1^ To be inserted weekly, for three weeks, in the National Gazette, 
Philadelphia, the Beaver Republican, Cincinnati Gazette, Louisville Adver- 
tiser, their accounts to be forwarded to the office of the Pittsburgh Gazette. 

History of Beaver County 1025 

Another and counter paper was prepared by the friends of 
Rapp and of the old order of things, which was signed by five 
hundred persons. If this paper was published we have not been 
able to find the issue in which it appeared. 

In the Pittsburgh Gazette of February 21, 1832, there ap- 
peared the following: 


Inasmuch as, under date of the ist of February, 1832, by an adver- 
tisement published on that day, in the Pittsbiirgh Gazette, a large 
portion of the Harmony Society, at Economy, Beaver Cotmty, Peimsyl- 
vania, gave notice to the public of the revocation of all the authority and 
power claimed or exercised on behalf of said society by Geo. and Fred- 
erick Rapp — ^the undersigned, committee of the above mentioned portion 
of the society, feel it their duty to call upon all Banks and other Corpora- 
tions, as also upon all individuals who have been and are at this time 
connected in any business transactions with the said George or Frederick 
Rapp, or their assistants and agents, to send in their accounts or other 
exhibits up to the aforementioned date, to the undersigned committee 
(addressing their communications to the first named subscriber, William 
Smith, Post Master,) so that the afitairs of the society may be fully under- 
stood and regulated, and that the exact statement of all the debts and 
credits of the Harmony Society, upon the basis of a commimity of in- 
terest, may be made known to those interested. By this means a speedy 
and general settlement between George and Frederick Rapp, or their 
agents, and this imincorporated society may be expected. 

William Smith Anthony Knapper 

Christian Smith Augustus Smith 

Israel Bendel Adam Schtde 

Jacob Durr John George Wagner 

Michael Forstner Jacob Wagner 

Matthew Klein Benotus Ztmdel. 

Economy, February 15, 1832. 

The same papers which were named above were requested 
to run this notice for three weeks. 

In the issue of the Pittsburgh Gazette, Friday morning, Febru- 
ary 24, 1832, Frederick Rapp ' published an answer to the above 
advertisements, as follows: 


In the Pittsburgh Gazette of the tenth instant, there is a publica- 
tion, signed by two hundred and seventeen persons, of both sexes, who 

* Frederick Rapp, whose proper name was Frederick Reichert, was bom in Germany. 
April 13, 1775. He was a stone cutter and architect and possessed of a good common - 
school education, and while still in Germany became a devoted adherent of George Rapp, 

I026 History of Beaver County 

profess to be members of the Harmony Society; of this number, fifty- 
five are minors, and thirty-two are not regular members of the society, 
having never been received as such, nor signed otir Articles of Associa- 
tion. The ostensible object of the publication in question is to inform 
the people that the authority which has been heretofore exercised by 
George Rapp, and his adopted son, Frederick Rapp, in regard to the 
business affairs of the society, has been legally revoked and annulled. 
The real object is presumed to be, to draw the attention of the people 
to the unhappy differences which have, of late, spnmg up in the society, 
and to excite their prejudice against the Rev. George Rapp and myself. 
With respect to our authority, it is sufficient to say, that a large major- 
ity of the society are satisfied that we shotdd continue to exercise it as 
formerly. Between them and myself or my father, the Rev. George 
Rapp, there is no dissention. Should the public incline to take any con- 
cern in the present disputes of the Harmony Society, it is respectfully 
requested that their opinion be suspended until the character and causes 
of those disputes shall have been investigated before the legal tribunals 
of the cotmty. Frederick Rapp. 

Febniary 17, 1832. 

ty To be inserted weekly, for three weeks, in the National Gasette, 
Philadelphia; the Beaver Republican; Cincinnati Gazette; Louisville 
Advertiser; and the Statesman, Pittsburgh, and their accounts to be for- 
warded to the Office of the Pittsburgh Gazette. 

Its great wealth has made the Harmony Society a mark for 
other adventurers, and some, not meriting that name, former 
members of the Society or their descendants, have, with some 
show of right, sought to obtain a share of the property or wages 
by bringing suit against the trustees. The Society has always 
avoided litigation, when possible, but has not escaped the neces- 
sity of several times defending its contracts in the courts. These 

and a member of his family. On the coming of Rapp to America he was left in charge 
of his family and of the religious work which he had begim. To him were committed 
the arrangements for the emigration of the families which joined in Rapp's enterprise, 
and he himself came over with the last of them in one of the ships which landed at Phila- 
delphia. At the organization of the Harmony Society he was associated with George 
Rapp in the management of its affairs, and at the solicitation of the leader and the members 
of his commvmity he dropped the name of Reichert and became recognized as the adopted 
son of George Rapp. To the latter were committed the spiritual concerns of the Society 
and the direction of its home interests, and to Frederick the care of all matters connected 
with the growing business relations of the Society with the outside world. Frederick 
Rapp continued to act as the general business agent of the Society until his death. During 
the absence or illness of George Rapp he also officiated as preacher, and being endowed 
with some poetic ability, he composed several hymns which were used in the Society's 

On the death of Frederick Rapp, July s, 1834, George Rapp was for the first time 
formally designated by the Society as its business agent, but being himself still chiefly